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Responses toColonialism Bryan Luu & Ryan Chung
What is Colonialism?
What is Colonialism?• Exploitation colonialism - Exploitation by a  stronger party over a weaker sovereign’s resources.• S...
What are examples of Colonialism       Around the World?
What are examples of Colonialism       Around the World?• Australia, New Zealand, India, Hong Kong -  Colonized by the Bri...
What are examples of Colonialism       Around the World?• Australia, New Zealand, India, Hong Kong -  Colonized by the Bri...
What are examples of Colonialism       Around the World?• Australia, New Zealand, India, Hong Kong -  Colonized by the Bri...
Effects of Colonialism     around the World• India - East India Trading  Company adopted mercantilist  policies.• Indochin...
Steps to Colonialism     in Canada
Steps to Colonialism        in Canada• Fur Trade among French,  British companies and the  natives result in temporary  se...
Steps to Colonialism        in Canada• Fur Trade among French,  British companies and the  natives result in temporary  se...
Steps to Colonialism        in Canada• Fur Trade among French,  British companies and the  natives result in temporary  se...
Steps to Colonialism        in Canada• Fur Trade among French,  British companies and the  natives result in temporary  se...
Start of Colonialism• Treaties - negotiated to make the West available for  settlement.• Constitution Act (1867)/ BNA Act ...
‘Indian Treaties’        • Formal negotiations between          FN and the gov’t.        • Primary focus was to aid       ...
Constitution Act 1867            (BNA)• Settlers liked the BNA  because it created Dominion  of Canada.• Its purpose was t...
Indian Act (1876)• Enfranchisement Act (1869)  encourages assimilation - women lose  status.• Further outlines ‘Indian Sta...
Residential Schools      (1886)         • Created to assimilate FN, the           schools disallowed FN children          ...
Long Term Effects
Long Term Effects• Disease decimated whole populations of FNP. The  majority became white settlers.
Long Term Effects• Disease decimated whole populations of FNP. The  majority became white settlers.• Change from fur tradi...
Long Term Effects• Disease decimated whole populations of FNP. The  majority became white settlers.• Change from fur tradi...
Long Term Effects• Disease decimated whole populations of FNP. The  majority became white settlers.• Change from fur tradi...
Early Resistance
Early Resistance• Most early resistance was peaceful,  many FNP were protested about  the loss of their rights and the  se...
Early Resistance• Most early resistance was peaceful,  many FNP were protested about  the loss of their rights and the  se...
Early Resistance• Most early resistance was peaceful,  many FNP were protested about  the loss of their rights and the  se...
Early Resistance• Most early resistance was peaceful,  many FNP were protested about  the loss of their rights and the  se...
Indian Act Legacy• Many FNP defied the restrictions of the potlatch ban (1885),  and did not desire to ‘enfranchise’ themse...
Indian Act cont’• 1985 - Gov’t Introduced Bill C-31   • Repealed sexist enfranchisement of FN women• Recent revisions incr...
When did FN get the  right to Vote?
When did FN get the     right to Vote?• 1960 - Prime Minister John Diefenbaker gives FNP  the right to vote in federal ele...
When did FN get the     right to Vote?• 1960 - Prime Minister John Diefenbaker gives FNP  the right to vote in federal ele...
When did FN get the     right to Vote?• 1960 - Prime Minister John Diefenbaker gives FNP  the right to vote in federal ele...
White Paper (1969)
White Paper (1969)• Intent was to remove ‘Native Status’• Repealed the Indian Act• Attempted to remove federal gov’t respo...
Red Paper
Red Paper• Primary FN response to White Paper• Countered all the ideas in the White Paper• Many FN across the country prot...
Red Paper• Primary FN response to White Paper• Countered all the ideas in the White Paper• Many FN across the country prot...
Health Transfer        Policy (1970)• Mercury poisoning from a chemicals company  causes FN in Dryden, ON, to fall ill due...
