Physiology copy - copy


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Physiology copy - copy

  1. 1. CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM Presentators: 1.Iftekhar Jaman 2.Atikur Rahman 3.Fatimatuz Johra 4.Sabina Khatun 5.Sadia afrin 6.Rasel al Din 7.Rifat ara jahan
  2. 2. DEFINITION OF ABSORPTION In biology, it refers to the process by which cells and organs absorb substances through tissue cell.  Absorption describes the process of absorbing or soaking up something: Sponges are good at water absorption; dark colors are better for heat absorption.  Absorptions are two types: -Physical absorption. -Chemical absorption 
  3. 3. DEFINITION OF DIGESTION The catabolic process in the digestive tract where ingested food is converted into simpler, soluble and diffusible substances that can be assimilated by the body that is called digestion. Or The process by which food is broken down into simple chemical compounds that can be absorbed and used as nutrients or eliminated by the body is also called digestion.
  4. 4. DEFINITION OF METABOLISM Metabolism is the whole range of biochemical processes that occur within a living organism. Metabolism consists of anabolism and catabolism The term metabolism is commonly used to refer specifically to the breakdown of food and its transformation into energy. Fig:Energy metabolism
  5. 5. CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM Carbohydrate metabolism denotes the various biochemical processes responsible for the formation, breakdown and interconversion of carbohydrates in living organisms.  Metabolism of carbohydrate occurs in three steps such as,-Digestion of Carbohydrate. -Absorption of digestive end products of Carbohydrate. -Distribution throughout the body /Utilization of Carbohydrate. 
  6. 6. DIGESTION OF CARBOHYDRATE  The digestive end products of carbohydrate are monosaccharides and these are obtained by the following enzymatic reaction: ptyalin Carbohydrate Pancreatic amylase Dextrin (in mouth) Dysaccharides (in duodenum) Intestinal amylase Monosaccharide
  7. 7. ABSORPTION OF DIGESTIVE END PRODUCT OF CARBOHYDRATE The digestive end products of carbohydrate are glucose, fructose and galactose which remain in the lumen of small intestine after complete digestion. These monosaccharides are absorbed through intestinal epithelial cells. Absorption through intestinal mucosa is caused by phosphorylation in the presence of enzyme phosphorylase or phosphokinase.
  8. 8. glucokinase Glucose Glucose-6-phosphate Fructokinase Fructose Fructose-6-phosphate Galactokinase Galatose Galatose-6-phosphate
  9. 9. After entering into the epithelial cell, these products are dephosphorylated by phosphatase enzyme and monoccharadies become free. These free monoccharides come into blood stream and then through portal circulation, they go to the liver. In liver cells these products are again phosphorylated. If our body needs glucose,then glycogen are broken down into glucose and further utilized.
  10. 10. The glucose is carried to the systemic circulation and entered into the tissue by the following steps: Glucose in liver Blood circulation Heart systemic circulation Tissue cell
  11. 11. UTILIZATION OF CARBOHYDRATE In tissue cell, glucose is phosphorylated into Glucose -6Phosphate and through and through glycolysis process,converted into pyruvic acid. This pyruvic acid is converted into acetyl Co-A.Through TCA cycle, Energy is produced from acetylCo-A. Glucokinase Glucose Glycolysis Glucose-6-phosphate Pyruvic acid Energy+CO2+H2O Acetyl Co-A TCA cycle
  12. 12. THANK U ALL