Pre-Columbian Art <ul><li>Group  : </li></ul><ul><li>Kat </li></ul><ul><li>Joanna </li></ul><ul><li>Mandy </li></ul><ul><l...
In general… <ul><li>Pre-Columbian art refers to the time in the Americans prior to the arrival of the European colonizers ...
Mesoamerica and Central America <ul><li>Cultures generally divided into  three  periods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-Classic...
Pre-Classic period (up to 200 AD) <ul><li>The most dominant civilization of this period was the Olmecs, which flourished f...
The Olmecs created heavy-featured, colossal heads, up to 2 meters (8 ft) high. The heads were carved from single blocks or...
The twisted arms give the statue a sense of movement. Some believe that this is a shaman rather than a wrestler. Many rese...
Classic Period  (about 200 AD – 900 AD) <ul><li>The most dominant culture of this period was the Mayans. </li></ul><ul><li...
CHICHÉN ITZÁ <ul><li>Chichen Itza was a major regional focal point in the northern Maya lowlands.  The site exhibits a mul...
RELIEF OF SHIELD JAGUAR AND LADY XOC <ul><li>One of the Yaxchilan Lintels. </li></ul><ul><li>The text of Maya hieroglyphic...
VESSEL WITH MYTHOLOGICAL SCENE <ul><li>A monochrome painting or drawing: called the &quot; codex style ,&quot; because of ...
Post-Classic Period  (about 900 AD to 1580) <ul><li>10 th - 12 th  Centuries </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant cultures:  Toltec ...
TOLTECS <ul><li>“ The Atlantes” - columns in the form of Toltec warriors in Tula.  </li></ul>
Mixtecs <ul><li>The Mixtecs were never conquered by the Aztecs. </li></ul><ul><li>Spoke Mixtecan languages. </li></ul><ul>...
CODEX ZOUCHE-NUTTALL (14 TH  CENTURY) <ul><li>It is one of three codices that record the genealogies, alliances and conque...
EXAMPLES OF MIXTECAN GOLD.. <ul><li>Snail shell pendant, 900 - 1520 CE, gold.   </li></ul>Mixtec gold pendant representin...
Aztec <ul><li>Spoke Nahuatl language and achieved political and military dominance over large parts of Mesoamerica in the ...
Aztec  (continued) <ul><li>Song and poetry were highly regarded; there were presentations and poetry contests at most of t...
AZTEC CODICES <ul><li>Human sacrifice as shown in the Codex Magliabechiano. </li></ul>A painting from Codex Mendoza showin...
RELIGIOUS AZTEC PIECES <ul><li>This Aztec mask is made of wood covered with polished pieces of turquoise. The teeth and ey...
RELIGIOUS AZTEC PIECES <ul><li>Two-headed turquoise serpent : probably used as a chest ornament during ceremonial occasion...
South America <ul><li>Cultures and Civilizations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chavín civilization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Par...
CULTURAL PERIODS OF PERU AND THE ANDEAN REGION
Chavín Civilization <ul><li>Chavín metallurgy, soldering, and temperature control methods were advanced for their time. Th...
Chavín Civilization Art <ul><li>Chavín art can be divided into two phases:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The  first phase  corres...
CHAVÍN DE HUÁNTAR   <ul><li>Chavín de Huantar is an archaeological site containing ruins and artifacts originally construc...
An example of Chavín metallurgy, soldering, and temperature control method. <ul><li>Chavin Gold Crown Formative Epoch 1200...
The stela is seven feet high, made of highly polished granite, with a lightly incised design which is almost unnoticeable ...
THE LANZÓN   <ul><li>The Lanzón  is the most important statue of the central deity of the ancient Chavín culture. </li></u...
Paracas culture  <ul><li>Most of our information about the lives of the Paracas people comes from excavations at the large...
AN EXAMPLE OF PARACAS TEXTILE
Nazca Culture <ul><li>The Nazca culture is characterized by its beautiful polychrome pottery painted with up to 12 distinc...
Nazca Culture <ul><li>The Nazca believed in powerful nature spirits who were thought to control most aspects of life.  </l...
CAHUACHI <ul><li>Cahuachi ,  in Peru, was a major ceremonial center of the Nazca culture. </li></ul><ul><li>It was apparen...
EXAMPLES OF NATURE SPIRITS IN NAZCA ART  <ul><li>Fish-like figurine  </li></ul><ul><li>Killer Whale pottery </li></ul><ul>...
