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Acne
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  • 1. Acne ICD-9 Code: 706.1
  • 2. Acne is a skin disease marked by pimples on the face, chest, and back and occurs when the hair follicles become plugged with oil and dead skin cells.  One of the most common skin diseases. Considerable psychological impact on the quality of life. No cure, but the disease can be controlled through medications.
  • 3. Factors that contribute to the formation of acne:  Overproduction of oil (sebum).  Irregular shedding of dead skin cells resulting in irritation of the hair follicles of your skin.  Buildup of bacteria.
  • 4. Factors that may worsen acne:  Hormones. Androgens are hormones that increase in boys and girls during puberty and cause the sebaceous glands to enlarge and make more sebum. Hormonal changes related to pregnancy and the use of oral contraceptives can also affect sebum production.  Certain medications. Drugs containing corticosteroids, androgens or lithium are known to cause acne.  Diet. Studies indicate that certain dietary factors, including dairy products and carbohydrate-rich foods — such as bread, bagels and chips, which increase blood sugar — may trigger acne.
  • 5. Types of acne: (Noninflammatory lesions)  Comedones (whiteheads and blackheads) are created when the openings of hair follicles become clogged and blocked with oil secretions, dead skin cells and sometimes bacteria. When comedones are open at the skin surface, they're called blackheads because of the dark appearance of the plugs in the hair follicles. When comedones are closed, they're called whiteheads — slightly raised, skin-colored bumps. Whiteheads Blackheads
  • 6. Types of acne: (Inflammatory lesions)  Papules are small raised bumps that signal inflammation or infection in the hair follicles. Papules may be red and tender.  Pustules (pimples) are red, tender bumps with white pus at their tips.  Nodules are large, solid, painful lumps beneath the surface of the skin. They're formed by the buildup of secretions deep within hair follicles.  Cysts are painful, pus-filled lumps beneath the surface of the skin. These boil-like infections can cause scars. Papules Cysts
  • 7. Stages of acne:     Stage #0- Extremely minor signs of acne, which you really don't need to worry about. This includes occasional appearance of tiny zits. Stage #1- This is considered the initial stage where the acne starts with blackheads and whiteheads. You may even start to notice on your face a few white spots. Stage #2- At this stage you will start to notice on a few places on your skin a mild inflammation and papules can accompany this inflammation. Stage #3- When your acne outbreak hits this stage you will see papules frequently start to break out and the ones that are already on the skin will start to further develop and begin to look inflamed.
  • 8. Stages of acne:      Stage #4- At this stage your acne has developed in pustules and you can see a number of them beginning to develop on the skin. These pustules are pus filled, have tips that are white, and will look inflamed. Stage #5- The “severe” stage. Now you will start to see cysts and nodules appearing on your skin and the pustules will develop further into cysts on your face. Stage #6- When your acne outbreak hits this stage you will notice the nodules and cysts that are filled with pus bursting. Stage #7- At this stage there are still nodules and cysts bursting but there is medication that will help to clear all the cystic acne and nodules that contain pus. Stage #8- Acne is beginning to heal.
  • 9. Treatment: (Open the pores)  Cleansing and skin care  Exfoliating cleansers and masks (Kill the bacteria)  Antibacterial cleansers  Topical (external) applications (Reduce the oil)  Astringents/toner  Glycolic acid or hydroxy acids  Sulfur masks
  • 10. Treatment: (Prescription)  Doxycycline  Accutane  Differin  Erythromycin  Tetracycline
  • 11. Treatment: (Over-the-counter OTC)  Proactiv  Zeno  Burt’s Bees  Benzoyl Peroxide  Salicylic Acid  Sulfur
  • 12. Treatment: (Home Remedies)  Honey & Cinnamon  Toothpaste  Garlic  Lemon juice & Aspirin