cold war analysis mashup

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cold war analysis mashup

  1. 1. It is a compilation of powerpoint  presentations based on the works of:  Fatima Al Mansoori and Sara Al Jassmi Grade: 9c. An overview of the cold war by Patricia Guzman, Head Teacher at ISFD Nº 1097 on Sep 16, 2013. Cold war part_2_crises_of_the_cold_war  by k0socha on Apr 24, 2013  
  2. 2. Done by: Fatima Al Mansoori and Sara Al Jassmi Grade: 9c
  3. 3.  The cold war was the continuing state from roughly 1946 to 1991 of political conflict, military tension and economic competition between the communist world and the western world.  Truman doctrine is a policy set forth by president Truman in a on march 12, 1947 stating that the U.S. Would support Greece and Turkey with economic and military aid to prevent those countries falling into the soviet sphere. Often consider it as the start of the cold war.  Communism is a social, political and economic ideology that aims at the establishment of a classless, moneyless, stateless society based on common ownership of the means of production.
  4. 4.      satellite state − small country controlled by a more powerful neighbor iron curtain − imaginary barrier separating Soviet-controlled countries and the free world containment − American policy to keep communism contained within its existing borders Marshall Plan − U.S. aid program to help Western Europe rebuild after World War II Berlin airlift − operation in which the U.S. and Britain broke the Soviet blockade of West Berlin
  5. 5. The United States was a capitalist democracy. Its citizens believed in free elections, economic, and religious freedom, private property, and respect of individual differences. The Soviet Union was a dictatorship. The Communist Party made all key economic, political, and military decisions.
  6. 6.   The nations of Eastern Europe and the eastern part of Germany became satellite states of the Soviet Union, separated from the free world by an “iron curtain.” With the Truman Doctrine, the U.S. promised to support nations struggling against communist movements.
  7. 7. Money was sent to Greece and Turkey to provide aid to people who needed it.
  8. 8.     Its relative prosperity and freedom stood in contrast to the bleak life of East Berliners. Stalin was determined to capture West Berlin or win other concessions from the Western allies. In June 1948, Stalin stopped all highway, railway, and waterway traffic from western Germany into West Berlin. Without any means of receiving aid, West Berlin would fall to the communists. For almost a year, the US and Britain supplied West Berlin through a massive airlift. Food, fuel, medical supplies, clothing, toys-everything the residents of West Berlin needed was flown into the city.
  9. 9. The Cold War featured the US and the USSR, two SUPERPOWERs with completely different political systems (Capitalism v Communism) competing for influence around the world. The presence of nuclear weapons held by both sides made the stakes of the cold war very high, as a direct total war between the two sides would have resulted in a nuclear war, killing millions of civilians. Neither side wanted to provoke the other into resulting to a nuclear attack. The US under President Truman decided they could not remove communism where it existed but instead focused on containing it and stopping its spread.  Truman knew containment was our best option in stopping communism while avoiding nuclear war. 
  10. 10. Europe had been divided along communist and Capitalist lines following WWII and this continued throughout the Cold War. The US made an Alliance known as NATO (the North Atlantic Treaty Organization) with many countries, promising that an attack on those countries would be regarded as an attack on the USA. The USSR formed their own alliance, the Warsaw Pact to counter NATO. This alliance included the Iron Curtain countries, the “satellite”   Europe divided: Capitalist and Communist
  11. 11. NATO and the Warsaw Pact. Map includes how much US aid $ each received under the Marshall plan.
  12. 12. One Cold War Crisis occurred surrounding the city of Berlin. Berlin (along with the rest of Germany) had been divided amongst the 4 allied powers of WWII. West Berlin was controlled by the US, UK, and France while East Berlin was controlled by the USSR. Berlin though was totally surrounded by the Soviet portion of Germany, and the USSR (led by Stalin) resented having an enclave of capitalism in its zone. Stalin looked to remove the US support from the city and take over W Berlin. Defending W. Berlin became the frontline and first test of the US policy of containment.     West Berlin was in the heart of Communist East Germany.
  13. 13. In 1948, Stalin decided he would try to blockade the roads that led to West Berlin, this would cut off their supplies and hopefully get the west to abandon its stake in the city. He figured the US would not risk a conflict and confrontation trying to go through the blockade. The US and Britain developed a different plan and responded by airlifting all supplies needed for W. Berlin. The US also put their army on full alert, basically daring the USSR to try and stop the airlift. Stalin chose not to shoot down US planes and instead reopened roads to the city in 1949 after a year of supplies being airlifted into the city.   For a full year, American and British troops airlifted supplies to the blockaded W. Berliners 
  14. 14. Josef Stalin died in 1953 after almost 30 years in power as ruler of the USSR. He would eventually be replaced by a man named Nikita Khrushchev Khrushchev sought to “deStalinize” the Soviet Union. He openly stated the atrocities that Stalin had committed and had numerous monuments to Stalin destroyed. However, Khrushchev was still a communist and sought to lead his country to victory in the Cold War.      Khrushchev wanted to move the USSR away from Stalin’s brutality