TEXTILES IN NAZCA CULTURE <ul><li>The Nazca are also known for their textiles.  </li></ul><ul><li>They began using llama a...
Moche Civilization <ul><li>Particularly noted for their elaborate painted ceramics, gold work, monumental constructions (h...
Moche Civilization <ul><li>Both iconography and the finds of human skeletons in ritual contexts seems to indicate that hum...
MOCHICA PORTRAIT <ul><li>An elite portrait distinguished by the coloration of the piece. </li></ul>
Examples of Moche Art <ul><li>Condor </li></ul><ul><li>Resting Deer </li></ul>
Huari (Wari) Empire <ul><li>The Wari are noted for their stone architecture and sculpture accomplishments, but their great...
Tiwanaku <ul><li>Tiwanaku is currently known for its magnificent imperial city on the southern side of Lake Titicaca, now ...
GATE OF THE SUN <ul><li>The engravings that decorate the gate has some astronomic connotations. There have been innumerabl...
Chimú culture <ul><li>The Chimú were also known for worshiping the moon, viewed the sun as a destroyer.  </li></ul><ul><li...
Chimú culture <ul><li>Chimu ceramics met two functions: containers for daily domestic use or ceremonial use for offerings ...
Religion in Chimú culture <ul><li>The main worship was devoted to the moon because of its influence on plant growth, tides...
CHIMÚ JEWELRY <ul><li>Pendant made of Spondylus shell and turquoise, 900-1470 CE </li></ul>Chimú Gold apparel. 1300 A.D.
Inca Empire <ul><li>the largest empire in pre-Columbian America. </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture was by far the most import...
<ul><li>The main example of their architectural work is the capital city of Cuzco itself.   The stone temples constructed ...
EXAMPLES OF INCA ART
ARYBALLOS FROM THE INCA EMPIRE
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Aparthistoryprojectcompat

1,418

Published on

Published in: Technology, Education
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,418
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
23
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Aparthistoryprojectcompat

  1. 1. Pre-Columbian Art <ul><li>Group : </li></ul><ul><li>Kat </li></ul><ul><li>Joanna </li></ul><ul><li>Mandy </li></ul><ul><li>Yuejiang </li></ul><ul><li>Melissa </li></ul>
  2. 2. In general… <ul><li>Pre-Columbian art refers to the time in the Americans prior to the arrival of the European colonizers in the 16 th Century. </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-Columbian art thrived from 1800 BC to AD 1500 . </li></ul><ul><li>Certain characteristics repeated throughout the region: angular, linear patterns, and three-dimensional ceramics. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Mesoamerica and Central America <ul><li>Cultures generally divided into three periods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-Classic (up to 200 AD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classic ( about 200 AD to 900 AD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post-Classic (about 900 AD to 1580) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Pre-Classic period (up to 200 AD) <ul><li>The most dominant civilization of this period was the Olmecs, which flourished from 1200 AD to 400 BC. </li></ul><ul><li>The  Olmec  lived in the tropical lowlands of south-central Mexico, in what are roughly the modern-day states of Veracruz and Tabasco. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of Olmec art is naturalistic (most notably ‘The Wrestler’) </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Olmecs created heavy-featured, colossal heads, up to 2 meters (8 ft) high. The heads were carved from single blocks or boulders of volcanic basalt, found in the Tuxtlas Mountains. <ul><li>Photo of Olmec Head number 6 from San Lorenzo </li></ul>
  6. 6. The twisted arms give the statue a sense of movement. Some believe that this is a shaman rather than a wrestler. Many researchers consider it an early work, dated as early as 1200 BCE. However, others consign it belonging to a period closer to 400 BCE, the end of the Olmec culture. <ul><li>A famous work from the Olmec culture, “The Wrestler” </li></ul>
  7. 7. Classic Period (about 200 AD – 900 AD) <ul><li>The most dominant culture of this period was the Mayans. </li></ul><ul><li>Practiced their own forms of hieroglyphic writing and astronomy. Mayan art consequently focuses on rain, agriculture, and fertility. </li></ul><ul><li>Usage of relief and surface decoration, as well as some sculpture.  </li></ul><ul><li>Glyphs and stylized figures were used to decorate architecture such as the pyramid temple of Chichén Itzá. Murals dating from about AD 750. </li></ul>
