Reliability Analysis of AnEnergy-Aware RAID SystemShu YinXiao QinAuburn University
Presentation Outline• Motivation;• Related Work;• MREED Model;• Experimental Result;• Conclusion/Future Work.2
Mobile MultimediaData-Intensive Applications3MotivationBio- Informatics3D Graphic Weather Forecast
Cluster System4Cluster in Data Center
Problem: Energy DissipationEPA Report to Congress on Server and Data Center Energy Efficiency, 20075
Problem: Energy Dissipation (cont.)• Using 2010 Historical Trends Scenario– Server and Data Centers Consume 120 BillionkWh...
• Software- directed Power Management• Dynamic Power Management• Redundancy Technique• Multi- speed SettingExisting Energy...
Contradictory of Energy Efficiency andReliability8Example: Disk spin up and down
MREED Model9R= RBaseValue[1]*τ+α*R(f)[2][1] E. Pinheiro, W.-D. Weber, and L.A. Barroso. Failure trends in a large disk dri...
MREED Model(Temperature Factor τ[3])10Temperature(˚C)AccelerationFactorDe-ratingFactorAdjusted MTBF25 1.000 1.00 232.14026...
MREED Model(MATHEMATICAL RELIABILITY MODELS FOR ENERGY-EFFICIENT RAID SYSTEMS)11
MREED Model(MATHEMATICAL RELIABILITY MODELS FOR ENERGY-EFFICIENT RAID SYSTEMS)12Energy-Conservation RAID TechniqueWeibull ...
Weibull Analysis13• A Leading Method for Fitting Life Date• Advantages:• Accurate• Small Samples• Widely Used
MREED Model(Energy Conservation Techniques- PARAID)Power-Aware RAID (PARAID)[4] System Structure[4] Charles Weddle, Mathew...
Model Validation15•Techniques• Run the Systems for A Couple of Decades• The Event Validity Validation Techniques[5][5] R.G...
Model Validation16•Challenges• Unable to Monitor PARAID Running for Years• Sample Size is Small from A ValidationPerspecti...
Model Validation(DiskSim[6] Simulation)17[6] S.W.S John, S. Bucy, Jiri Schindler and G.R. Ganger, “The DiskSim Simulation ...
Model Validation(DiskSim Simulation)18Diagram of the Storage System Corresponding to the DiskSim RAID-0Driver 0Bus 0CTLR 2...
Model Validation(Result)19Utilization Comparison Between MREED and DiskSim Simulator
Model Validation(Result)20Gear Shifting Comparison Between MREED and DiskSim Simulator
Reliability Evaluation(Experimental Setup)21Disk Type Seagate ST3146855FCCapacity 146 GBCache Size Sata 16MBBuffer to Host...
Reliability Evaluation(Disk Utilization Comparison)22Disks Utilization Comparison Between PARAID-0 and RAID-0 at A Low Acc...
23Disks Utilization Comparison Between PARAID-0 and RAID-0 at A High Access Rate(80 Times Per Hour)Reliability Evaluation(...
24AFR Comparison Between PARAID-0 and RAID-0 at A Low Access Rate(20 Times Per Hour)Reliability Evaluation(AFR Comparison)
25AFR Comparison Between PARAID-0 and RAID-0 at A High Access Rate(80 Per Hour)Reliability Evaluation(AFR Comparison)AFR
Future Work• Extend the MREED Model Power-Aware RAID-5;– Data Stripping• Investigate Trade-off Between Reliability & Energ...
Conclusion• A Reliability Model (MREED) for Power-Ware RAID;• Weibull Distribution Analysis to MREED;• Validation of MREED...
Questions
Reliability Analysis for an Energy-Aware RAID System
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Reliability Analysis for an Energy-Aware RAID System.
S. Yin, M. I. Alghamdi, X.-J. Ruan, Y. Tian, J. Xie, X. Qin, and M. Qiu, Proc. the 30th IEEE International Performance Computing and Communications Conference (IPCCC), Nov. 2011.

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Reliability Analysis for an Energy-Aware RAID System

