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300 Slides Of Standard Interview Q & A In Telecommunications
 

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    300 Slides Of Standard Interview Q & A In Telecommunications 300 Slides Of Standard Interview Q & A In Telecommunications Presentation Transcript

    • 300 Slides of Standard Interview Questions and Answers in Telecommunications THE EXECUTIVE CYBERSCHUUL
    • Warning
      • The content of this download is purpose-made for the subscriber whose identity has been electro-engraved in strategic parts of the material.
      • No part of the content may be reproduced without the consent of the authors.
      • It is supplied for the purpose of personal education only and it is not transferable or usable in any manner for commercial gain.
      • Transfer of content is an infringement of copyright and offender will be prosecuted.
    • Teach Yourself Telecommunications Series WHY THIS PROGRAM?
      • THE CYBERSCHUUL has been involved in capacity building for the telecommunications industry since 2001. Its forerunners started offering training in telecommunications since 1996. The Institute also has been involved in consultancies in human resource development and instituted Job Search opportunities for several job seeking Nigerians since its establishment.
      • Advertisers say response to job adverts show that there were large but poor responses to vacancy announcements. What is more, Nigerian Job seekers can do with some support in how to develop their skills and how to present such skills where they have them.
      • The irony of the Nigerian situation is that while there are plenty of Jobs, there are also plenty of unemployable job seekers.
      • Skills deficiency is one issue, presentation of one’s skill is another.
      • For example 17,000 engineers may be required for 100 million phones which is projected for the year 2015
      • 30,000 other skilled workers may be required for the industry
      • Skills will be what matter, not number.
      • These notes are a response attempt to correcting the impasse.
    • FOCUS OF THE TEACH YOURSELF PROGRAMS
      • This support program is essentially for telecommunications industry especially in the Nigerian environment
      • They are good for all those who wish to make a career in telecommunications
      • The truth really is that almost everybody has a place in telecommunications and a role to play
      • Telecommunication provides abundant opportunities for investment and jobs
    • Introduction This material is designed to assist the person who desires to appraise himself/herself with current and relevant issues of industry, technology and general knowledge in his/her bid to seek employment in the telecommunications sector especially in Nigeria. It is compiled by specialists who have worked in the sector, taught telecommunication to professionals, consulted for telecommunication companies and handled employment matters at corporate levels of several startup and established companies. In a way, it is meant to address observed deficiencies of local experts, fresh graduates and other professionals who intend to build a career in or to crossover to the telecommunications profession.
    • How to use the material.
      • Although it can serve as a good reading material for general knowledge, those who want to use it to prepare themselves for job interview are advised not to read the material as a story book. Rather, they should attempt answering the questions which the question slides provide and go ahead to evaluate how close they had been to the answers offered in the Answer slides which usually immediately follow.
      • Like anything in technology, there are no complete answers to any question and the answers offered here may just be one or some of the possible answers to a question. A person should score 80% correct answers to make him/her feel ready and capable of facing any interview panel to seek positions in telecommunication firms.
    • What makes the difference between 250 slides and 300 slides?
      • The difference is that 50 additional slides were added to the 250 slides to cover new subjects such as Convergence, Number Portability, 3G systems, Wimax, Co-location of telecommunications infrastructure and a few new developments in the industry in Nigeria and worldwide in the second half of 2008.
      • The material actually started in 2003 with 100 slides, went higher to 150 in 2005, to 250 in 2007 and 300 in 2009.
    • PACKAGE YOURSELF FOR JOB SEARCH
      • Preparing for a new job starts from applying for the job
      • The quality of your applications matters. Do not joke with it.
      • The following notes will guide you on how to write your applications, prepare for interviews, and keep a good job.
    • DEVELOPING A PROFESSIONAL
      • CV[Curriculum Vitae] or
      • PROFILE, or
      • Resume.
      • They all chronicle your achievements, personal information, and career history.
    • What you should do when applying for a job
      • Write an application to specifically ask for each position. Not one for all positions.
      • Avoid sending a stereotype CV as response to adverts. Rather, respond to an advert by writing an application to show that you are qualified for the position and that you are the guy the position is waiting for.
      • Write your application as a mail, not as an attachment to a mail if you are applying via the Internet.
      • Avoid attaching your CV as email attachment with the note ‘attached herewith’ ‘my CV attached’, ‘the attached for consideration’, ‘see the attached’. Point is: such applications do not deserve to be read let alone considered.
      • Be brief but offer essential details starting with the current relevant positions you held in recent times.
      • Avoid gaps that cannot be explained or explain it right away.
      • Start from now and work backwards in cataloguing your attainments.
      • Recent achievements carry more value than ancient ones in most cases
      • Separate academic courses from professional training.
      • Describe things rather than just list them
      • Say what your company does, even if it is sounds too obvious.
      • The number of people you are responsible for matters, that’s what makes you a manager.
      • Read what you have written over and over again and correct it along.
      • Write a CV for a particular vacancy, do not just drop standard CV at everybody
      • Do not employ your relative to send your application by email on your behalf
      • Use simple and popular email software [e.g. Outlook Express] rather than the ‘way-out’ one which your target reviewer may not have.
    • What You should not do
      • In your application letter , or CV, or Profile
      • Please do not lie
      • Do not overuse presentation effects
      • Do not include details that do not add value
      • Do not pay undue attention to unimportant information[ like religion, tribe, sex, ]
      • Write like a serious person, not like a braggart
      • Write good English, corrected by another person if you can find one.
      • Be polite and respectful even in your writing
    • USING THE INTERNET TO PLACE YOUR RESUME
      • Some guys put their resume on a webpage on the Internet. Good idea and a great way to increase exposure. But it's also a dangerous way for your resume to end up on your boss's desk! (Should there be layoff plan round the corner, you’ve had it!) When posting your resume on the internet, you'll likely have to hide your name except where you are self-employed and have nothing to loose if any one sees it.
    • HOW TO PREPARE FOR YOUR INTERVIEW
      • Make it appoint of duty to find out everything you can about the specific position you are about to be interviewed for. At least you must find out things about the company, its products, and a few other public domain information. You may use the web for example to find all the information. You may also ask those who work there.
      • The better you understand the position and the employer's needs the more effectively you can show how you'll benefit their organization. Read the job ad thoroughly - it will often tell you some of the employers major concerns.
    • AT THE INTERVIEW
      • Most interviewers will take their questions from your answers
      • Read wide as a habit, a job interview is not an examination for which you have to read the night before
      • If you do not know , say so rather than making bad guesses
      • Discuss your present job, not your present employer
      • Avoid sounding cheap just because you are jobless
      • Avoid blaming your country for your woes
      • Convince the interviewers that you are skilled. If you are not then you already know your problem. Solve it. Go to THE CYBERSCHUUL for Training.
    • TYPES OF INTERVIEW QUESTIONS
      • Practice responses to interview questions - but don't try to memorize them. Being yourself is essential to interview success. Responses need to feel and sound natural.
      • When you've thought through how you can add value to a specific employer, you'll be able to easily add examples of how in the answers you provide.
    • KNOWLEDGE, ABILITY AND SKILLS QUESTIONS
      • These questions often deal with the technical aspects of the job or basic knowledge that is essential to learn the job. In engineering jobs experience is your best asset. Sometimes you may be lucky the interviewers themselves read texts to prepare for the interview and you are the type that reads wide, you would have stumbled on some of their questions.
    • SITUATIONAL QUESTIONS AND BEHAVIOUR BASED QUESTIONS
      • Situation questions provide you with a hypothetical situation and ask how you would deal with it. Employers can check your understanding of specific processes as well as your interpersonal or working with others skills.
    • AFTER GETTING A JOB
      • Serve your employer faithfully at all times. Your are developing yourself and on top of it being paid to live.
      • If you should quit your job, discuss it in the most civilised manner with your boss[es]. They cannot hold you down if you really want to leave. But avoid playing games simply because you want to move on.