  15. 15. West Berlin had become a prosperous capitalist city, while East Berlin did not see such a quick recovery under the communist system. Many of the welleducated in East Berlin started use West Berlin as their way to escape communism and flee to the Western World. In addition as long as people had access to West Berlin, they would be able to see the success of the capitalist system and would desire to leave communism.   
  16. 16. In 1961, wanting to prevent the “brain drain” of skilled people leaving communist East Germany, the BERLIN WALL, a concrete and barbed wire wall around W. Berlin, was put in place to keep people from leaving the communist system. The US was prepared to defend W. Berlin’s freedom but did not destroy the barrier out of fear of starting a nuclear war. It would divide the city until 1989. Its significance was that it served as a physical symbol of the division of  
  17. 17. Cuba was the site of another major cold war crisis. In 1959 under a revolution led by Fidel Castro, Cuba became a communist country. The US had vital economic interests in Cuba (casinos, hotels) and lost them when Cuba became communist. The US tried and failed to remove Castro from power in an invasion known as the Bay of Pigs, and the CIA tried and failed to assassinate him. The US was worried as they faced a potentially hostile neighbor only 90 miles off of the coast of Florida. This was a failure of the policy of containment as communism had now spread.   
  18. 18. The USSR had fallen behind in the nuclear arms race with the US. They did not possess the long range missile capability or the number of missile sites that the US did. However, the USSR supported Cuba and desired to use this country as a valuable ally in the Cold War. Since it was close to the US it represented an area from which the USSR could potentially  Castro and Khrushchev became allies  Cuba is only 90 miles off of Florida’s coast
  19. 19. Khrushchev decided to secretly build missile sites in Cuba that he could hit the US with. US spy planes spotted the missile sites in October of 1962. President John Kennedy declared that the presence of missiles in Cuba was unacceptable. He ordered a blockade of Cuba, to prevent any new missiles from being delivered and demanded that the missiles in Cuba be removed.     A U-2 spy plane identified the missile sites
  20. 20. Khrushchev renounced the blockade. Meanwhile, Kennedy prepared a large force to invade Cuba. He also announced that any attack on the US or country in Western Hemisphere would be met with a direct attack on Cuba or the Soviet Union. The Two powers appeared to be headed for Nuclear War.    Nuclear War was a real possibility during the crisis 
  21. 21. The Crisis finally broke after two weeks of tension, when Soviet ships decided to stop and not resist the US blockade. The 2 sides negotiated a settlement where the USSR would remove the missiles from Cuba and the US would promise to never invade Cuba in the future and remove some of its missile sites in Turkey (although this 2nd condition was not made public). Finally the crisis reached a peaceful end.    Negotiations at the UN and direct communication between President Kennedy and Khrushchev thankfully helped the Crisis end peacefully
  22. 22. The Cuban Missile crisis was the height of tensions between the US and USSR, and the closest the war came to being a “hot” war. Sadly, President Kennedy was shot and killed the next year. The USSR viewed the crisis as an embarrassment and Khrushchev was replaced as the head of the Soviet Union a few months later. Still, the Cold War would continue for another 25 years.    
  23. 23. How can a war be ‘cold’? What were the Hotspots of the Cold War?
  24. 24. The USA and the USSR were the two world Superpowers. The USA was a capitalist society with a democracy. The USSR was a communist country with a dictatorship. Both wanted to be the most powerful nation in the world.    
  25. 25. The USA had shown its atomic power when it exploded the A-bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki at the end of World War 2. The USSR was also developing atomic weapons/bombs. The USA and the USSR were in competition with each other to have the best, most powerful weapons in the world – this was called the Arms Race.   
  26. 26. Many countries became communist after World War 2 including: Czechoslovakia (1948) Poland (1947) Hungary (1947) China (1949) Cuba (1959) North Korea (1945)  - -
  27. 27. Germany, which had been ruled by the Hitler and the Nazis until their defeat in 1945 was split in two. The western side became West Germany and the eastern side became East Germany. East Germany became another communist country.   
  28. 28. The USSR had a lot of influence over many of the new communist countries (especially those in Europe). The USA was very worried that the USSR’s influence over these countries was making the USSR and communism more powerful. The USA did not want communism to spread any further – they were worried about the domino effect (one country becomes communist, then another, then another etc)   
  29. 29. The tension and rivalry between the USA and the USSR was described as the Cold War (1945-1990). There was never a real war between the two sides between 1945 and 1990, but they were often very close to war (Hotspots). Both sides got involved in other conflicts in the world to either stop the spread of communism (USA) or help the spread (USSR).  
  30. 30. Cold war part_2_crises_of_the_cold_war  by k0socha on Apr 24, 2013. URL: http://www.slideshare.net/k0socha/coldwar-part2crisesofthecoldwar?qid=cb579f13-35c4-4969-a62aad19386566a0&v=qf1&b=&from_search=2 Fatima Al Mansoori and Sara Al Jassmi  Grade: 9c. URL:  An overview of the cold war  by Patricia Guzman, Head Teacher at ISFD Nº 1097 on Sep 16, 2013 URL:  http://www.slideshare.net/guzpat/an-overview-of-the-cold-war26238921?qid=de01238e-2f38-4989-b2e80d19431536dd&v=qf1&b=&from_search=8 

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