• How do I organize my message so that readers can follow my line of thinking?
• A developmental paragraph is a unit of meaning, a group of sentences all focusing on one main organizing point.
How to develop a paragraphExplain and/ or expand each of your support pointsTo clarify the central ideas that you have articulated in your topic sentence.
What will I write about?• Knowledge of the topic taken from:• books, magazines, newspapers, and most especially, observations and experience.
Adequate development means…1. Explaining your support points in a concrete and specific manner2. Providing enough factual details to satisfy your reader3. Answering any question that has been posed in the paragraph4. Drawing a conclusion from the fact that have been presented.
• An adequately developed paragraph is as long as it has to be, and no longer. So when the main idea has been sufficiently explained, it is time to end the paragraph.• Thought organization is the key to paragraph development.
Major Development Strategies• A development strategy is simply a plan for achieving a goal.• Specifically, it is a plan for coming up with the details, events, examples, explanations and readers that enable readers to grasp your exact meaning.
Four major strategies for developing a message:• 1. description• 2. narration• 3. exposition• 4. argumentation
Description• Concentrates on creating a picture with words. You help your readers You help your readers visualize details! visualize details!
Description• can either be:1. objective- provides factual picture of something- observable facts: not colored by writer’s emotions2. subjective- contains observable details colored by impressions or feelings-creates a mood or shares a feeling
Questions to ask:• What is it?• What does it look like?• What does it make you feel?• What is your impression of it?• How could I recognize it?
Examples…• Share with a friend your sensations about vacationing in the Chocolate Hills• Describe with a friend the geology of Chocolate Hills• All day, we had a temperature of 20 degrees Celsius and heavy rains were driven by winds at 180 kph.• All day, the weather was dismal.• The freezing rain and forceful winds made our first day of vacation dismal.
• Now, as I write to you, it is raining in torrents and we have closed the house against the thunder and lightning. It is an unusual April, I told you; we didn’t have a dry season at all and everything is fresh and green. The pink shower has never been so lovely with its red and white blossoms as anything tropical can be. The golden shower is covered with bright yellow sprays. Like the tamarind, it is a tree of character, and will not yield to the blandishments of a capricious weather. It will bide its time, and when that comes, and no sooner; it will burst into bloom. Virginia Benitez Licuanan, from “Introduction” in Paz Marquez Benitez(1995)
Assume that your best friendhas been missing for threedays, and the police had beencalled in. Because you knowthis person well, they haveasked you for a writtendescription. Write anobjective description thatwould enable the police to findthis person.
p.249-253 p.257 p.261-263 Guidelines..• 1. Although some descriptions have no topic statement, they always begin with some kind of orienting statement.• 2. The choice of details in a description depends precisely on the writer’s purpose and reader’s need.• 3. All details are at a level that is concrete and specific enough to convey an unmistakable picture
Narration• Unfolds a series of related events as they happen• Is usually in chronological order in order to tell a story.• Also relies on descriptive details to make the story vivid but it’s central function is to enable readers to follow events
May either be factual or fictitious• Novels or fictional stories – stimulate our imagination and entertains us• Newspaper stories – report newsworthy events objectively• Essays- make a definite point
May be linear or non-linear• ELEMENTS: setting plot, structure
• A paragraph of narration is often found in articles and essays.• In this case, the paragraph would explain, emphasize, confirm, or illustrate a main idea.• Narration relies heavily on details to make the event vivid
Example:• Yesterday, I got home from school at around 4 oclock. My mother prepared dinner which we ate as soon as Dad came home from work. After eating, I helped mother clear the table and clean the dishes. After we got the kitchen cleaned, I had to sit and do my homework as I remembered my mother say, "No television until your homework is done.” And so, I had my chemistry homework finished first before turning on the television. I was watching Walang Hanggan when the phone rang. It was my best friend, Amy. I talked to her for awhile; then, it was time for bed. I put on my pajamas and turned on my favorite cd. I finally started to get sleepy around 9:30, and the next thing I knew, mother was calling me to get ready for school.
Assume that you have witnessed this crime.Because you are an objective witness, theauthorities have asked you to write a shortreport, telling exactly what you saw. Yourreport will be used as evidence.