      • No company can pay more than between 8% and 12% of all its payout as emolument to its workers. Know therefore that a lot of money needs to come in before workers can get part of it. If you go to solve a software problem and by your effort a cheque for 10 million naira is paid to your employer, do not feel you are being cheated if you are not given a fraction of it as bonus.
      • You can help to kill the business. Want to know how? See next page
    • WANT TO HELP KILL THE BUSINESS?
      • If you want to kill your employer’s business
      • Try the following fine suggestions
      • If you should engage in discussion during work hours, make sure it is the 2007 election issue and who should have replaced Obasanjo at Aso Rock. Or better still the Sharia matter which has refused to die anyway.
      • If you have a computer, use it mainly for sending and receiving mails which are remotely connected to work. The computer is your best bet if you should look busy to anybody. Spams will help you to elongate your time on the web.
      • Put lots of books on your table and also on the floors around you. If you don’t find enough, go out to buy computer manuals. They are usually fat. Don’t worry about their hollow content. They are beautifully written after all and you wont read them anyway.
      • Always hold a document in your hand when moving round the office. It shows people that you are heading for a meeting. Not newspaper please because they may think you are heading for the toilet.
      • Want more? See next slide:
    • MORE WAYS TO HELP KILL THE BUSINESS
      • At close of business each day ask for someone to help you pack documents into your car. They will respect you for taking work home and may even be advising you not to kill yourself with work. Ignore them, after all you know what you are doing.
      • Switch your phone permanently on voice mail. Most callers will want you to do something for them. They are irritants. What’s more, when they get switched to voice mail at all times, they will assume you are at important meetings all day.
      • When everybody closes for the day, stay behind. If you have nothing to do watch movie on the net or visit Genevieve’s website which gets updated everyday after all. Lagbaja too has a good website these days
      • Try to sigh loudly at least once every hour. It gives the impression of overwork or that you are under pressure. Whichever way, they’ll respect you.
    • AND MORE…on killing the business
      • Computer magazines are wonderful documents. Read them most times and memorize the lots of jargons they contain. Once you use those jargons in discussion, everybody will think you acquired American education.
      • When juniors come around you, look angry. They will believe you are overworked and understandably moody. It helps keep your personality high up.
      • If at years end you are assessed and not fired, arrange a thanks-giving and invite everybody in the office to the show.
      • If they score you low and fire you, never disclose to anybody where you learnt the tricks you used in getting at the destination. At least do not mention The Teach yourself Telecommunications Series of training programs
    • CAREER DEVELOPMENT REQUIREMENT
      • The following series of slides show the kind of training you may require if you have some particular background and you want to make a career in the telecommunications industry.
    • With a background in TELECOMMUNICATIONS
      • INDUCTION COURSES, SPECIALIST COURSES
      • [TRANSMISSION, SWITCHING, MANAGEMENT INFORMATION]
      • Basic Telecommunications
      • Advanced Telecommunications
    • With a background in ELECTRICAL/ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING
      • INDUCTION COURSES, SPECIALIST COURSES
      • [TRANSMISSION, SWITCHING, MANAGEMENT INFORMATION]
      • Basic Telecommunications
      • Advanced Telecommunications
    • With a background in ELECTRONICS
      • INDUCTION COURSES, SPECIALIST COURSES
      • [TRANSMISSION, SWITCHING, MANAGEMENT INFORMATION]
      • Telecommunications for All
      • Basic Telecommunications
    • With a background in COMPUTER SCIENCE
      • INDUCTION COURSES, SPECIALIST COURSES
      • [TRANSMISSION, SWITCHING, MANAGEMENT INFORMATION]
      • Telecommunications for All
      • Crossover Telecommunications Training
    • With a background in COMPUTER ENGINEERING
      • INDUCTION COURSES, SPECIALIST COURSES
      • [TRANSMISSION, SWITCHING, MANAGEMENT INFORMATION]
      • Telecommunications for All
      • Crossover Telecommunications Training
    • With a background in PHYSICS
      • INDUCTION COURSES, SPECIALIST COURSES
      • [TRANSMISSION, SWITCHING, MANAGEMENT INFORMATION]
      • Telecommunications for All
      • Crossover Telecommunications Training
    • With a background in MATHEMATICS
      • Computer Appreciation
      • COMPUTER NETWORKING
      • Telecommunications for All
      • Crossover Telecommunications Training
    • With a background in BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
      • Computer Appreciation
      • Crossover Telecommunications Training
      • Telecommunications for All
    • With a background in ECONOMICS
      • Computer Appreciation;
      • MARKETING;
      • Crossover Telecommunications Training
      • Telecom for Non Engineers
    • With a background in LAW
      • COMPUTER APPLICATIONS;
      • TELECOM LAW;
      • Telecommunications for All
    • With a background in ACCOUNTING
      • COMPUTER APPLICATIONS;
      • MARKETING;
      • Telecommunications for All
    • With a background in PHILOSOPHY, LIBERAL ARTS
      • Computer Appreciation;
      • Telecommunications for All
    • With a background in ARCHITECTURE
      • Computer Appreciation
      • Telecommunications for All
    • INDUSTRY REQUIREMENT
      • Qualification
      • Though most important, it is not Alpha and Omega
      • Skills
      • Very critical and very important
      • Experience
      • Nothing can replace experience especially where one is skilled
      • Talent
      • This is special gift of nature. But it can also be developed and enhanced.
      • Re-training
      • Refreshing
    • SKILLS DEVELOPMENT OPTIONS
      • TRAINING
      • There can be no skill acquisition without training
      • THE RIGHT JOB
      • Aim at the right job when a career has been chosen
      • THE RIGHT COMPANY
      • There are some companies whose industrial policy helps to build very good career. Aim at working for them. You may have to live with a few other minuses though.
      • THE RIGHT BOSS
      • Who the boss is can make a world of difference
      • PERSONAL ATTRIBUTES
      • Who you are counts
      • SPECIAL TALENTS
    • Telecom Industry Questions & Answers
    • Telecom Industry Q & A Mention the Type of Telephone Services and the Service Providers in Nigeria
    • History and Forecast of Telecom Investment Growth in Nigeria
      • o 1960 - 1999 $5BILLION investment recorded
      • o 1999 – 2003 Up to $4.5BILLION investment recorded
      • o 2004 – 2007 Up to $11BILLION recorded
      • 2007 – 2009 Up to $12.5Billion recorded
      • o 2009 – 2011 Up to $25BILLION investment forecast .
    • Describe the Nigerian Telecom Industry Structure
      • The industry is structured into:
      • Ministry of Communications, MOC, which
        • Formulates Telecommunications Policy
        • Represents Nigeria in International Fora
      • Nigerian Communications Commission, NCC which
        • Regulates the Industry
      • Licensees, who
        • Provide goods and services under the supervision of NCC, and
      • Consumers who
        • Subscribe to services of Operators
    • Who Is doing what
      • As in a list of Telephone Service providers only.
    • Dec 08 Doing 21 st Century Lagos, Fixed Wired Voice, Internet Discom Lagos, Fixed Wired Voice, Internet Etisalat GSM Mobile Zain Nationwide GSM Globacom Nationwide GSM, SNOP Global Peace Communications Lagos, Ikeja, Fixed wired Intercellular Lagos, Abuja, Port Harcourt Fixed Wireless. Limited Mobile, Internet
    • Megatech Kano Fixed Wireless Voice, Internet MTEL Nationwide GSM MTN Nationwide GSM VGC by acquisition MTS Nationwide fixed Voice, Internet Telkom-Multilinks Telkom-Multilinks by buying into Abeokuta, Abuja, Akure, Ibadan, Ile-Ife, Ilorin, I-Ode, Lagos, Osogbo, Sagamu, Fixed/Mobile Wireless Voice, Internet, NITEL Nationwide Fixed Wired Services + Fixed Wireless, FNO, Internet.
