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  • 1. Language Speech 104 - Extra Credit By: Romina Vardanyan
  • 2. Language Language is a marvelous communication tool, and it is also the source of many communication problems. Language is fundamental to critical thinking. A good critical thinker uses language that meets the needs and expectations of the audience, and is appropriate to the time, place, person and occasion. Four areas of language use are important to critical thinking: word choice, ambiguity, definition, and intensity.
  • 3. Word Choice The meaning of words does not simply rest in words themselves but in the minds of the people who use an receive them.
  • 4. Word Choice Meaning is in the mind and not in the symbols (words). The language goal of the critical thinker is to select the appropriate words to match the time, place, occasion and person. THis is no more than saying “the right thing at the right time”.
  • 5. Ambiguity “In order to qualify as an ambiguity, an expression must generate not only ‘ t a least t wo different meanings’, but also t wo incompatible and unrelated meanings. It is only then that an expression is truly ambiguous.” -Drazen Pehar “Use of Ambiguities in Peace Agreements”
  • 6. Euphemism A euphemism is a less direct term, used in the place of a more specific term which may be considered offensive. When used in this way, euphemisms tend to “sanitize” or cleanup one’s language. A euphemism can basically be any word. The only requirement is that a listener associates it with the offensive or taboo term which it replaces, or understands the connection between the word or the taboo.
  • 7. Exampl Domestic Engineer >> Housewife Eliminate with Prejudice >> Kill Correctional Facility >> Prison Sanitation Worker >> Janitor Strict >> Cruel
  • 8. Definition The primary function of definition is to get the sender and receiver on the same semantic wavelength in order to avoid unnecessary semantic hurdles that prevent a discussion of more important issues. Definition is also used to indicate the sense in which you use a familiar term especially when your use of the term might differ from conventional usage. Words convey two different meanings to the audience: a denotative and a connotative meaning.
  • 9. Denotative & Connotative Meaning Denotative meaning boyfriend |ˈboiˌfrend| noun a regular male companion refers to the way a with whom one has a romantic or sexual relationship. word is generally used, or the meaning that people most frequently attach to a word. Boyfriend Happiness Love Trust Connotative meaning refers to the way a person emotionally responds to a word.
  • 10. Types Of Dictionary Definition: formal definition, and is probably the most common form for clarifying what a word means. Operational Definition: most useful to define a word by its function or operation. Definition by Example: defining a word or phrase by citing specific instances of that word or phrase. Definition by Negation: this form of definition tells us what a word or phrase is not. Definition by Etymology: defining a word or phrase by citing its historical roots or point of origination.
  • 11. Intensity of Language The intensity level of one’s language refers to the use of words and phrases that often negatively raise the emotional level of any communication encounter.
  • 12. Intensity Language can be found in one of the following three areas: Negative Evaluative Words: words that can only be understood through a comparison with their opposite (ugly, fat, weird, stupid, strange). Strong Emotive Words: words which are used to describe something, but really presents the person’s attitude toward what is being described. Abusive Language: use of obscenity, name calling, insults, swear words and off-color remarks which are usually of a racial or sexual nature.
  • 13. Always Remember: Correct language can enhance credibility and claim adherence, but using incorrect language can damage credibility and lead to the rejection of the position being advanced.