Meech Lake Accord     (1990)
Meech Lake Accord          (1990)• Planned to obtain Quebec’s  compliance with the  Constitution Act (1982)• FN believed t...
Meech Lake Accord          (1990)• Planned to obtain Quebec’s  compliance with the  Constitution Act (1982)• FN believed t...
Constitution Express• A large group of FN around Canada rallied on a  train trip called the Constitution Express,  protest...
Modern Responses
Modern Responses• FN are now in a continuing fight against ‘Neo-  Colonialism’.
Modern Responses• FN are now in a continuing fight against ‘Neo-  Colonialism’.• They are striving to regain rights lost in...
Modern Responses• FN are now in a continuing fight against ‘Neo-  Colonialism’.• They are striving to regain rights lost in...
Native Organizations
Native Organizations         • The Allied Indian Tribes was           created to resist an attempt of           extinguish...
Native Organizations         • The Allied Indian Tribes was           created to resist an attempt of           extinguish...
Native Organizations         • The Allied Indian Tribes was           created to resist an attempt of           extinguish...
Native Organizations         • The Allied Indian Tribes was           created to resist an attempt of           extinguish...
Nisga’a Final             Agreement• First FN BC treaty since Treaty, effective from 2000.• Nisga’a finally acquired a trea...
IT’S OVER!!!!!!
Response to colonialism
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Transcript of "Response to colonialism"

  1. 1. Responses toColonialism Bryan Luu & Ryan Chung
  2. 2. What is Colonialism?
  3. 3. What is Colonialism?• Exploitation colonialism - Exploitation by a stronger party over a weaker sovereign’s resources.• Settler colonialism - People moving into another region to make a living, usually farm.
  4. 4. What are examples of Colonialism Around the World?
  5. 5. What are examples of Colonialism Around the World?• Australia, New Zealand, India, Hong Kong - Colonized by the British
  6. 6. What are examples of Colonialism Around the World?• Australia, New Zealand, India, Hong Kong - Colonized by the British• Algeria, Vietnam/Laos/Cambodia(Indochina) - Colonized by French.
  7. 7. What are examples of Colonialism Around the World?• Australia, New Zealand, India, Hong Kong - Colonized by the British• Algeria, Vietnam/Laos/Cambodia(Indochina) - Colonized by French.• Philippines (also by Spain), U.S. Virgin Islands, Hawaii - Colonized by the U.S.
  8. 8. Effects of Colonialism around the World• India - East India Trading Company adopted mercantilist policies.• Indochina - Tropical fruit and crops. French border disputes and racial tensions result in wars.• Australia - Smallpox brought in by whites lead to population decimation
  9. 9. Steps to Colonialism in Canada
  10. 10. Steps to Colonialism in Canada• Fur Trade among French, British companies and the natives result in temporary settlements.
  11. 11. Steps to Colonialism in Canada• Fur Trade among French, British companies and the natives result in temporary settlements.• French and British establish mercantilism as national policies - 15th-17th century. Ideas such as the triangular trade were implemented.
  12. 12. Steps to Colonialism in Canada• Fur Trade among French, British companies and the natives result in temporary settlements.• French and British establish mercantilism as national policies - 15th-17th century. Ideas such as the triangular trade were implemented.• Emphasis on colonies to export goods to motherland.
  13. 13. Steps to Colonialism in Canada• Fur Trade among French, British companies and the natives result in temporary settlements.• French and British establish mercantilism as national policies - 15th-17th century. Ideas such as the triangular trade were implemented.• Emphasis on colonies to export goods to motherland.
  14. 14. Start of Colonialism• Treaties - negotiated to make the West available for settlement.• Constitution Act (1867)/ BNA Act - gave government (gov’t) powers over First Nations People(FNP) and their land.• Indian Act (1876) - attempted to assimilate FNP, took rights away from ‘status Indians’.• Residential schools were put into use to ‘integrate FNP’.
  15. 15. ‘Indian Treaties’ • Formal negotiations between FN and the gov’t. • Primary focus was to aid colonization and settlement. • The Aboriginal Title to the land was lost and controlled by the gov’t. • Also defines who is considered ‘Indian’.