    • Oduatel South West Fixed Wired + Fixed Wireless Voice, Internet Prestel Benin, Wireless Voice, Internet Rainbownet Enugu, Aba, Fixed wireless Voice ZoomMobile Lagos Fixed Wireless Voice Internet Starcomms Aba, Abeokuta, Abuja, Asaba, Benin, Ibadan, Kaduna, Kano, Lagos, Maiduguri, Onitsha, Port Harcourt, Ijebu-Ode Fixed Wireless Voice, Internet, Startech Abuja, Fixed wireless Visafone Bourdex by acquisition Cellcom by acquisition ITN by acquisition
    • Facts about Nigeria As at December 2008 (Slides 47 through 50)
    • Politics/Demography Government Democracy Population 140m Land Space 923,768sq.km No of Sates 36 Capital Abuja Comm Cptal Lagos
    • Investment For Direct Inv $12.5b From Prvt Inv $10.3b From Licensing $2.2b Maj Lcl ICT Co 36 Conc. of ICT Inv. Lagos
    • Telephone Services Telephone Lines Fixed 2.5m Telephone Lines Mobile 57m No of Tel Operators 2008 19 No of Tel Operators 2007 18 No of Tel Operators 2005 25 No of Tel Operators 2002 8 Ops deploying GSM Std 5 Ops deploying CDMA Std 10 Ops deploying other std 4 Tel ops that have wound up 4 Tel ops that have been bought into 1 Tel ops that bought into others 1 Tel ops that have been bought 100% 1 Tel ops that have Unified Licenses 13 U/Licensees yet to operate 3 National Operators 2
    • Internet Services Int Users Estim. 10m Africa Estimate 44.3m Africa Highest 3 20.6m No of ISPs 132 Major conc. of ISPs Lagos 75 Abuja 14 Ibadan 5 States with ISPs 19 States with No ISPs 17
    • Why are some licenses auctioned and others not?
    • Auctioning
      • In Auction situations, sometimes the resources to realize the licenses, frequency for example, are scarce, so the available ones are given to the highest bidders.
      • It is also easy to implement as the technical superiority of bidders do not count as in the cases where it is their ability to perform that is crucial. In many cases of auctioning, bidders are already known to have performed in other markets.
      • Sometimes, an administration may choose to auction in order to source capital for developing other area of the industry or of the entire economy
    • Highlight the key indices of Evolution of Current Telecom Landscape in Nigeria
    • Key indices of recent telecom evolution in Nigeria
      • Auction of Mobile frequencies 2001
      • Huge yield of $1.055billion from Frequency Auction in 2001 and 2003
      • Influx of investment
      • Exclusivity for 5 years for GSM providers
      • Duty tax reduction to 5% for telecommunication equipment
      • Pioneer Status for the earliest providers
      • Liberal regulation on the part of NCC
      • NCC’s Pro-consumer/Fair to all/Level field playing regime of regulation
      • Establishment of the Telecom Consumers Parliament
      • Licensing regime is technology neutral
      • Unified Licensing
    • In what classes do licensees provide services in Nigeria?
    • Operating Licenses
      • Fixed Wireline Telephony
      • Fixed wireless Telephony
      • Long Distance Communication Carrier Services
      • Mobile Telephony
      • Internet Services
      • Value Added Services
      • Content Provision
      • Equipment Vendoring
      • Technology provision
    • How is the Decree 75 of 1992 different from The National Communications Act of 2003?
    • National Communications Act 2003
      • Made Significant improvement on Decree 75 of 1992
      • More power/more independence to NCC
      • Tenure of Commissioners more secured
      • Creates the National Frequency Management Council, NFMC.
      • Provides for Universal Provision Fund
    • How in general terms can Customer relations be improved?
    • Customer Relations
      • It is best if provider and consumer speak the same language
      • Service Provider must know the service very well and must educate consumer
      • Help desk without proper education and deep information may be useless to the business if it is not solving consumers problems
      • The attitude of all in the business should be to ‘serve’ the customer not to ‘help’ him
    • In what ways are telephone networks connected in Nigeria
      • Two ways:
      • Networks are connected directly to themselves
      • Networks are connected to interconnect exchanges.
    • Name some of the interconnect exchanges
      • Those licensed so far are:
      • Integrated Wireless Technologies Nig. Limited
      • Exchange Telecom Limited
      • Telexchange Services Limited
      • Medallion Communications Limited
      • Interconnect Clearing House Limited
      • Niconnx Communications Limited
      • Solid Interconnectivity Services Limited
    • What are Deregulated Telecommunications Services
      • These services include:
      • Sales and Installation of Terminal equipment (Mobile Cellular Phones, Satellite Communication and Switching equipments etc). 
      • Public Payphone Services. 
      • Internet Services. 
      • Prepaid Calling Card Services. 
      • PNL LEO (Local Exchange Operator) 
      • Paging Services.
      • Trunk and 2-Way Radio Network Services. 
      • Fixed Telephony Services, employing cable and Radio.
      • Satellite Network Services (e.g. Domestic VSAT networks).
      • Repairs & Maintenance of telecommunications facilities. 
      • Cabling services. 
      • Tele-Centers/Cyber Cafes.
      • Non-commercial/User Operated Radio Networks
    • Number Portability
      • Number Portability, NP means the flexibility with which subscribers can change their service provider, geographical position or service type without changing their telephone number.
      • Number portability offers benefits to subscribers because they can more easily change their service providers without having to notify friends and contacts about a telephone number change. And that is important for business. It increases the level of open competition, thereby enhancing quality of service and customer care.
      • Service providers are not likely to like Number portability but it will make them open more interest in roaming agreements. It has the potential of being good for those service providers who have better customer service policies, network coverage, service quality and pricing.
    • NUMBER PORTABILITY In Nigeria
      •   Number portability is the ability of telephone subscribers to retain their existing phone number(s) when changing their telephone network (Operator). This allows consumers to choose between competing Networks based on price, quality, type of service and coverage without the inconvenience and expense of having to take a new number when moving between providers.
      • Nigeria has adopted it for its ability to jerk up quality of service in the belief that Operators would not want to loose customers
      •   Number portability also eliminates the need for callers to contact directory services to find someone's new number or for people to miss calls as callers continue to dial the old number.
      • NCC has directed that Number Portability will first be implemented between Mobile Operators MNP, and then between Fixed Line Operators, FNP. Bimodal NP ( Mobile to fixed or Fixed to Mobile) will not be implemented at this time.
      • Nigeria I yet to issue a firm regulation on the subject but an Initial Consultation Paper has been issued.
    • LOCAL NUMBER PORTABILITY, LNP
      • Under Local Number Portability rules, you can switch telephone service providers within the same geographic area and keep your existing phone number. However, if you are moving from one geographic area to another, you may not be able to take your number with you. In addition to switching from one wireless company to another, in most cases, you will be able to switch from a wireline company to a wireless company, or from a wireless company to a wireline company, and still keep your phone number.
    • Mobile Number Portability, MNP
      • Mobile number portability (MNP) covers all digital mobile service numbers irrespective of the technology used (GSM or CDMA networks) except for satellite-only mobile services, GMPCS(Global Mobile Personal Communication by Satellite).
    • FEES AND CHARGES under Number Portability
      • Telephone Operators are allowed to charge a fee to recover their number porting costs. Companies may or may not choose to charge a fee, and their fees may vary. If they do charge specific fees, the fees cannot exceed their porting costs which may be regulated. Local telephone companies that assess the fee generally charge a fixed monthly fee and may do so for up to five years
    • HANDSETS AND SPECIAL SERVICES
      • In some instances, wireless handsets of different wireless telephone companies are incompatible. If you switch wireless companies, you may need to purchase a new handset, even if you retain the same phone number.
    • Complexity of Number Portability Management
      • Number Portability is more complex to manage than it appears as there are very many technical issue to resolve.