  1. 1. Reliability Analysis of AnEnergy-Aware RAID SystemShu YinXiao QinAuburn University
  2. 2. Presentation Outline• Motivation;• Related Work;• MREED Model;• Experimental Result;• Conclusion/Future Work.2
  3. 3. Mobile MultimediaData-Intensive Applications3MotivationBio- Informatics3D Graphic Weather Forecast
  4. 4. Cluster System4Cluster in Data Center
  5. 5. Problem: Energy DissipationEPA Report to Congress on Server and Data Center Energy Efficiency, 20075
  6. 6. Problem: Energy Dissipation (cont.)• Using 2010 Historical Trends Scenario– Server and Data Centers Consume 120 BillionkWh per year;– Assume average commercial end user ischarged 9.46 kWh;– Disk systems can account for 27% of thecomputing energy cost of data centers.6
  7. 7. • Software- directed Power Management• Dynamic Power Management• Redundancy Technique• Multi- speed SettingExisting Energy Conservation Techniques7
  8. 8. Contradictory of Energy Efficiency andReliability8Example: Disk spin up and down
  9. 9. MREED Model9R= RBaseValue[1]*τ+α*R(f)[2][1] E. Pinheiro, W.-D. Weber, and L.A. Barroso. Failure trends in a large disk drive population. Proc.USENIX Conf. File and Storage Tech., February2007.[2] IDEMA Standards. Specification of hard disk drive reliability.R(f)=1.51e-6f2 – 1.09e-5f + 1.39e-2Baseline Failure Rate Derived from Disk UtilizationTemperature FactorCoefficient to RBaseValue, α=1 in our research
  10. 10. MREED Model(Temperature Factor τ[3])10Temperature(˚C)AccelerationFactorDe-ratingFactorAdjusted MTBF25 1.000 1.00 232.14026 1.0507 0.95 220.55330 1.2763 0.78 181.06934 1.5425 0.65 150.89138 1.8552 0.54 125.35642 2.2208 0.45 104.46346 2.6465 0.38 8.123[3] G. Cole, “Estimating Drive Reliability in Desktop Computers and Consumer Electronics Systems”Seagate Personal Storage Group, 2000
  11. 11. MREED Model(MATHEMATICAL RELIABILITY MODELS FOR ENERGY-EFFICIENT RAID SYSTEMS)11
  12. 12. MREED Model(MATHEMATICAL RELIABILITY MODELS FOR ENERGY-EFFICIENT RAID SYSTEMS)12Energy-Conservation RAID TechniqueWeibull DistributionAnalysisAccess PatternFrequencyTemperatureAnnual FailureRateSystem ReliabilitySystem Level Reliability
  13. 13. Weibull Analysis13• A Leading Method for Fitting Life Date• Advantages:• Accurate• Small Samples• Widely Used
  14. 14. MREED Model(Energy Conservation Techniques- PARAID)Power-Aware RAID (PARAID)[4] System Structure[4] Charles Weddle, Mathew Oldhan, Jin Qian, An-I Andy Wang. PARAID- A Gear-Shifting Power-Aware RAID.USENIX FAST 2007.14SoftstateRAIDGears
  15. 15. Model Validation15•Techniques• Run the Systems for A Couple of Decades• The Event Validity Validation Techniques[5][5] R.G. Sargent, “Verification and Validation of Simulation Models”, in Proceedings of the 37th conference onWinter Simulation, ser. WSC’05 Winter Simulation Conference, 2005.
  16. 16. Model Validation16•Challenges• Unable to Monitor PARAID Running for Years• Sample Size is Small from A ValidationPerspective (e.g. 100 Disks for Five Years)
  17. 17. Model Validation(DiskSim[6] Simulation)17[6] S.W.S John, S. Bucy, Jiri Schindler and G.R. Ganger, “The DiskSim Simulation Environment Version 4.0Reference Manual”, 2008Input Trace(File Level)File to Block MapperSimulate File(Block Access)DiskSim(Block Level)File to Block Level Converter Outline
  18. 18. Model Validation(DiskSim Simulation)18Diagram of the Storage System Corresponding to the DiskSim RAID-0Driver 0Bus 0CTLR 2BUS 2Driver 2CTLR 3BUS 3Driver 3CTLR 4BUS 4Driver 4CTLR 1BUS 1Driver 1CTLR 0BUS 0Driver 0
  19. 19. Model Validation(Result)19Utilization Comparison Between MREED and DiskSim Simulator
  20. 20. Model Validation(Result)20Gear Shifting Comparison Between MREED and DiskSim Simulator
  21. 21. Reliability Evaluation(Experimental Setup)21Disk Type Seagate ST3146855FCCapacity 146 GBCache Size Sata 16MBBuffer to Host Transfer Rate 4Gb/s (Max)Total Number of Disks 5File Size 100 MBNumber of Files 1000Synthetic Trace Poisson DistributionTime Period 24 HoursInterval Time (Time Phase) 1 HourPower On Hour Per Year 8760 Hours
  22. 22. Reliability Evaluation(Disk Utilization Comparison)22Disks Utilization Comparison Between PARAID-0 and RAID-0 at A Low Access Rate(20 Times Per Hour)
  23. 23. 23Disks Utilization Comparison Between PARAID-0 and RAID-0 at A High Access Rate(80 Times Per Hour)Reliability Evaluation(Disk Utilization Comparison)
  24. 24. 24AFR Comparison Between PARAID-0 and RAID-0 at A Low Access Rate(20 Times Per Hour)Reliability Evaluation(AFR Comparison)
  25. 25. 25AFR Comparison Between PARAID-0 and RAID-0 at A High Access Rate(80 Per Hour)Reliability Evaluation(AFR Comparison)AFR
  26. 26. Future Work• Extend the MREED Model Power-Aware RAID-5;– Data Stripping• Investigate Trade-off Between Reliability & Energy-Efficiency ;• Evaluate and Compare an array of energy-savingtechniques with respect to specific applicationdomains;26
  27. 27. Conclusion• A Reliability Model (MREED) for Power-Ware RAID;• Weibull Distribution Analysis to MREED;• Validation of MREED;• Impacts of the Gear-shifting on Reliability of PARAID.27
  28. 28. Questions

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