  16. 16. Constitution Act 1867 (BNA)• Settlers liked the BNA because it created Dominion of Canada.• Its purpose was to profit settlers, not the FNP.• As a result, many FN land became under federal gov’t control.
  17. 17. Indian Act (1876)• Enfranchisement Act (1869) encourages assimilation - women lose status.• Further outlines ‘Indian Status’ and the rights they have, but they did not have full privileges.• Gave government power over FN communities, replaced traditional forms of gov’t.• (1885) Ban on cultural ceremonies, e.g. potlatch and sundance. FNP did not accept, many ignored the ban.
  18. 18. Residential Schools (1886) • Created to assimilate FN, the schools disallowed FN children from speaking native languages. • Led to loss of language and culture. • Child abuse was rampant among many schools. • As a result FN culture was heavily affected.
  19. 19. Long Term Effects
  20. 20. Long Term Effects• Disease decimated whole populations of FNP. The majority became white settlers.
  21. 21. Long Term Effects• Disease decimated whole populations of FNP. The majority became white settlers.• Change from fur trading to settlement took power away from FN control in trading. In BC, the Klondike rush gave many difficulties because of a violent population influx.
  22. 22. Long Term Effects• Disease decimated whole populations of FNP. The majority became white settlers.• Change from fur trading to settlement took power away from FN control in trading. In BC, the Klondike rush gave many difficulties because of a violent population influx.• Farming by settlers voided FN control over large areas of land.
  23. 23. Long Term Effects• Disease decimated whole populations of FNP. The majority became white settlers.• Change from fur trading to settlement took power away from FN control in trading. In BC, the Klondike rush gave many difficulties because of a violent population influx.• Farming by settlers voided FN control over large areas of land.• The new economy required FN to become wage labourers.
  24. 24. Early Resistance
  25. 25. Early Resistance• Most early resistance was peaceful, many FNP were protested about the loss of their rights and the separation of their land.
  26. 26. Early Resistance• Most early resistance was peaceful, many FNP were protested about the loss of their rights and the separation of their land.• Red River Rebellion (1869) - Louis Riel and the Métis fought to protect Assiniboia (Manitoba) and recognize it as a province.
  27. 27. Early Resistance• Most early resistance was peaceful, many FNP were protested about the loss of their rights and the separation of their land.• Red River Rebellion (1869) - Louis Riel and the Métis fought to protect Assiniboia (Manitoba) and recognize it as a province.• Northwest Rebellions (1885) - Louis Riel led an unsuccessful revolt against the Dominion of Canada for not protecting their rights.
  28. 28. Early Resistance• Most early resistance was peaceful, many FNP were protested about the loss of their rights and the separation of their land.• Red River Rebellion (1869) - Louis Riel and the Métis fought to protect Assiniboia (Manitoba) and recognize it as a province.• Northwest Rebellions (1885) - Louis Riel led an unsuccessful revolt against the Dominion of Canada for not protecting their rights.
  29. 29. Indian Act Legacy• Many FNP defied the restrictions of the potlatch ban (1885), and did not desire to ‘enfranchise’ themselves and lose Indian status.• 1951 Revision: • Responsibility for FN was in the minister of Indian Affairs. • Emphasized additional powers to ‘more advanced...’ bands, and kept the gender-biased enfranchisement. • However, removed bans on cultural practices (potlatches, etc...)
  30. 30. Indian Act cont’• 1985 - Gov’t Introduced Bill C-31 • Repealed sexist enfranchisement of FN women• Recent revisions increase band control over reserves.• Indian Act Optional Modification Act (1996) was heavily opposed by FN, got rejected.• Public resistance from FN has helped in creating amendments.
  31. 31. When did FN get the right to Vote?
  32. 32. When did FN get the right to Vote?• 1960 - Prime Minister John Diefenbaker gives FNP the right to vote in federal election.