      • Nigeria is at the moment dotting the i’s and crossing the t’s before final directive on implementation
    • An overview of the technical issue to resolve
      • Call Routing
      • Consumer Awareness
      • Interface to NPC
      • Maintenance of Records
      • Minimum Port Request Data
      • Number Management
      • Number Portability Database
      • Port Cancellation, Disconnection & Synchronization
      • Port Initiation, Validation and Activation
      • Port Processing Phases
      • Port Request Intervals
      • Porting Numbers Multiple Times
      • Porting Single and Multiple Numbers
      • Privacy of Information
      • Right to Port or Refuse to Port
      • Roaming Issues
      • Service/Porting Availability
      • Subscriber Verification
      • Tariff Transparency
    • Telecommunications infrastructure and The Issue of co-location management
    • What constitutes Telecommunications Infrastructure?
      • Telephone Switches
      • Local loop Facilities
      • Optical fiber
      • Radio access networks/Base stations
      • Communications satellites
      • Submarine communications cables
      • etc
    • Categories of "Telecommunications infrastructure"
      • Active Infrastructure
      • Passive Infrastructure
    • Practice best Profitable under good Regulation
      • Regulation
      • The Regulator does not devise or run the services offered, but facilitates and monitors their development to ensure that consumers receive the high quality products and services, from the widest choice and at the lowest price. The Regulator is responsible for the licensing and regulation of all communication transmission:, radio networks and very soon Broadcast transmission and content all in one .
    • Regulation will cover:
      • Traditional telephone wire
      • Radio communications including fixed wireless
      • Mobile operators providing voice and data services
      • Fibre optic
      • Communications satellites
      • TV and radio
    • Liberalisation
      • Benefits of Liberalization for the Consumer
      • The impact of liberalization for the consumer is more choice, more operators and more ways in which these operators can provide services. With more competing offers, there are lower prices and better QoS for the consumer.
    • Industry Regulation Management Models
      • Standards for Infrastructure Installation
      • Technology Neutrality
      • Co-location of Infrastructure
      • Universal Service Provisioning
    • What standards?
      • Types of Structures
        • Monopoles
        • Guyed Towers/Masts
        • Self Supporting Towers/masts
      • Regulators Standards must be adhered to regarding
      • Environmental Requirements
      • Space Requirements
      • Screening
      • Fencing
      • Setback
      • Lighting
      • Nearness to residential buildings
      • Nearness to power lines
      • Antenna mounts etc
    • Objectives of the Co-location
      • Primarily to share shareable cost in a manner that savings can be passed on to consumers.
      • To ensure that the incidence of unnecessary duplication of infrastructure is minimized or completely avoided
      • To Protect the environment by reducing the proliferation of infrastructure and facilities installations
      • To ensure that the economic advantages derivable from the sharing of facilities are harnessed for the overall benefit of all telecommunications stakeholders;
      • To minimize operators’ capital expenditure on supporting infrastructures and to free more funds for investment in core network equipment
      • To encourage operators to pursue a cost-oriented policy with the added effect of a reduction in the tariffs chargeable to consumers
    • Proper Guidelines are required.
      • Who provides the guidelines?
      • The Regulator
      • Objective of the guidelines will include
      • To establish a framework within which communications operators can negotiate C/IF arrangements, and for that purpose, specifically to-
      • To promote fair competition through equal access being granted to the installations and facilities of operators on mutually agreed terms;
    • Infrastructure Sharing
      • Shareable infrastructure
      • Antenna mast and tower structures.
      • Ducts.
      • Electric power (public or private source).
      • Masts.
      • Poles.
      • Rights of way.
      • Space in buildings.
      • Trenches.
    • Un-shareable Infrastructure
      • Base stations.
      • Complete network structures.
      • Frequencies.
      • Radio network controllers.
      • Switching Centers.
    • Who are our handlers
      • Our handlers are our field workers
      • They must be qualified to do what they do
      • They must be submissive to regulatory requirements and standards
      • They must relate to the community
    • Community Relations!
      • What should it be relating to communities where installations are located?
      • To intimidate them
      • To cohabitate with them
      • To ignore them
    • Telecommunications Technology Questions & Answers
    • 25 Definitions of Telecommunications
    • Telecommunications
      • 1. A term encompassing both voice and data communications in the form of coded signals transmitted over media.
      • 2. Any emission, transmission, or reception of intelligence by any wire, cable, radio, optical, or other electromagnetic systems.
      • 3. Any transmission, emission or reception of sign, signals, writings, images & sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, visual or other electromagnetic systems.
      • 4. Communicating information, including data, text, pictures, voice and video over long distance.
      • 5. Communication at a distance as by telephone or radio
    • Telecommunications
      • 6. Communication process that allows the transmission of information from a sender to a receiver by means of an electromagnetic or light wave medium.
      • 7. Communications that take place using the telephone or telephone network.
      • 8. Electronic transfer of all types of data transmission.
      • 9. General considerations Frequencies and reservations Missions International systems Regional systems National systems
      • 10. Includes any of the component technologies used for electronic communications over a distance typically greater than that covered by a human shout. In the context of this paper it implies two-way communications.
    • Telecommunications
      • 11. Is the process of communicating over a long distance.
      • 12. Is the science and technology of communications at a distance by electronic transmission of impulses, such as by telegraph, telephone, radio or television. It is the foundation for the Internet and all of the emerging activities surrounding the Internet's activities. Telecommunications is the transmission of information by wire, radio, optical cable, electromagnetic, or other means.
      • 13. Knowledge of transmission, broadcasting, switching, control, and operation of telecommunications systems.
      • 14. Refers to long-distance communication (the Greek tele means "far off"). Such communication is, in some instances, carried out with the aid of the transient systems of communication like aerial and wire telegraphs. In earlier times, smoke signals, drums, fixed light beacons, and various forms of signals, such as permanent signal systems of semaphores, were used for the same purpose. ...
      • 15. Systems that transport information over a distance, sending and receiving audio, video and data signals through electronic means.
    • Telecommunications
      • 16. Telecommunication is the extension of communication over a distance. In practice it also recognizes that something may be lost in the process; hence the term 'telecommunication' covers all forms of distance and/or conversion of the original communications, including radio, telegraphy, television, telephony, data communication and computer networking.
      • 17. The communication of information over a distance by means of radio waves, optical signals or along a transmission line.
      • 18. The connection of electromagnetic devices and systems for transmitting analog and digital signals over long distances. Also, known, as Communication Technology.
      • 19. The exchange of information with other computers or with commercial information services over phone lines.
      • 20. The exchange of voice, video or data through digital or analog electromagnetic or electronic signals (eg radio, telephone, television, facsimile, computer/modem).
    • Telecommunications
      • 21. The networks that support or the act of communication across a distance through telephone, cable and radio signals.
      • 22. The transmission and reception of information-bearing electrical signals between remote systems.
      • 23. The transmission, between or among points specified by the user, of information of the user's choosing, without change in the form or content of the information as sent and received.
      • 24. The use of wire, radio, optical, or other electromagnetic channels to transmit or receive signals for voice, data, and video communications.
      • 25. Unless otherwise agreed, it is customary in the industry to charge the client for all transmission charges. The supplier is not responsible for any errors, omissions, or extra costs resulting from faults in the transmission.
    • Name all the media for telecommunications transmission.
    • Telecommunications transmission media
      • Fibre Optic
      • Satellite
      • Radio
      • Copper cable
      • Laser optic
    • Describe geostationary satellite
    • Geostationary Satellite
      • Satellites are ‘signal repeaters in the sky’ which are launched and operated by Satellite Operators. They reflect signals from earth back to earth in a manner that a wide area of earth is covered in a typical transmission
      • Major Satellite Operators include :
        • Arabsat.