  8. 8. CHICHÉN ITZÁ <ul><li>Chichen Itza was a major regional focal point in the northern Maya lowlands. The site exhibits a multitude of architectural styles, from what is called “Mexicanized” and reminiscent of styles seen in central Mexico to the Puuc style found among the Puuc Maya of the northern lowlands. </li></ul>
  9. 9. RELIEF OF SHIELD JAGUAR AND LADY XOC <ul><li>One of the Yaxchilan Lintels. </li></ul><ul><li>The text of Maya hieroglyphics indicates that the scene depicted is a bloodletting ritual that took place. </li></ul><ul><li>The ruler, Shield Jaguar, holds a torch while his consort, Lady Xoc, pulls a rope studded with what are now believed to be obsidian shards through her tongue in order to conjure a vision serpent. </li></ul>
  10. 10. VESSEL WITH MYTHOLOGICAL SCENE <ul><li>A monochrome painting or drawing: called the &quot; codex style ,&quot; because of its similarity to that of the few Pre-Columbian Maya books, or codices , that exist today.  </li></ul><ul><li>Depicts dancing figure holding a long-handled axe and a raised hand stone. In front of him on a monster-head altar lies a deity figure known today as Baby Jaguar. </li></ul><ul><li>While the scene has been interpreted as one of sacrifice, another interpretation holds that it is one of celebration. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Post-Classic Period (about 900 AD to 1580) <ul><li>10 th - 12 th Centuries </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant cultures: Toltec , Mixtec , and Aztec </li></ul><ul><li>The Post-Classic Period was marked by the apparent breakup of the old Classic Period cultures, with their distinctive art and architectural styles. </li></ul><ul><li>During the Post-Classic Period, fortifications and warlike themes begin to show a more militaristic attitude. </li></ul>
  12. 12. TOLTECS <ul><li>“ The Atlantes” - columns in the form of Toltec warriors in Tula. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Mixtecs <ul><li>The Mixtecs were never conquered by the Aztecs. </li></ul><ul><li>Spoke Mixtecan languages. </li></ul><ul><li>Known for their codices (phonetic pictures in which they wrote their history). </li></ul><ul><li>Also known for their exceptional mastery of jewelry, in gold and turquoise. </li></ul><ul><li>Mixtec goldsmiths created tributes from the Mixtecan people to the Aztecs. </li></ul>
  14. 14. CODEX ZOUCHE-NUTTALL (14 TH CENTURY) <ul><li>It is one of three codices that record the genealogies, alliances and conquests of several 11th and 12th-century rulers of a small Mixtec city-state in highland Oaxaca, the Tilantongo kingdom. Especially under the leadership of the warrior Lord Eight Deer Jaguar Claw. </li></ul>
  15. 15. EXAMPLES OF MIXTECAN GOLD.. <ul><li>Snail shell pendant, 900 - 1520 CE, gold.  </li></ul>Mixtec gold pendant representing the sun ↓
  16. 16. Aztec <ul><li>Spoke Nahuatl language and achieved political and military dominance over large parts of Mesoamerica in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries. </li></ul><ul><li>Referred exclusively to the people of Tenochtitlan, situated on an island in Lake Texcoco. </li></ul><ul><li>Art was primarily a form of  religious expression  and a means for paying tribute to their gods. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Aztec (continued) <ul><li>Song and poetry were highly regarded; there were presentations and poetry contests at most of the Aztec festivals. There were also dramatic presentations that included players, musicians and acrobats. </li></ul><ul><li>Human sacrifice was practiced to an unprecedented level. </li></ul><ul><li>Aztecs admired Mixtec craftsmanship so much that they imported artisans to Tenochtitlan (their capital city) and requested work to be done in certain Mixtec styles. </li></ul>
  18. 18. AZTEC CODICES <ul><li>Human sacrifice as shown in the Codex Magliabechiano. </li></ul>A painting from Codex Mendoza showing elder Aztecs being given intoxicants.
  19. 19. RELIGIOUS AZTEC PIECES <ul><li>This Aztec mask is made of wood covered with polished pieces of turquoise. The teeth and eyes are fashioned from shell. Like most Aztec art, it probably had religious significance and was used for specific dances or rituals. </li></ul>
  20. 20. RELIGIOUS AZTEC PIECES <ul><li>Two-headed turquoise serpent : probably used as a chest ornament during ceremonial occasions. It is made of carved wood covered with turquoise, with red and white shell being used for the mouth and eyes. It was likely created in Mixtec areas under Aztec control between 1400 and 1521. </li></ul>It was likely created by Mixtec artisans from an Aztec tributary state. 