  33. 33. When did FN get the right to Vote?• 1960 - Prime Minister John Diefenbaker gives FNP the right to vote in federal election.• Major milestone for FN resistance
  34. 34. When did FN get the right to Vote?• 1960 - Prime Minister John Diefenbaker gives FNP the right to vote in federal election.• Major milestone for FN resistance• Gave FN more political power.
  35. 35. White Paper (1969)
  36. 36. White Paper (1969)• Intent was to remove ‘Native Status’• Repealed the Indian Act• Attempted to remove federal gov’t responsibility to FN• Disregarded FN land claims
  37. 37. Red Paper
  38. 38. Red Paper• Primary FN response to White Paper• Countered all the ideas in the White Paper• Many FN across the country protested against the passing of the White Paper• In 1970, the White Paper was revoked
  39. 39. Red Paper• Primary FN response to White Paper• Countered all the ideas in the White Paper• Many FN across the country protested against the passing of the White Paper• In 1970, the White Paper was revoked
  40. 40. Health Transfer Policy (1970)• Mercury poisoning from a chemicals company causes FN in Dryden, ON, to fall ill due to polluted fish.• FN fisheries were closed by ON gov’t.• Leads to signing of Health Transfer Policy, which gave FN more control over their health services.
  41. 41. Meech Lake Accord (1990)
  42. 42. Meech Lake Accord (1990)• Planned to obtain Quebec’s compliance with the Constitution Act (1982)• FN believed that the Accord should be rejected: it could give gov’t power over FN affairs, and wanted sufficient representation in the Act.• Elijah Harper, a native MP,
  43. 43. Meech Lake Accord (1990)• Planned to obtain Quebec’s compliance with the Constitution Act (1982)• FN believed that the Accord should be rejected: it could give gov’t power over FN affairs, and wanted sufficient representation in the Act.• Elijah Harper, a native MP,
  44. 44. Constitution Express• A large group of FN around Canada rallied on a train trip called the Constitution Express, protesting for recognition of Aboriginal rights in the new Constitution Act of 1980.
  45. 45. Modern Responses
  46. 46. Modern Responses• FN are now in a continuing fight against ‘Neo- Colonialism’.
  47. 47. Modern Responses• FN are now in a continuing fight against ‘Neo- Colonialism’.• They are striving to regain rights lost in the past.
  48. 48. Modern Responses• FN are now in a continuing fight against ‘Neo- Colonialism’.• They are striving to regain rights lost in the past.• FN are attempting to ensure rights in new bills, like the Constitution.
  49. 49. Native Organizations
  50. 50. Native Organizations • The Allied Indian Tribes was created to resist an attempt of extinguishing Aboriginal land title (1912 - 1916).
  51. 51. Native Organizations • The Allied Indian Tribes was created to resist an attempt of extinguishing Aboriginal land title (1912 - 1916). • The Native Brotherhood of BC emerged in the 1930s and became crucial to improving FN human rights.
  52. 52. Native Organizations • The Allied Indian Tribes was created to resist an attempt of extinguishing Aboriginal land title (1912 - 1916). • The Native Brotherhood of BC emerged in the 1930s and became crucial to improving FN human rights. • The Union of B.C. Indian Chiefs (UBCIC) was founded to combat the White Paper in 1969.
  53. 53. Native Organizations • The Allied Indian Tribes was created to resist an attempt of extinguishing Aboriginal land title (1912 - 1916). • The Native Brotherhood of BC emerged in the 1930s and became crucial to improving FN human rights. • The Union of B.C. Indian Chiefs (UBCIC) was founded to combat the White Paper in 1969.
  54. 54. Nisga’a Final Agreement• First FN BC treaty since Treaty, effective from 2000.• Nisga’a finally acquired a treaty.• The treaty provided government for Nisga’a villages and tribes.• Secured areas of the Nass river for the Nisga’a.• Nisga’a government is still in conjunction with provincial and federal laws.
  55. 55. IT’S OVER!!!!!!
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