        • Eutelsat and
        • Intelsat,
        • New Skies Satellites,
        • Panamsat,
      • Satellites are given alpha numeric identifiers by their operators for example, New Skies Satellite’s NSS 7, Intelsat’s 10-02 and Panamsat’s Pas 1R.
    • How VSATs work
    •  
    • Distinguish between the ‘c’ band and the ‘ku’ band in satellite communications technology
    • ‘ C’, ‘Ku’, and ‘Ka’ bands
      • Signals to and from the satellites are in form of radio frequency waves .These signals are identified by the range of frequencies they occupy, referred to as the frequency band. These ranges of frequencies which make up the “band” are designated by letters for easy identification.
      • There are three main frequency bands used for satellite communications: C band, Ku band and Ka band.
      • The frequency bands differ by frequency and the coverage of their beams, with C band having the lowest frequency and largest beam coverage and Ka Band the highest frequency and lowest beam coverage. As we noted above, the larger the beam coverage, the lower the satellite power delivered. As a consequence of this relationship between beam coverage and satellite power, C band has the lowest power and Ka band the highest power.
    • What is uplink and downlink?
    • Uplink/Downlink
      • Uplink
      • is the process of ‘sending’ information via the satellite while
      • Downlink
      • is the process of ‘receiving’ information via the Satellite.
    • Differentiate between analog and digital technologies
    • Analog/digital technologies
      • In the ANALOG Technology, what is received is ‘analogous’ to what is being transmitted
      • In the DIGITAL Technology, what is transmitted is broken down into digits and bytes for enhanced transmission
      • The Result is that there is substantial savings, improved quality, reduced cost per unit when turned into business.
    • Why is analog system deficient?
    • Why is analog system deficient
      • Analog signals have size limitations as to how much data they can carry. They also have other limitations which make their use not as profitable as digital system
    • Describe how digital system functions in a typical TV transmission
    • Digital system in TV transmission
      • DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY breaks your voice (or television) signal into binary code—a series of 1s and 0s—transfers it to the other end where another device (phone, modem or TV) takes all the numbers and reassembles them into the original signal. The beauty of digital is that it knows what it should be when it reaches the end of the transmission. That way, it can correct any errors that may have occurred in the data transfer. The result is: clarity of the signal. In most cases, you'll get distortion-free conversations, clearer TV pictures, and in advanced applications, increased features and applications.
    • What does VOICE OVER INTERNET PROTOCOL, VoIP, mean?
    • VoIP
      • Ordinarily, telephone communication is the movement of ‘voice electrons’ through the PSTN. We thought voice electrons could not transmit in an IP communication channel until research proved otherwise. Namely that in an IP Communication channel everything is transmitted as data. An IP ‘pipe” is an Ethernet-data-only pipe. Hence the carrying of voice over an IP pipe (VoIP) or the carrying of video over an IP pipe (ViIP). Wherever there is an IP inlet/outlet, voice communication is possible, and so the breakthrough of Voice over Internet Protocol, VoIP.
      • H.323
      • Since VoIP is based on open standards, H.323, its application and development has been enhanced by improvements in technologies related to those standards
    • In practical terms what does Video over DSL mean?
    • Video Over DSL
      • It means a Subscriber’s digital Line with access to broadband that is capable of receiving or even transmitting video signals.
    • In practical terms what does Fibre to the home mean?
    • Fibre to Home
      • It means running optic fibre as the last mile link of a subscriber to the network. A link that enjoys such broadband access is richest in multimedia capability.
    • 'What is a Protocol?
    • A protocol
      • A set of rules governing the format of messages that are exchanged between computers and even people.
      • It is basically a specific set of rules, procedures, or conventions relating to format and timing of data transmission between two devices.
      • 'Every aspect of telecommunication has its own protocol that guides its operation.
      • For example, there are protocols for modulation (e.g. V.34), for error control (e.g. V.42), data compression (e.g. V.42 bis), and file transfer (e.g. YModem).
      • 'Possibly the most well known protocol in information technology is the Open System Interconnection (OSI).
    • Describe The Internet
    • The Internet
      • A “network of networks”. There are other valid descriptions
      • The networks communicate with each other over a suite of standardised protocols, TCP/IP, which send data over the Internet broken up into “envelopes” of data called packets.
      • Today, the Internet is one of the most-widely adopted technologies of the 21st century, and it has spurn a number of services, facilities, and innovations.
      • It is a medium that has created fundamental changes in the nature of commerce, communications, and entertainment.
      • It has revolutionised the way we work and play.
    • How is the Internet used now?
    • Usage of the Internet
      • Today, the Internet is used in every industry, from education to law, and its impact is felt in a variety of ways and different measures.
      • While the ubiquitous email service is still the most popular Internet service, other applications that take advantage of the Internet include:
      • 'Telecommunication ( converged networks, VoIP)
      • 'Medicine (tele-medicine and remote diagnostics)
      • 'Transportation (remote tracking)
      • 'Education (e-learning)
      • 'Government (e-governance)
      • 'Corporate (intranet, extranet
    • What is convergence
      • Convergence may mean many things depending on the subject under which it is being discussed.
      • The ultimate for society is economic convergence
      • But here we should be talking of technological ( in fact telecommunications) convergence
      • Today, we are surrounded by a multi-level convergent media world where all modes of communication and information are continually reforming to adapt to the enduring demands of technologies, “changing the way we create, consume, learn and interact with each other ”
    • Convergence in telecommunications
      • Convergence in telecommunications refers to the combination of multiple services through lines of telecommunication from a single provider.
      • In the past we used to go to operators to ask for telephone service, returned to request for internet as another service, and later returned to go for yet another separate service.
      • Today the moment we want service all of the services are given to us in a converged sense.
    • What is meant by Converged Systems
    • Converged Systems
      • Converged technology is when different systems tend towards performing similar functions.
      • We used to have telephones that only made us talk, calculators that did arithmetic for us, clocks that kept us abreast of time and gramophone that played music for us.
      • What does all of the above together today is a telephone handset and it is the simplest form of technology convergence.
    • Another look at Converged Systems
      • Converged systems are networks based on the Internet Protocol to carry voice, video, and data, as against the traditional system that is circuit switched.
      • IP networks are packet switched. In the early days of converged networks, voice calling on IP networks were uneven; however, the quality of service on IP networks are improving daily, with the high-capacity routers, switches, and dense wavelength multiplexing fibre-optic equipment now being deployed.
    • Other aspects of convergence
      • Digital Convergence
      • Message convergence
      • Media Convergence
      • Technology convergence
      • Economic Convergence
      • Etc etc
    • Technology Convergence
      • Technological Convergence can refer to the phenomena of a group of technologies developed for one use being utilized in many different contexts.
      • It is the tendency for different technological systems to evolve towards performing similar tasks.
    • Convergence of Telecommunications and Broadcasting
      • Brought about by Technology which makes telecommunications and broadcasting almost inseparable in many cases
    • The 12 Definitions of Broadcasting
      • Broadcasting is a protocol which allows a process to send one message out, and allow all of the other processes to read that single message.
      • 2. Broadcast medium: a medium that disseminates via telecommunications
      • 3. Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and video signals (programs) to a number of recipients ("listeners" or "viewers") that belong to a large group. This group may be the public in general, or a relatively large audience within the public. Thus, an Internet channel may distribute text or music world-wide, while a public address system in (for example) a workplace may broadcast very limited ad hoc soundbites to a small population within its range.
      • 4. Broadcasting is the process of sending the same e-mail message to multiple recipients at the same time.
      • 5. Historically, "broadcasting" referred to the activity of radio and television stations. As cable, satellite and the Internet have developed, it is often used to describe the simultaneous real-time distribution of any media from one source to many recipients, using any transport method.
      • 6. Broadcasting refers to content carried over air waves. Usually designed to appeal to a broad audience segment.
    • 12 definitions of Broadcasting
      • 7. Sending a message simultaneously to all systems of a network, without requiring an acknowledgement. Compare to multi-casting.
