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  1. 1. 2010 年世界 500 强排行榜 (企业名单) Zhao Xuezheng
  2. 2. 2010 排名 2009排名公司名称 ( 中英文 ) 营业收入 ( 百万美元 )利润( 百万美元 )1. 沃尔玛 (Wal-Mart Stores)408,21414,335212.  荷兰皇家壳牌石油公司 (Royal Dutch Shell)285,12912,518323. 埃克森美孚(Exxon Mobil)284,65019,280444. 英国石油公司(BP)246,13816,5785105. 丰田汽车公司(Toyota Motor)204,1062,256 #
  3. 3. • 6 日本邮政控股(Japan Post Holdings) 202,1964,84979• 7 中国石油化工集团公司(Sinopec) 187,5185,756815• 8 国家电网公司(State Grid) 184,496-3439739• 9. 安盛(AXA)175,2575,0121013• 10. 中国石油天然气集团公司 (China National Petroleum)165,49610,272 #
  4. 4. • 11 雪佛龙(Chevron)163,52710,483128• 12 荷兰国际集团(ING Group) 163,204-1,3001312• 13 通用电气(General Electric) 156,77911,025146• 14 道达尔(Total)155,88711,7411537• 15 美国银行(Bank of America Corp.) 150,4506,276 #
  5. 5. • 16 14 大众公司(Volkswagen) 146,2051,334177• 17 康菲石油(ConocoPhillips) 139,5154,8581824• 18 法国巴黎银行(BNP Paribas) 130,7088,1061947• 19 意大利忠利保险公司 (Assicurazioni Generali) 126,0121,8202020 安联保险集团 (Allianz)125,9995,973 #
  6. 6. • 21 美国电话电报公司(AT&T) 123,01812,5352225• 22 家乐福(Carrefour)121,4524542319• 23 福特汽车公司(Ford Motor) 118,3082,7172417• 24 埃尼集团(ENI)117,2356,0702549• 25 摩根大通 (J.P. Morgan Chase & Co.) 115,63211,728 #
  7. 7. • 26 惠普(HewlettPackard) 114,5527,6602726• 27 意昂集团(E.ON)113,84911,6702841• 28 伯克希尔-哈撒韦公司 (Berkshire Hathaway)112,4938,0552953• 29 法国燃气苏伊士集团 (GDF Suez) 111,0696,2233023• 30 戴姆勒股份公司(Daimler) 109,700-3,6703144• 31 日本电报电话公司 (Nippon Telegraph & Telephone) 109,6565,3023240• 32 三星电子 (Samsung Electronics) # 108,9277,562
  8. 8. • 33 花旗集团(Citigroup)108,785-1,6063442• 34 麦克森公司(McKesson)108,7021,2633555• 35 威瑞森电信 (Verizon Communications) 107,8083,6513646• 36 法国农业信贷银行 (Credit Agricole) 106,5381,5643735• 37 西班牙国家银行 (Banco Santander) 106,34512,4303818• 38 通用汽车(General Motors)104,58903921• 39 汇丰控股(HSBC Holdings)103,7365,8344030• 40 西门子(Siemens)103,6053,097 #
  9. 9. • Halliday and Hasan discuss the cohesive relationship under the headings: reference, substitution, ellipsis and lexical relationships.• Since their use of the term reference is particular to them, we shall immediately substitute for it the term co-reference. Co- referential forms are forms which “instead of being interpreted semantically in their own right…make reference to something else for their interpretation” #
  10. 10. • Based on the location of reference and its interpretation, the co-referential relations falls into three types: exophoric relationship which plays no part in textual cohesion. Where their interpretation lies within a text, they are called endophoric relations and do form cohesive ties within the text. Endophoric relations are of two kinds: those which look back in the text for their interpretation, which Halliday and Hasan call anaphoric relations, and those which look forward in the text for their interpretation, which are called cataphoric relations:• #
  11. 11. • 根据指称词和所指对象的位置关系,指称又可 分为三种类型: 前指, 后指和外指。前指和 后指相对于外指而言通称为内指• e.g. anaphoric- Look at the sun, It Is going down quickly(It refers back to the sun)• cataphoric- it is going down quickly, the sun. (It refers forward to the sun) #
  12. 12. • . lexical relationships:• Cohesion may be derived from lexical relationships which may includes two types: reiteration and collocation. Reiteration is something like repetition which includes hyponymy, part-whole, comparison, syntactic repetition, general words and so on. #
  13. 13. • . a. syntactic repetition: What we lack in a newspaper is what we should get, in a word, a popular newspaper may be the winning ticket.• b. part-whole: Dr E.C.R.Reeve chaired the meeting. Dr Reeve invited Mr Phillips to report on the state of the gardens.• c. hyponymy: Pneumonia has arrived with the cold and wet conditions. The illness is striking everyone from infants to the elderly.• d. comparison: Find me a riper mongo!• e. general words: A: Did you try the steamed buns?• B: Yes, I didn’t like the thing much.• f. Substituted form: Jules has a birthday next month. Elspeth has one too.• g. Ellipsis: Jules has a birthday next month. Elspeth has too. #
