Augmented Reality
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  • 1. A Brief Introduction to Augmented Reality IE 543 3 Nov 2008 Trond Nilsen
  • 2. What is it?
    • Overlaying virtual imagery on the real world
    • Merging the real and the virtual
    • Simultaneous interaction
  • 3. A Brief History (1)
    • 1960s – Sutherland & Sproull’s first HMD
  • 4. A Brief History (2)
    • 1970s / 1980s – USAF helmet displays, Super cockpit (Furness)
  • 5. A Brief History (3)
    • Early 1990s – Boeing wire harness assembly application.
    • Early to mid 1990s – UNC ultrasound visualization project
  • 6. AR – Brief History (4)
    • Early 2000s :
      • Outdoor AR
      • ARToolkit / Magic Book
      • Applications!
  • 7. AR - Applications
    • Many applications,
      • Engineering
      • Archaeology
      • Medicine
      • Architecture
      • Visualization
      • Military
  • 8. Video – AR Pancho
  • 9. How?
    • Two main problems
      • Tracking the real world
      • Displaying the virtual objects
    • Variety of technology solutions for each problem
  • 10. Tracking
    • Magnetic
      • Fast and accurate
      • Expensive, normally requires setup
    • Inertial
      • Cheap and somewhat inaccurate
      • Must be frequently recalibrated
    • Computer Vision
      • Range of techniques
      • Reasonably accurate
      • Cheap
  • 11. Tracking
    • Mechanical
      • Potentially very accurate
      • Attached to device
      • Works well in conjunction with haptic feedback
    • Ultrasound
      • Potentially accurate,
      • May suffer from interference
    • GPS
      • Suitable for outdoor AR
    • Hybrid solutions
  • 12. How? Displays!
  • 13. Is it realistic?
    • Delay
    • Rendering quality
    • Lighting
    • Error
    • Non-tangible
    • Mediated video
  • 14. Video – AR Relight
  • 15. ARToolKit
  • 16. Reality / Virtuality Continuum
  • 17. AR – Transitional Interfaces
    • Interfaces that move you along the continuum
    • Supports egocentric and exocentric views
      • Exocentric - View from above
      • Egocentric - View from within
      • Appropriate for different tasks
  • 18. AR - Collaboration
    • Wide variety of cues used when communicating
    Speech Paralinguistic Paraverbals Prosodics Intonation Audio Gaze Gesture Face Expression Body Position Visual Object Manipulation Writing/Drawing Spatial Relationship Object Presence Contact Environmental
  • 19. AR - Collaboration
    • Face-to-face collaboration
      • People surround a table
      • It is easy to see each other
    • Computer collaboration
      • People sit side by side
      • It is hard to see each other
  • 20. AR - Collaboration
    • Attributes:
      • Virtuality
      • Augmentation
      • Cooperation
      • Independence
      • Individuality
    • Seamless Interaction
    • Natural Communication
    • Role division
    • Privacy
  • 21. AR – Hybrid User Interfaces
  • 22. AR – Magic Lenses
    • Developed at Xerox PARC in 1993
    • View a region of the workspace differently to the rest
      • Not limited to magnification
  • 23. AR – Magic Lens
    • Focus + Context – two data sets
      • Direct comparison of differing data sets in situ
    • Selection
  • 24. AR Gaming
  • 25. Gaming - ARQuake
    • Developed by Wayne Piekarski & Bruce Thomas at University of South Australia
    • Modified version of Quake for Tinmith Outdoor AR system
  • 26. Gaming – AR Tankwar
  • 27. Video – AR Tankwar