      • 8. sending out a signal to a wide area for free reception by anyone with the proper receiving equipment.
      • 9. technology for distributing information on a network from switching packets, when one data stream is received instantaneously by all users of the network.
      • 10. Transmitting radio and television programming to reach the general public; contrasts with transmissions designed for a limited number of receivers.
      • 11. Using radio waves to distribute radio or TV programs which are available for reception by the general public.
      • 12. Using the electronic media to reach a wide-area audience.
    • Describe Mobile Technologies and Their Generations
    • 1G
      • The first generation of systems for mobile telephony was analog, circuit switched, and it only carried voice traffic. The analog phones used in 1G were less secure and prone to interference where the signal is weak.
      • Analog systems include AMPS, NMT and ETACS.
    • 2G
      • The second generation of mobile telephony systems uses digital encoding. 2G networks support high bit rate voice, limited data communications and different levels of encryption. 2G networks include GSM, D-AMPS (TDMA) and CDMA. 2G networks can support SMS applications.
    • Describe GPRS
    • Two descriptions will be offered
      • The first Description
    • GPRS ( First Description)
      • General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a packet oriented Mobile Data Service(with data rates from 56 up to 114 kbit/s) available to users of the 2G cellular communication systems Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), as well as in the 3G systems. In the 2G systems.
      • GPRS data transfer is typically charged per megabyte of traffic transferred, while data communication via traditional circuit switching is billed per minute of connection time, independent of whether the user actually is using the capacity or is in an idle state. GPRS is a best-effort packet switched service, as opposed to circuit switching, where a certain Quality of Service (QoS) is guaranteed during the connection for non-mobile users.
    • GPRS (contd..)
      • 2G cellular systems combined with GPRS are often described as "2.5G", that is, a technology 'somewhere between' the second (2G) and third (3G) generations of mobile telephony. It provides moderate speed data transfer, by using unused Time division multiple access (TDMA) channels in, for example, the GSM system. Originally there was some thought to extend GPRS to cover other standards, but instead those networks are being converted to use the GSM standard, so that GSM is the only kind of network where GPRS is in use
    • 2 nd description of GPRS
      • General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a mobile data service available to users of GSM mobile phones. Although GSM is strictly a 2G standard, that GPRS is an enhancement of it makes it code named a 2.5G generation of mobile phones.
      • GPRS, which supports a wide range of bandwidths, is an efficient use of limited bandwidth and is particularly suited for sending and receiving small bursts of data, such as e-mail and Web browsing, as well as large volumes of data.
    • 2.5G
      • 2.5G extends 2G systems, adding features such as packet-switched connection and enhanced data rates. 2.5G networks include EDGE and GPRS. These networks support WAP, MMS, SMS mobile games, and search and directory.
    • 2.5G (continued)
      • One of the major limitations of second generation cellular communications systems is that data can only be transferred after a connection has been established. This is inefficient if only small amount of data is transferred, and in situations where data is transferred in bursts. 2.5G cellular systems allow a mobile station to be "always-online" for sending and receiving packet data. This allows efficient transfer of small amounts of data, without the overhead of establishing a connection for each transfer. It also efficiently supports bursty data transfers, avoiding the need to allocate capacity to a connection that cannot be reallocated by the network if the connection chooses not to use it. The two major forms of 2.5G enhancements to second-generation cellular systems are the General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) and Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE).
      • Some GSM networks support the General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) and Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE).
    • Some Abbreviations to be familiar with
      • APRS - Automatic Packet Reporting System
      • CDMA - Code division multiple access
      • EDGE - Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution
      • UMTS - Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
      • SNDCP - Sub Network Dependent Convergence Protocol.
      • HSDPA - High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA)
    • 3G
      • Third Generation Mobile technology for voice, video and data services including video, video conferencing and Internet access.
      • The dream of 3G is to unify the world's mobile computing devices through a single, worldwide radio transmission standard
      • – Offerings data-rate/bandwidth beyond 144kbps and up to 384 Kbps for a pedestrian user
    • Describe the 3G spectrum completely
    • Complete description of the 3G Spectrum WRC–2000 assigned the following frequency bands to 3G services: 1885-2025 MHz AND 2110 – 2200 MHz Distributed as follows: Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) Rx Tx • 1920-1980 2110-2170 MHz (60MHz). Time Division Duplex (TDD) • 1885-1920+2010-2025 MHz (50MHz) Satellite Component Rx Tx • 1980-2010 2170-2200 MHz (30 MHz) TOTAL SPECTRUM= 140 MHz
    • Data Rates for 3G
      • • 2 Mbits/sec for indoor/low range outdoor
      • usage and low speed subscribers at speeds
      • no more than 10 km/hr.
      • • 384 Kbits/sec for fast-moving subscribers at
      • speeds up to 120 km/hr.
      • • 144 Kbits/sec for speeds up to 500 km/hr.
    • Key features of 3G systems
      • The main features of 3G systems are :
      • A high degree of commonality of design worldwide, compatibility of services, use of small pocket terminals with worldwide roaming capability, Internet and other multimedia applications, and a wide range of services and terminals
      • Capability to support circuit and packet data at high bit rates:
      • Interoperability and roaming
      • Common billing
      • Capability to determine geographic position of mobiles and report it to both the network and the mobile terminal
      • Support of multimedia services/capabilities
    • What is special to 3G
      • Unlike IEEE 802.11 networks, which are commonly called Wi-Fi or WLAN networks, 3G networks are wide-area cellular telephone networks that evolved to incorporate high-speed Internet access and video telephony. IEEE 802.11 networks are short range, high-bandwidth networks primarily developed for data.
    • Why is Nigeria regarded as ready for 3G?
    • Because:
      • High uptake of services in 3G is expected
      • There is Lack of broadband internet services due to low penetration of copper/DSL.
      • There is a pressing need to bridge digital divide.
      • Nigerians are mobile people.
      • It is cheaper and quicker to roll-out 3G/WCDMA than to run communication cables to every home
    • Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA)
      • Wideband CDMA, also known as UMTS in Europe, is 3G standard for GSM in Europe, Japan and the United States. It's also the principal alternative being discussed in Asia. It supports very high-speed multimedia services such as full-motion video, Internet access and video conferencing. It uses one 5 MHz channel for both voice and data, offering data speeds up to 2 Mbps.
    • Describe Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)
      • A digital wireless technology that uses a spread spectrum technique to scatter a radio signal across a wide range of frequencies. CDMA is a 2G technology. WCDMA, a 3G technology, is based on CDMA.
      • CDMA has multiple variants, including CDMA 1X, cdma2000, CDMA2000 1X, CDMA2000 1xEV-DO and cdmaOne.
    • What is WAP?
    • WAP
      • It means Wireless Application Protocol, a secure specification that allows users to access information instantly via handheld wireless devices such as mobile phones, pagers, two-way radios, smartphones and communicators.
      • WAP supports most wireless networks namely CDMA, GSM, etc
    • Explain Symmetric Transmission and Asymmetric Transmission
    • Data transmission is symmetric if the data in the downlink and the data in the uplink is transmitted at the same data rate. This will probably be the case for voice transmission - the same amount of data is sent both ways. However, for internet connections or broadcast data (e.g., streaming video), it is likely that more data will be sent from the server to the mobile device (the downlink). That is asymetric.
    • What is EVDO
      • It is the acronym for Evolution Data Only. Some say it is Evolution Dada Optimized. Point is: both are definitions and definitions are never wrong. It practically means you can have wireless broadband internet access at 500K – 800k speed to your Windows, Mac OS X, or Linux laptop by inserting an EVDO Card into your laptop. Your service provider must have provided a coverage to your area before you can use the resource. And you have to log in with propriety parameters which only your service provider will supply. It is a recent technology. As recent as 2005.