  21. 21. South America <ul><li>Cultures and Civilizations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chavín civilization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paracas culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nazca </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moche </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Huari </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tiwanaku </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chimú </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inca Empire </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. CULTURAL PERIODS OF PERU AND THE ANDEAN REGION
  23. 23. Chavín Civilization <ul><li>Chavín metallurgy, soldering, and temperature control methods were advanced for their time. They also had a knowledge of textiles that allowed them to revolutionize cloth production. </li></ul><ul><li>Contour rivalry  is an artistic technique used to create multiple possible visual interpretations of an image, often used in their art. </li></ul><ul><li>They learned how to tame llamas. Llamas had a </li></ul><ul><li>spiritual significance and also were </li></ul><ul><li>used as pack animals. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Chavín Civilization Art <ul><li>Chavín art can be divided into two phases: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The first phase corresponding to the construction of the &quot;Old Temple&quot; at Chavín de Huantar (c. 900–500 BC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The second phase corresponding to the construction of Chavín de Huantar's &quot;New Temple&quot; (c. 500–200 BC). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The art is intentionally difficult to interpret and understand, since it was intended only to be read by high priests of the Chavín cult who could understand the intricately complex and sacred designs. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. CHAVÍN DE HUÁNTAR <ul><li>Chavín de Huantar is an archaeological site containing ruins and artifacts originally constructed by the Chavin, a pre-Inca culture, around 900 B.C. The site is located 250 kilometers north of Lima, Peru at an elevation of 3150 meters, between the Andean mountain ranges of the Cordillera Negra and the Cordillera Blanca. </li></ul>
  26. 26. An example of Chavín metallurgy, soldering, and temperature control method. <ul><li>Chavin Gold Crown Formative Epoch 1200 B.C. to 1 A.D. </li></ul>
  27. 27. The stela is seven feet high, made of highly polished granite, with a lightly incised design which is almost unnoticeable on the actual sculpture. Raimondi Stela is frequently considered to be one of the finest known examples of contour rivalry. <ul><li>The Raimondi Stela </li></ul>
  28. 28. THE LANZÓN <ul><li>The Lanzón  is the most important statue of the central deity of the ancient Chavín culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Housed in the central cruciform chamber of a labyrinthine series of underground passages in the Old Temple of the ceremonial and religious center of Chavín de Huantar. </li></ul><ul><li>The central image of the Lanzon functions as  axis mundi , or pivot linking the heavens, earth and underworld. Position within the building also suggests centrality of image. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Paracas culture <ul><li>Most of our information about the lives of the Paracas people comes from excavations at the large seaside Paracas necropolis (a large cemetery or burial place) </li></ul><ul><li>Textiles are known as some of the finest ever produced by Pre-Columbian Andean societies, and are the primary works of art by which Paracas is known. </li></ul>
  30. 30. AN EXAMPLE OF PARACAS TEXTILE
  31. 31. Nazca Culture <ul><li>The Nazca culture is characterized by its beautiful polychrome pottery painted with up to 12 distinct colors. Major pottery shapes include double-spout bottles, bowls, cups, vases and effigy forms. </li></ul><ul><li>The iconography or symbols painted on their ceramics served as a means of communication. The motifs depicted on Nazca pottery fall into two major categories: sacred and profane. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Nazca Culture <ul><li>The Nazca believed in powerful nature spirits who were thought to control most aspects of life. </li></ul><ul><li>The Nazca visualized these nature spirits in the form of mythical beings, creatures having a combination of human and animal/bird/fish characteristics and painted them onto their pottery. </li></ul><ul><li>Scenes of warfare, decapitation, and the ritual use of human trophy heads by shamans reflect other aspects of Nazca religious life. </li></ul>
  33. 33. CAHUACHI <ul><li>Cahuachi , in Peru, was a major ceremonial center of the Nazca culture. </li></ul><ul><li>It was apparently a pilgrimage center that grew greatly in population for major ceremonial events. </li></ul>
  34. 34. EXAMPLES OF NATURE SPIRITS IN NAZCA ART <ul><li>Fish-like figurine </li></ul><ul><li>Killer Whale pottery </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  35. 35. TEXTILES IN NAZCA CULTURE <ul><li>The Nazca are also known for their textiles. </li></ul><ul><li>They began using llama and massive quantities of alpaca a thousand years before the north coast cultures began to esteem the camelid wool.  </li></ul>