  14. 14. • Difference between ellipsis and substitution: the latter has a substituted word but the former not.• e.g. a. Sylvia: I like the blue hat.• Mary: I prefer the green.• b. Sylvia: I like the blue hat.• Mary: I prefer the green one.. #
  15. 15. • Some aspects of cohesion are exemplified in ;• Lord Melbourne, who was Prime Minister when Victoria became Queen in 1837, did not like birdsong and could not distinguish a woodlark from nightingale. He preferred the singing of blackbirds anyway; best of all he liked the cawing of rooks and could watch them for hours as they circled at sunset. Victoria was surprised by this: she disliked their grating and insistent calling. #
  16. 16. • We can observe a number of co-referential chains:• A. Lord Melbourne – prime Minister – He – he• B. Victoria – Queen – Victoria – she• C. Rooks – them – they – their• We also observe chains of lexical collocation :• A. birdsong – woodlark – nightingale – blackbird – rooks• B. birdsong – singing – cawing - calling #
  17. 17. • There is an instance of an adversative marker(anyway), comparison(preferred, best of all), a pronominal expression referring back to the content of the previous clause(Victoria was surprised by this), and repeated negative structure(did not, could not).• #
  18. 18. • Two main questions need to be asked. First, is such cohesion necessary to the identification of a text? Secondly, is such cohesion sufficient to guarantee identification as a text? #
  19. 19. • Halliday and Hasan acknowledge that the notion of cohesion needs to be supplemented by a notion of register.• They appear to suggest that it is necessary for a text to reveal at least some of the features of cohesion.• So cohesion is necessary but not sufficient to the identification of a text.• 衔接是产生篇章的必要但不充分条件, 有了衔接不一 定产生篇章, 但没有衔接就一定不会产生篇章。 . #
  20. 20. • Let’s take a look at an example:• I bought a Ford. A car in which President Wilson rode down the Champs Elysees was black. Black English has been widely discussed. The discussion between the presidents ended last week. A week has seven days. Every day I feed my cat. Cats have four legs. The cat is on the mat. Mat has three letters.• It was pointed out that there is the “semblance” of cohesion because of the Ford-car, black-Black, cat- cats types of connections, but that we would prefer not to call this concatenation of sentences a coherent text #
  21. 21. • 6.2 Discourse reference• . The traditional semantic view of reference is one in which the relationship of reference is taken to hold between expressions in a text and entities in the world, and that of co- reference between expressions in different parts of a text.• It is often considered important in formal semantics that the expression used to refer to an entity must, in its description, be true of the entity. #
  22. 22. • That is, if an individual is referred to by the expression the king of England, “correct” reference in this sense is not normally the criterion by which language-users operate when they refer to individuals in discourse. If a speaker and hearer believe that the man who is married to the present queen of England is indeed, the king of England, then the speaker can, on some occasion, successfully refer to the individual by using that expression. In fact, it need not even be the case that the speaker believes the description to be true, but rather that he believes that, by using this expression, he will enable his hearer to pick out the intended referent. #
  23. 23. • Thus the concept which interests the discourse analyst is not that of correct reference, but successful reference. That is the” identifying the speaker’s intended referent” #
  24. 24. • But there is likely to be an inherent mismatch between what is in the speaker’s representation and what is the hearer’s representation. At best, the hearer is likely to arrive at a representation which is only partially similar to the speaker’s and which, moreover, can only ever be a partial reflection of the so-called actual state of affairs which existed in the world.• E.g. My uncle’s coming home from Canada.• The ‘identity“ of the individual described as my uncle may have a large number of properties(called Jack, bald, smoke cigarette) in the speaker’s representation, but, for the hearer, there may only be an identity in terms of “the individual referred to as the speaker’s uncle” . #