      • Talking technology, EVDO is based on the 1xRTT standard, which is available in almost all cell phone coverage areas and provides Internet speeds of about 2-3 times that of dial-up (about 60K-100K). If you go out of the 1xEVDO broadband coverage zone, you will automatically be switched onto the 1xRTT standard, which means that you can still access the Internet almost anywhere your travels take you.
    • Telecom Engineering Questions & Answers
    • Mention the key components of a fundamental telecommunications system
    • The fundamental telecommunications system
      • Transmitter & Receiver
      • Medium of Transmission
      • Customer equipment
    • List Engineering factors that are fundamental to good telecom service
    • Factors that are fundamental to good telecom service
      • Quality of medium
      • Cost of medium
      • Resilience of medium
      • Capacity of medium
      • Protocol
      • Charging Platform
      • Measurements of virtually all that happens within the network
      • All the above are what technology changes are all about.
    • What is a MODEM?
    • modem
      • MODulation and DEModulation ie MOD+ DEM
      • Modulation : Conversion of analog signals to digital signals
      • Demodulation: The Reverse
      • That is what happens when a computer wants to use a telephone system that is analog. The computer is digital so the conversion is necessary.
    • What is meant by Latency
    • Latency Latency means delay. It may also be the period of time that one component in a system is spinning its wheels waiting for another component. Latency, therefore, is wasted time. For example, in accessing data on a disk, latency is defined as the time it takes to position the proper sector under the read/write head. In networking, the amount of time it takes a packet to travel from source to destination. Together, latency and bandwidth define the speed and capacity of a network.
    • What are Networks?
    • Networks?
      • An interconnection of members, users, computers, subscribers etc
      • LAN Local Area Network- A network of systems that are co-located
      • MAN Metropolitan Area Network- A network of systems that are in the same town [metropolis]
      • PAN Personal Area Network- A network of system that are within the reach of one person
      • WAN Wide Area Network- A network of systems that are very wide apart
    • How do Networks Interconnect?
    • Networks Interconnection
      • Topology defines how networks are interconnected
      • Topology may vary the cost of implementation of choice topology
      • The most popular topologies are: Star, bus, ring, mesh
    • What makes the convergence between telecommunications and computing possible?
    • Convergence of Telecom/Computing
      • Digitisation
    • What are the special characteristics of OPTICAL FIBRE
    • Characteristics of OPTICAL FIBRE
      • Superior transmission quality
      • Superior transmission capacity
      • Resistant to ambient disturbances
      • Long implementation time
      • There are two ways of building an optical fibre network:
      • Buried optical fibre
      • Aerial optical fibre
    • What are the limitations of Optical Fibre?
    • Minuses of Optical Fibre?
      • It is Expensive
      • It has Long implementation time
      • It can be destroyed by mistake when digging
    • Wireless Systems
    • Types of Wireless Systems
      • There are three types of wireless systems in common use today:
      • Fixed wireless.
      • Here you have two wireless antennas, one each at the sending (your institution) and receiving institutions acting much like a cable connected between the two. You may need to erect masts to hold the antennas as this system requires that you have a clear path or line-of-sight between the two institutions, as the connection is degraded if the path is blocked by trees, building, other infrastructure or hills. Fixed wireless systems can provide connection between two locations up to 30 km apart.
    • Types of Wireless Systems
      • WIFI
      • Wireless Fidelity or WIFI systems were designed primarily for local area networks (with ranges of 100 meters or a little more) but can be used to provide coverage over relatively large areas by using enough access points to create overlapping cells of coverage or what are called “hot spots”. WIFI can be used to provide connectivity from your VSAT across your entire institution say throughout the school or hospital grounds.
      • With mobile devices such as laptop computers equipped with the right access card, you can create a truly mobile access environment where people can connect anywhere, anytime within the hot spots. The distinct advantage of WIFI is that you do not need line-of-sight operation.
    • Broadband Wireless Systems
      • WIMAX
      • Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access or WIMAX is a newer access technology that combines the functionality of fixed wireless and WIFI. It is meant to provide WIFI like features at much longer distances .
      • WIMAX is heralded as the solution to cost effectively offering connectivity coverage over large areas especially in the metropolitan
    • From Dial Up to MiMAX
      • Dial-up access – Dial up is when one uses a connected access to a service provider. It may be fixed or wireless. They are mostly wireless these days. The fixed are either via DSL cable or fibre if broadband were to be offered. Of course copper cable also do but with poor results.
      •   If you are still using dial-up, chances are that either broadband access is not available or that broadband access is too expensive.
    • WiFi access –
      • In the home, you may have set up a WiFi router that lets you surf the Web while you lounge with your laptop. On the road, you can find WiFi hot spots in restaurants, hotels, coffee shops and libraries. Some may even sneak into your house and if they are not protected you may be using them as free internet access
      • The main problem with WiFi access is that hot spots are very small, so coverage is sparse
    • Broadband Internet Access
      • The main problem with broadband access is that it is expensive and it doesn't reach all areas.
      •   WimAx solves the problem
      • WiMAX is short for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, and it also goes by the IEEE name 802.16.
    • WIMAX provides
      • High speed of broadband service
      • Wireless rather than wired access, so it would be a lot less expensive than cable or DSL and much easier to extend to suburban and rural areas
      • Broad coverage like the cell phone network instead of small WiFi hotspots
      • WiMAX has the potential to do to broadband Internet access what cell phones have done to phone access
      • It is likely Mimax will replace cable, DSL etc in the way Mobile phones have replaced our old land lines.
    • Wimax Completely Described now
      • WiMAX is a wireless digital communications system, also known as IEEE 802.16, that is intended for wireless "metropolitan area networks". WiMAX can provide broadband wireless access (BWA) up to 30 miles (50 km) for fixed stations, and 3 - 10 miles (5 - 15 km) for mobile stations. In contrast, the WiFi/802.11 wireless local area network standard is limited in most cases to only 100 - 300 feet (30 - 100m)
    • Wimax ..contd
      • With WiMAX, WiFi-like data rates are easily supported, but the issue of interference is lessened. WiMAX operates on both licensed and non-licensed frequencies, providing a regulated environment and viable economic model for wireless carriers.
      •   WiMAX can be used for wireless networking in much the same way as the more common WiFi protocol. WiMAX is a second-generation protocol that allows for more efficient bandwidth use, interference avoidance, and is intended to allow higher data rates over longer distances .
    • Wimax ..cond.
      • The IEEE 802.16 standard defines the technical features of the communications protocol. The WiMAX Forum offers a means of testing manufacturer's equipment for compatibility, as well as an industry group dedicated to fostering the development and commercialization of the technology.
      •   WiMax.com provides a focal point for consumers, service providers, manufacturers, analysts, and researchers who are interested in WiMAX technology, services, and products.
    • General Knowledge Questions & Answers
    • What is computerisation?
    • Computerisation?
      • Empowerment of work facilities including the operating crew to exploit the resources of Information and communications technology, ICT.
      • It goes beyond merely buying computers and installing them. It extends to empowering computers to have access to telecommunications links especially the Internet and developing the human resources to be capable of using them effectively.
    • What are the special advantages of The Internet?
    • Advantages of The Internet
      • Faster, better, neater and CHEAPER services. Although the Internet was conceived as adapt transmission solution, it is now used to transmit voice by converting voice into data and sent in packets on Internet Protocol, IP. When that is done it is called Voice Over IP, or VoIP.
    • Is convergence a win-win situation?
    • Convergence?
      • To an extent yes, but it imposes some challenges like: These challenges include •Licensing challenges •Frequency management challenges •Services challenges •Content challenges
    • Why do we say Radio telecommunication and radio broadcasting are merging?
    • Radio telecommunication/Radio broadcasting
      • Because of Point to Multi-point advantage of technology that is now prevalent in wireless technology.
    • What are Public networks?
    • Public Networks
      • They are for everybody’s use
      • They lease out circuits for special uses
      • They are defined by interconnecting protocols
      • They are usually commercial networks
    • What are Private networks?