Exposition• most common strategy for developing a message• explains the writer’s viewpoint• Although exposition contains description and narration, its role is not merely to paint a word picture or to tell a story, but to clarify the writer’s exact meaning as this question is answered: “ What do you mean?”
Exposition:• Exposition is explanatory writing• Exposition can be an incidental part of a description or a narration, or it can be the heart of an article• The purpose of an expository essay is to present, completely and fairly, other peoples views or to report about an event or a situation.
Exposition• Expository writing, or exposition, presents a subject in detail.• The writer elucidates a subject by analyzing it.• Such writing is discourse designed to convey information or explain what is difficult to understand.
Expository strategies:• Illustration or examples: showing examples of somethingQuestions: What makes you think so? Can you give examples I can grasp?***Examples should be:1) Specific2) Relevant3) Typical
• Student A: Whew! I had a lousy day.• Student B: How’s that?• A: Well, first of all, I got up late and didn’t have time for breakfast. I decided to pick up something at McDonald’s and eat it in the car on the way to school. I got an Egg McMuffin, and when I took my first bite, the egg slipped out and slid down my sweater. Now, I have egg stains on my new sweater!• B: That is a bad start.• A: That’s not all. When I got to my first class -- late, of course – I found out the teacher was giving a pop quiz. I flunked it, I’m sure, because for the first time in the semester I didn’t do the homework.• B: Wow!• A: That’s not the worst of it. When I saw my girl, she really snubbed me. I had forgotten that I was supposed to pick her up this morning!• B: Wow! You sure did have a bad day!
Expository strategies:• Division and classification: showing how something can be divided into parts, or how parts can be sorted into categoriesQuestions: What are its parts? What is it made of? In what categories do X, Y, and Z belong?
Expository strategies:• Process analysis: showing the steps of an activity or the stages of an eventQuestions:Explaining how to do something: How do I do it? How does it happen? Where do I begin? What do I do next?Explaining how something happens: How does it happen? How is it made? When and where does it happen? What happens first? Next? What is the result? p.287
Expository strategies:• Cause/ effect analysis: showing what caused something or what the effects of something areQuestions: Why did it happen? What caused it? What are its effects? What will happen if it is done?
Writing Suggestions CAUSE AND EFFECT1. The popularity of some modern singer or other celebrity2. The popularity of some fad of clothing or hairstyle3. The widespread enjoyment of texting4. Student cheating5. The decision of some close acquaintance to enter the religious life p.291-292
Expository strategies:• Comparison/ contrast: showing how two things are similar or differentQuestions: How are X and Y similar or alike? How are X and Y different?Two methods:1) Block method – subject is tackled one at a time2) Point-by-point/ alternating – moves from first object to second object as it makes a comparison
Writing Suggestions COMPARISON AND CONTRAST1. Two politicians with different leadership styles2. Careers versus jobs3. Two courses on the same subject: one in high school and one in college4. Two recent movies or music videos5. The “rewards” of two different kinds of jobs
Expository strategies:• Definition: showing the exact meaning of a term that could have various meanings Meanings of words denotation connotation -Dictionary meaning Overtones or suggestions -What is it? What does beyond dictionary meaning it mean? - What does it mean or suggest to you?
TYPES OF DEFINITION1. SIMPLE DEFINITION (included in the exam)• Formal• Semi-formal• Non-formal2. COMPLEX OR EXPANDED DEFINITION (not included)• Definition by stipulation• Definition by operation• Definition by explication p.131-134
Writing SuggestionsMORE… DEFINITION Develop a composition for a specified purpose and audience, using whatever methods and expository patterns will help convey a clear understanding of your meaning of one of the following terms: 1.Country music 11. Ignorance 21.Patriotism 2.Conscience 12. Cowardice 22.Equality (or equal opportunity 3.Religion 13. Wisdom 23.Loyalty 4.Friendship 14. Integrity 24.Stylishness (in 5.Success 15. Morality clothing or behavior) 6.Empathy 16. Greed 25.Fame 7.Family 17. Social poise 26.Obesity 27.Cheating 8.Hypocrisy 18. Intellectual (the 28.Hero 9.Humor person) 29.Feminine 10.Sophistication 19. Pornography 30.Masculine 20. Courage