  25. 25. • 6.3 Pronouns in discourse• Pronouns are the paradigm examples of expressions used by speakers to refer to “given” entities. Because of their lack of “content” they have become the crucial test- case items for any theory of reference. #
  26. 26. • 6.3.1 Pronouns and antecedent nominals:• a. I’ve just had my hair curled and it looks windblown all the time.• b. my hair looks windblown all the time.• It is initially quite plausible notion that the interpretation of the pronoun in (a)is arrived at by a simple process of replacing it with my hair, as in (b). Such a view is normally expressed in terms of the pronominal “referring back” to its antecedent nominal, or in terms of the pronominal “substituting for” the antecedent. #
  27. 27. • There is a better analysis of it which would involve not only the antecedent nominal expression, but also the accompanying predicate, as shown in(c).• C. My hair which I’ve just had curled looks windblown all the time.• This is a more adequate account of the interpretation of pronouns in discourse. #
  28. 28. • 6.3.2 Pronouns and antecedent predicates• The representation proposed in (c) for the pronoun in (a) may seem to make the information carried by a pronoun unnecessarily complex. There is evidence, however, that speakers’ use of pronouns is indeed influenced by the predicates attached to antecedent nominals. #
  29. 29. • A. There’s two different ladies go up to the whist and both have a wig and they are most natural.• B. Even an apprentice can make over twenty pound a week and they don’t get much tax from that.• The correct interpretation of the reference of they in (a) depends on the hearer’s understanding that there are two wigs and not one, as the nominal antecedent (a wig) by itself would suggest. In (b), there is a similar problem, with a singular nominal antecedent and a plural pronoun. By itself, the expression an apprentice might be interpreted as introducing a particular individual into the discourse. However, when interpreted in the context of the predicate can make over twenty pound a week, it has to be taken, not as a particular individual, but as any individual from a set of individuals to whom the lexical expression apprentice can be applied. The choice of subsequent pronoun (e.g. he or they) then simply reflects the speaker’s perspective on whether he is considering a typical individual or a set of such individuals. The speaker of (b) simply chooses the latter. #
  30. 30. • 6.3.3 pronouns and new predicates• The inadequacy of the substitution approach is even more apparent in those situations where a pronoun occurs in a discourse with no antecedent nominal at all. #
  31. 31. • (Talking about the First World War) I used to go about with a chap- I don’t know whether he’s still alive or not- but- there was nine-ten-eleven in the family altogether- two girls- and nine boys- and she lost eight sons one after the other.• In this example, there is no linguistic expression which could be treated as the direct antecedent for she. Of course, we can propose that if the speaker is talking about a family and there is a female referent(she) who lost eight sons, then we can infer that it is “the mother” the speaker is referring to. Notice that, if the hearer dose follow this procedure, then he is using “new” information to determine a “ given” referent. #
  32. 32. • 6.3.4 Interpreting pronominal reference in discourse• On what dose the hearer base his interpretation of the referent of a pronoun in discourse? We have suggested that he may have to use his knowledge of (some of ) the elements listed below. #
  33. 33. • An antecedent nominal expression• And/or an antecedent predicate expression• And/or an implicit antecedent predicate• And/or the “roles” of antecedent nominal expression• And/or the “new” predicates attached to the pronoun• 那么受话人在什么基础上来理解话语的代词所指呢? 作者认为他可以使用他所具有的如下知识( 1 )先行 代词的表达 ( 2 )先行谓语的表达 ( 3 )暗含先行 表谓( 4 )先行代词的表达“角色” ( 5 )依附代词 的新表谓 #
  34. 34. • Thank you! #