  36. 36. Moche Civilization <ul><li>Particularly noted for their elaborate painted ceramics, gold work, monumental constructions (huacas) and irrigation systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Artifacts document their lives with detailed scenes of hunting, fishing, fighting, sacrifice, sex, and elaborate ceremonies. </li></ul><ul><li>Moche pottery is some of the most varied in the world . The use of mould technology is evident which would have enabled the mass production of certain forms. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Moche Civilization <ul><li>Both iconography and the finds of human skeletons in ritual contexts seems to indicate that human sacrifice played a significant part in Moche religious practices. </li></ul><ul><li>The coloration of Moche pottery is often simple, with yellowish cream and rich red used almost exclusively on elite pieces, with white and black used in only a few pieces. </li></ul>
  38. 38. MOCHICA PORTRAIT <ul><li>An elite portrait distinguished by the coloration of the piece. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Examples of Moche Art <ul><li>Condor </li></ul><ul><li>Resting Deer </li></ul>
  40. 40. Huari (Wari) Empire <ul><li>The Wari are noted for their stone architecture and sculpture accomplishments, but their greatest proficiency was ceramic. </li></ul><ul><li>The Wari produced magnificent large ceramics, many of which depicted images of the Staff God, an important deity in the Andes </li></ul>
  41. 41. Tiwanaku <ul><li>Tiwanaku is currently known for its magnificent imperial city on the southern side of Lake Titicaca, now in modern-day Bolivia. </li></ul><ul><li>Especially famous is the Gate of the Sun, which depicts a large image of the Staff God flanked by other religious symbols which may have functioned as a calendar. </li></ul>
  42. 42. GATE OF THE SUN <ul><li>The engravings that decorate the gate has some astronomic connotations. There have been innumerable interpretations of the inscriptions on  Gate of the Sun ; many of them believe that it was used as a calendar. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Chimú culture <ul><li>The Chimú were also known for worshiping the moon, viewed the sun as a destroyer. </li></ul><ul><li>The Chimú are best known for their distinctive monochromatic pottery and fine metal working of copper, gold, silver, bronze, and tumbago (copper and gold). </li></ul><ul><li>Usage of firing pottery at high temperatures in a closed kiln to achieve a shiny black finish. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Chimú culture <ul><li>Chimu ceramics met two functions: containers for daily domestic use or ceremonial use for offerings at burials. </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic potty was developed without higher finishing, while funeral ceramics show more aesthetic commitment. </li></ul><ul><li>Some Chimu artisans worked in metal workshops divided into sections for each specialized treatment of metals: plating, gold, stamping, emptying the lost wax, pearl, the watermark, and embossing wooden molds. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Religion in Chimú culture <ul><li>The main worship was devoted to the moon because of its influence on plant growth, tides and its use as a reference of time, but each village had its own local deities and shrines. </li></ul><ul><li>Some deities: Moon (Shi), Mar (Nor), Sol (Jiang) and Earth (Ghisa) </li></ul><ul><li>Tombs in the Huaca of the Moon belonged to six or seven teenagers from 13-14 years of age. Nine tombs were reported to belong to children. If this is indicative of human sacrifice, the Chimu offered children to their gods. </li></ul>
  46. 46. CHIMÚ JEWELRY <ul><li>Pendant made of Spondylus shell and turquoise, 900-1470 CE </li></ul>Chimú Gold apparel. 1300 A.D.
  47. 47. Inca Empire <ul><li>the largest empire in pre-Columbian America. </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture was by far the most important of the Inca arts, with pottery and textiles reflecting motifs that were at their height in architecture. </li></ul><ul><li>Ceramics were painted using the polychrome technique portraying numerous motifs including animals,birds, waves, felines (which were popular in the Chavin culture and geometric patterns found in the Nazca style of ceramics.) </li></ul><ul><li>The most distinctive Inca ceramic objects are the Cusco bottles or ¨aryballos¨. </li></ul>
  48. 48. <ul><li>The main example of their architectural work is the capital city of Cuzco itself. The stone temples constructed by the Inca used a mortar-less construction that fit together so well that you couldn't fit a knife through the stonework. This was a process first used on a large scale by the Pucara (ca. 300 BC–AD 300) peoples . </li></ul><ul><li>Cuzco, the capital </li></ul>
  49. 49. EXAMPLES OF INCA ART
  50. 50. ARYBALLOS FROM THE INCA EMPIRE
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×