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    Decla cert etc etc Decla cert etc etc Document Transcript

    • DECLARATIONI, Melvin Bunton-Nicol, do solemnly declare that this dissertation is the product of myindependent research except where I have indicated my gratitude to other sources.It has not been presented for any other degree elsewhere.Signed…………………………Melvin Bunton-NicolJuly; 2011 i
    • CERTIFICATIONThis is to certify that the undersigned have read and now recommend to the Department of LanguageStudies for acceptance, a dissertation entitled: AN EXAMINATION OF LEXICAL ITEMS IN THE MANDINGO LANGUAGE Submitted by Melvin Bunton-Nicol In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Bachelor of Arts degree (BA) GeneralSupervisor: Mr. Ahmed .A. Sannoh External SupervisorSIGN…………………. SIGN………………..DATE…………………. DATE………………. ii
    • DEDICATIONThis work is dedicated to my father Mr. Ernest Bunton-Nicol, my mother Mrs. Francess Bunton-Nicol, my sisters Eustacia, Melvina and Ernestina, and also to Fanta Cisse and the Konaté familyin Guinea.It is also dedicated to God the Almighty whose support, guidance and protection have been withme all these years. iii
    • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTFirst of all, I cease the opportunity to acknowledge the Almighty Father for his sustainedblessing and support in seeing me through a stressful but memorable academic and successfulexpedition.This conquering finished of this academic challenge was made possible by the combined supportof several people that had to sacrifice a lot to see me through my academic challengetriumphantly.I am indebted to my parents Mr. and Mrs. Bunton-Nicol who have always been by my side interms of ethical and financial support. My profound thanks and appreciation go to my siblingsEustacia Bunton-Nicol, Melvina Bunton-Nicol, Ernestina Bunton-Nicol and Glenn Bunton-Nicolfor their motivation, courage and economic support they gave me throughout my days at theuniversity.I am equally obliged to my partner Fanta Cisse for her endless honest support. Indeed, wordscannot express how grateful and appreciative I am for being with me throughout myundergraduate course. My profound thanks and appreciation also extend to the Konaté family inGuinea.I also like to make use of this opportunity to recognize my academic superiors whom without myacademic battle would have been fruitless. My profound thanks and admiration go to mysupervisor Mr. Ahmed A. Sannoh, for his painstaking supervision.My thanks and appreciation also goes to the Head of Linguistic Unit Mr. Abdulai Walon Jallohand to all my lecturers Mr. Alikalie Turay, Mr. Amadou-Gbongboh Serry, Mr. Makay for theiracademic, concerned and brotherly assistance.Finally, my sincere thanks and appreciation go to my academic colleagues. Foremost beingMohamed S. kamara (prezo m.s). My thanks also go to my elderly brother, teacher, and friendMr. Prince E.A.J. Kenny, coordinator Cercle Français, for his ethical and economic support. iv
    • I am also thankful to other comrades – Kojo Mends-Buah, David Bangura, Tejan Jalloh, RobertDavid Kailie, Ibrahim Deen-Turay, Mohamed .Y. Jalloh, Thomas Moore Conteh, Umarr .A.Sesay (brain), Mohamed .J. Bah, Abdul Rahim Sowe and Maaz. All of Fourah Bay College forthe funs we shared together during our undergraduate days, may God blesses you. v
    • ABSTRACTThe study proposes to examine the lexical items in the Mandingo language.Chapter one briefly introduces the topic of the research; statement of the research problem andits justification, objectives of the study, hypothesis, motives of the study, scope of the study,sources of data and methodology, and limitation of the research. It also gives an account of thehistorical background and life of the Mandingo people, and the Mandingo orthography – vowels,diphthongs and consonants.Chapter two entails the review of literature. In this chapter, the works of renowned and prolificauthors on lexical items and open class category are assessed. Among these authors are:Carson Berndsen (1993), R. D. Huddleston: (1984), Robert Freidin (1992), Wallwork J.F(1985:68), R.H. Robin (1989:214), Joe Pemagbei (1997:6), George Yule (1985:19) and Ur,penny (1988:21).Chapter three examines nouns and adjectives in Mandingo, with specific attention to nouns, nounclasses, plural case, possessives, and adjectives – descriptive adjectives, demonstrativeadjectives, comparative and superlative adjectives.Chapter four examines verbs and adverbs in Mandingo with specific attention to verb tenses viapresent, past and future tenses, adverbs that is to say, position and types of adverbs.Chapter five entails the summary and recommendations of the study, and added to this is thebibliography. vi
    • TABLE OF CONTENTS PagesDeclaration ……………………………………………………………………………………. iCertification……………………………………………………………………………………. iiDedication……………………………………………………………………………………… iiiAcknowledgement ……………………………………………………………………………. ivAbstract…………………………………………………………………………………………. viTable of contents…………………………………………………………………………………. viiCHAPTER ONE1.0 Introduction and general background to the study……………………………………… 1 1.1 Statement of the research, problem and its justification for the study…….. 1 1.2 Objectives of the study…………………………………………………………. 2 1.3 Hypothesis ………………………………………………………………………… 2 1.4 Motives of the study………………………………………………………………. 2 1.5 Scope of the research……………………………………………………………… 3 1.6 Sources of data and methodology………………………………………………. 3 1.7 Limitations of the Methodology and the study………………………………… 3 1.8 Historical background of the Mandingos………………………………………… 4 1.9 The life of the Mandingos…………………………………………………………. 5 1.10 The Mandingo orthography…………………………………………………… 6 1.10.1 The Mandingo vowels………………………………………………… 7 1.10.2 The Mandingo diphthongs…………………………………………… 9 1.10.3 The Mandingo consonants…………………………………………… 9CHAPTER TWO2.0 Literature review…………………………………………………………………………… 11 2.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………… 11 2.2 Lexical item………………………………………………………………………… 12 2.3 Open class category……………………………………………………………… 14 vii
    • TABLE OF CONTENTS PagesCHAPTER THREE3.0 Nouns and Adjectives……………………………………………………………………… 19 3.1 Nouns……………………………………………………………………………….. 19 3.2 Noun classes ………………………………………………………………………. 21 3.3 Plural case…………………………………………………………………………… 24 3.4 Possessives………………………………………………………………………… 26 3.5 Adjectives…………………………………………………………………………… 29 3.6 Descriptive adjectives…………………………………………………………….. 31 3.7 Demonstrative adjectives………………………………………………………….. 32 3.8 Comparative and superlative……………………………………………………… 33 3.8.1 Comparative forms……………………………………………………. 33 3.8.2 Superlative forms……………………………………………………... 33CHAPTER FOUR4.0 Verbs and adverbs………………………………………………………………………. 36 4.1 Verbs ……………………………………………………………………………… 36 4.2 Tense……………………………………………………………………………… 37 4.2.1 Present tense……………………………………………………….. 38 4.2.2 Past tense……………………………………………………………. 39 4.2.3 Future tense………………………………………………………….. 40 4.3 Adverbs ……………………………………………………………………………. 41 4.4 Position…………………………………………………………………………….. 42 4.5 Types……………………………………………………………………………… 43CHAPTER FIVE5.0 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………… 46 5.1 Summary……………………………………………………………………………. 46 5.2 Recommendations……………………………………………………………….. 47BIBLIOGRAPHY................................................................................................................. 48 viii