Early Reforms in the Gilded Age / Politics & ReformPresentation Transcript
Early Reforms in the Gilded Age Angie Ng and Rachel Miller
Gilded Age (1870-1900)
Mark Twain and Charles Warner’s novel “The Gilded Age”(1873)
Novel talked about American politics and society.
Gilded = something covered with gold on the outside but made of cheaper metal on the inside
Gilded Age= Beneath benefits of Industrialization and Urbanization (increased life expectancy) was poverty, corruption, crime, and great disparities in wealth between the rich and poor.
Idea that no matter how humble a person’s origins, they could rise in society (based on talent and commitment) Horatio Alger wrote over 100 “rags to riches” novels that inspired Americans to believe that success was not impossible
Herbert Spencer proposed idea.
Inspired by Charles Darwin who believed that life evolved over the years through natural selection.
Believed that human society evolved and improved over the years because only the fittest survived.
catchphrase was “Survival of the fittest”
Reinforced idea of individualism
Supported the idea of laissez-faire
William Graham Sumner (political scientist) = if govt interfere with business, competition would not root out those that couldn’t adapt.
John D .Rockefeller supported SD a lot (industrial giant of oil)
Opposition to SD
Some people believed in Bible’s account of Creation
Henry Ward of Plymouth Church accepted Spencer’s ideas of SD
Andrew Carnegie combine SD with Gospel of Wealth.
Believed rich should engage in philanthropy –donate fortunes to help the poor and further social progress
Movement in art and literature that portrayed people realistically instead of idealizing them like in romanticism
Mark Twain “Adventures of Huckleberry Finn” view of pre-Civil War era
Industrialization improved standard of living for people, had more leisure time
Saloons, playing or watching basketball, baseball, football because job less strenuous physically.
Ragtime music (African American)
Vaudeville=animal acts, dancers, acrobats
Henry George “Progress and Poverty” raised questions about great gap between rich/poor.
Lester Frank “Dynamic Sociology” = Reform Darwinism. People survive because of ability to cooperate, therefore govt should be involved (poverty, education, economy)
Edward Bellamy “Looking Backward” want socialism
Naturalism=style of writing that criticized indust. Society.
Helping the Urban Poor
Social Gospel Movement (1870-1920)
Improve city conditions based on biblical ideas (day care, helping the poor)
Washington Gladden (minister from Columbus,Ohio) try apply “Christian Law” to social problems.
Coal strike (1884) Gladden= right and necessity of labor organizations”
Billy Sunday =protect trad. society denounce alcohol, women’s rights, labor unions
Helping the Urban Poor
Christian Mission aka Salvation Army(1878)
Dwight L. Moody. President of Chicago YMCA, Bible studies, prayers, wanted to redeem souls and reform character of people. reject SD and SG
Idust. and urbanization=need more educated workers.
1870= 6,500,000 children in school,
At schools knowledge about American culture (Americanization). Helped immigrants assimilate but immigrants might forget own cultural traditions
middle–class residents in poor neighborhoods lived with and helped poor residents (mostly immigrants)
Hot lunches, English lessons, medical care
Jane Addams’ Hull House in Chicago
Morrill Land Grand Act: federal land given to state for purpose of making agricultural and mechanical colleges.
Private colleges gave women edu.
Booker T. Washington founded Tuskegee Institute in Alabama (1881) because Africans did not have equal edu opportunities
Public libraries made edu. available but like schools hard for rural people to have access
Andrew Carnegie donated millions to construct libraries
LAST SLIDE!!! Whoot Whoot!!
Read the Profiles in History section on Page 269 and explain which man ( Booker T. Washington or George Washington Carver) made a bigger impact in society.
Minimum 3 sentences.
Politics and Reform Rachel Miller & Angie Ng
Spoils System (Patronage)
Gov. jobs were given to supporters of the winning party
Americans thought it corrupted the gov. & stopped lawmakers from addressing nation’s issues
Repub. Pres. Hayes fights patronage
Appoints “Halfbreeds” to replace “Stalwarts”
Halfbreeds = Republican reformers
Stalwarts = local bosses of republican political machines
Despite arguments, Republicans nominate James A. Garfield (Halfbreed) for president & Chester A. Arthur (Stalwart) for vice-president.
Assassination of Pres. J.A.G.
Killed by Charles Guiteau, a Stalwart
Believed that w/ Garfield dead, he would unite the Republican Party
Congress responds with Pendleton Act
Civil service system where candidates are appointed based on examinations
14,000 jobs (1/10 of total) resulted
Started to end the spoils system.
New England, Midwest, big businesses
South w/ large Catholic & immigration populations
House of Reps
Twice during 1877-1896, a candidate lost popular vote, but won election b/c still received all electoral votes in states
Republicans & Democrats can’t agree on issues= can’t pass laws that helped economy
Election of 1884
(Dem) NY Gov. Grover Cleveland vs. (Rep) James G. Blaine, former House of Reps. Speaker
Blaine = Credit Mobilizer Scandal
Cleveland = Bachelor, but fathered a child 10 yrs. earlier
Because Cleveland admitted the rumor was true, he earned RESPECT.
Blaine lost several votes due to:
“ Muguwumps” that liked Cleveland’s honesty
Not defending the Irish Catholics
The Prohibition Party Candidate promised to ban alcohol sales