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  1. 1. +ve: appreciate, understand, revenue to maintain and protect, employment, impact-ve:nature-based,laws- hunting and poaching, liable to damage, numbers- income, reluctant to imposerules, upset, firefly, kampung kuantan, motorised, catch fireflies, disturbance,sustainability, banned, replacedcompete- open up, flood of human activities Ecotourism: Responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the well-being of the people
  2. 2. • aims to let visitors appreciate the scenery and• help them understand the local culture• ensures part of the revenue earned is put back into maintaining andprotecting the area• there’s a conscious effort to increase the employment of local being andto minimize the impact on the natural environment by reducing the volume of waste generated using recycled materials and conserve resources such as water and energy.• in order to be effective, it is usually carried out in groups.
  3. 3. • activities normally revolves around places with natural attractionsthat are under careful management by the authorities.• when tourists use the services of a local tour guide, for example,these people contribute to the economy and development of thelocal community.• one place ecotourism is practiced is the islands of Phang Nga Bay inPhuket, Thailand• tourists explore the limestone caves in the area by rowing in seacanoes.• each canoe led by a local guide who educates tourists about theplaces, resulting in employment of local people in the tourismindustry.
  4. 4. • profit-driven tour operators try to take advantage ofecotourism’s growing popularity by offering nature-basedtour packages which are not always environmentallysustainable.• this is because visits to these areas do not guarantee thatcare has been taken by tourists and tour operators tominimize the negative impacts on the environment.• for example, some tourists who profess to practiseecotourism may enjoy scuba diving in marine environmentwhere there are coral reefs, but harms these environment inreality
  5. 5. • effectiveness of ecotourism might suffer in areas wherethe laws are not strictly enforced• for example, Gabon, a country located in west centralAfrica, has a large area of pristine forests and widevariety of wildlife, making it ideal for ecotourism.• however, lack of regulations to protect these placeshave resulted in frequent hunting and poaching ofanimals like elephants and gorillas.• thus, some tour operators conducts trips that profess tobe ecotourism in nature carelessly, knowing that that areunlikely to be liable for any damages inflicted on thenatural environment.
  6. 6. • some tour operators also view large numbers as asource of higher income• hence, visitor numbers are not controlled.• many tour operators or guides are reluctant to imposerules of correct behavior on their customers for the fearof upsetting them.• for example, as firefly watching became increasinglypopular in Kampung Kuantan mangroves in Malaysia,motorised boats replaced the manually rowed sampansto cater to large crowds, and some guides allowedtourists to catch fireflies.• this caused disturbances to the fireflies and the peaceof the mangrove habitat, threatening the sustainabilityof the area.• motorised boats were eventually banned and replacedby boats using silent electric motors after outcry fromnature lovers.
  7. 7. • as ecotourism becomes more popular, countriesmay compete to position themselves asecotourism destinations.•Many previously untouched naturalenivronments or places with unique culture andtraditions would be opened up as alternative tomass tourist attractions, and the flood of humanactivities may threaten the sustainability of theseareas.
  8. 8. +ve:control- authentic heritage, experience, knowledge, appreciation, socially sustainable,benefit economically, create jobs, improve facilities and living conditionsconsult- guidelines, participate actively, support, misunderstandings, Phou Kao Khouay,views, training-ve:fail to share in the ideals, phuket, gibbons hunted, bred for tourism, dispel view, encourageparticipation, lack knowledge to manage developmentless revenue- small scale, used up, little opportunity, small portion, insufficientpoor understanding- unrealistic expectations, dissatisfied, unreasonable demands, conflict Community-based tourism: process of tourism development and management that includes, consults and benefits the local community, especially in the context of rural villages and indigenous people in LDCs.
  9. 9. • by giving local people control over tourist activities such as home staysor teaching traditional handicraft, it enables locals to promote theirauthentic culture.• tourists that join these activities and live in the community are able toexperience the community’s lifestyle, hence gaining more knowledge andappreciation of the place and its heritage.• thus, it is socially sustainable because the people can benefiteconomically when they earn and share the revenue earned from tourists.more jobs for the locals will be created, and more money can be used toimprove facilities as well as living conditions of the people.
  10. 10. • tour operators and government authorities may also consult the localcommunity on tourism projects• the different parties involved work towards agreeing on guidelines tomanage the impacts of tourism on the community, such as designing aprotected area as a national park.• this allows the local communities to participate actively in the project tomake tourism a success. by obtaining the support of the local community,misunderstandings between tour operators and locals can be minimised.• an example of community-based tourism: the management of PhouKhao Khouay nature reserves in Laos and National Tourism Authority ofLao (NTAL) regularly conduct meetings with communites located inside ornear the reserves to make decisions on various tourist projects.• views of the local villagers are often sought, and training is given to thesepeople to act as guides or home stay hosts to tourists visiting the area.
  11. 11. • if certain parties fail to share in the ideals of community-based tourism, theenvironment and livelihood of others may be jeopardised.• for example, in Phuket, Thailand, there are reported cases of locals huntingdown gibbons in their natural habitat to train them as performers for tourists.many tourists think that these endangered animals are bred for the tourismindustry, and the locals did not feel the need to dispel this view.• hence, while community based tourism encourages the participation of thelocal people, these communities may lack the knowledge to manage thedevelopment of tourism in a sustainable manner.
  12. 12. • as community-based tourism is conducted on a small-scale, there isrelatively less revenue for local communities to earn from touristscompared to mass tourism.• tourists are more likely to have used up most of their expenditure on airtravel or on foreign tour operators, since there is generally littleopportunity for them to spend large amounts of money in the places theyvisit.• therefore, only a small portion of a tourist’s total expenditure goes tothe local community, and this revenue may be insufficient to fund certaincommunity-based projects.• visitors who embark on community-based tourism without a goodunderstanding of the locals may have unrealistic expectations of theirtrips, hence becoming dissatisfied with the conditions of rural settingsand make unreasonable demands to the people there, resulting in conflictwith the local communities.