    • Private networks
      • They are used entirely within a private firm or an establishment
      • They may hook on to the public network at some points
      • Tariff within the network is not popular because they are not commercial networks
    • What are Leased circuits?
    • Leased circuits
      • Leased circuits are dedicated to the use of the leaser [leasor]
      • They are usually expensive because they are assumed [erroneously though] that they are in use for 24 hours in a day.
    • What are switched Circuits?
    • Switched Circuits?
      • Switched circuits share the public switched network resources among all users
      • They are generally cheaper to use than dedicated leased circuits
    • What is Network Intelligence?
    • Network Intelligence
      • It is the brain box of the network
      • Usually situated within the switch component of the networks
      • It is where calculations, logic analysis are usually done. They are usually in the switches and generally not in transmission systems
    • How do we integrate Voice & Data?
    • Voice & Data
      • Voice is very important; Data is very critical:
      • The traditional system is circuit switched; may carry voice, data, video piece meal but converged systems do so in packets based on IP protocol.
      • Packet switching relates to unique identification of coded message and retrieving same in unique delay permissible ways at the destination.
      • Packets are independent with multiple packets in a stream often traversing the network from its originating point to a destination nodes by different routes
    • What is Packet Switching in reality?
    • Packet Switching
      • In converged networks, the vocabulary of hierarchy in switching exchanges is de-emphasized
      • Latency factor is a fact of life in packet switching
      • Packet switching is the platform on which the Internet works
      • Packet switching was designed for data but with the coming of The Internet, it is now being used for voice & Video
    • Circuit Switching vs. Packet Switching
    • Circuit Switching Traditional connections for voice communications require a physical path connecting the users at the two ends of the line, and that path stays open until the conversation ends. This method of connecting a transmitter and receiver by giving them exclusive access to a direct connection is called circuit switching.
    • Packet Switching
      • Most modern networking technology is radically different from this traditional model because it uses packet data. Packet data is information which is:
          • chopped into pieces (packets),
          • given a destination address,
          • mixed with other data from other sources,
          • transmitted over a line with all the other data,
          • reconstituted at the other end.
          • Packet-switched networks chop the telephone conversation into discrete "packets" of data like pieces in a jigsaw puzzle, and those pieces are reassembled to recreate the original conversation.
      • Packet data was originally developed as the technology behind the Internet
    • The Packet, Payload, Header etc
    • The Data packet. The major part of a packet's contents is reserved for the data that is meant for transmission. This part is called the PAYLOAD. In general, the data to be transmitted is arbitrarily chopped-up into payloads of the same size. At the start of the packet is a smaller area called a HEADER. The header is vital because the header contains the address of the packet's intended recipient. This means that packets from many different phone users can be mixed into the same transmission channel, and correctly sorted at the other end. There is no longer a need for a constant, exclusive, direct channel between the sender and the receiver.
    • What is VoIP?
    • VoIP
      • Voice over Internet protocol is the technology of transmitting voice over a data network using IP
      • Although VoIP is the more popularly know there are other technologies used in transmitting voice. They include VoFR[Voice over Frame Relay, VoATM[ Voice over ATM.
    • The Traditional/Lagacy Global Communication System
    • The VOIP Phenomenon Local Call Local Call
    • The New World System Local Call Local Call
    • The VOIP Phenomenon Local Call Local Call IP’S IP’S IP’S Local Call
    • What is VoIP in a commercial sense?
    • VoIP in a commercial sense
      • VolP is a technology that enables the provision of voice telephony services, and is not in itself a distinct service;
      • In nIgeria, the NCC is empowered to regulate services and it says it will not regulate technology, thus allowing industry practitioners to decide whatever technology to employ to provide the services for which they are duly authorized.
      •   In line with above, the deployment of VoIP in Nigeria shall not be restricted. However, the applicable equipment shall be subjected to the necessary type-approval by then NCC.
    • Opportunities & Threats of VoIp
      • New businesses are coming up
      • Some are raising fortunes
      • Some are threatening investments
      • CHANGE is what is certain
      • VOIP is a major opportunity
      • VOIP is a threat to some megabuck investments
      • VOIP may be the hidden revolution for voice communications
    • What are the Problems of VoIP
    • Problems of VoIP
      • Quality of Service, QoS was the main albatross of VoIP but it has now improved over time.
    • What is VPN?
      • Virtual Private Networks
      • What is ‘virtual’
      • It means ‘Make believe’ may be, ‘not real’
      • They are Networks of the future
      • They provide Cheap systems
      • They are versatile networks
      • They give vibrant solutions
    • What are Value-Added Services
    • Value-Added Services
      • They are Exploitation of un-utilized capacities especially for commercial benefit
      • They usually benefits all concerned
      • They deal more on solving problems of society
      • Sometimes they thrive, sometimes they die, They often rise again
      • They constitute business for those who have initiatives.
    • Explain E-commerce
    • E-commerce
      • Telecom is MASS market
      • Solution-to-consumer trading
      • Unique solutions
      • Advertising as extra
      • Web portals as unique outlet
      • E-retailing
    • How do we use a corporate website to greatest advantage?
    • How do we use a corporate website to greatest advantage?
      • Be brief
      • Keep site dynamic
      • Make site useful not just beautiful
      • Link site to search engines for enhanced reach
      • Create links to other related businesses
      • Do not do too much of graphics
      • Avoid my ‘going to too many places’
      • Use text more than icons
      • Avoid in-house jargon
    • Discuss how telecommunications is benefiting society
    • Telecommunications and Society
      • Telecommunications is ultimately a social leveler
      • Telecom will commence bridging the gap between the haves and the have-nots
      • We shall all one fone each
      • The cost of service will be time based not distance based
      • Our phones will bear our names because it is easier to remember names
      • Everyone will do business on telecom when all other openings close
    • What foreseeable level will telecommunications migrate to?
    • Telecommunications and migration
      • Service delivery will migrate from circuit switching to packet switching
      • Fibre may eventually go into the house
      • Mobile will rise phenomenally but Fixed may be the peoples phones.
    • List some Multimedia Technical Advances
    • Multimedia Advances
      • We shall watch football on the web
      • We shall publish magazines on a continuous basis on the web and there will be no deadlines
      • Training shall be virtually free
      • Certifications will be what we shall pay for
      • We shall work, play, pray, and pay the way we have never done before.
    • What is xDSL
    • xDSL
      • Digital Subscriber Line in the generic form
    • What are Mobile and Cellular Networks
    • Future Advances in Multimedia Services
      • We shall watch football on the web
      • We shall publish magazines on a continuous basis on the web and there will be no deadlines
      • Training shall be virtually free
      • Certifications will be what we shall pay for
      • We shall work, play, pray, pay the way we have never done before.
    • Technical Migration Issues
      • Service delivery will migrate from circuit switching to packet switching
      • Fibre may eventually go into the house
      • Mobile will rise phenomenally but Fixed will be the peoples’ phones.
    • What telecommunications has done and what it will do
      • Telecom will commence bridging the gap between the haves and the have-nots
      • We shall all have one phone each
      • The cost of service will be time based not distance based
      • Our phones will bear our names because it is easier to remember names
      • Everyone will do business on telecom when all other openings close
    • Standard Telecom Words as applicable in the Nigerian Network.
    • ACCESS CHARGE A fee charged subscribers or other telephone companies by a local exchange carrier for the use of its local exchange networks. ACCESS POINT TRANSCEIVERS Any radio communication equipment capable of receiving or emitting electromagnetic radiation used for allowing access to the Licensee’s network by users. ANALOG SIGNAL A signaling method that uses continuous changes in the amplitude or frequency of a radio transmission to convey information.
    • ASSIGNED FREQUENCY Frequency at the centre of the assigned bandwidth ASSIGNED FREQUENCY BAND Necessary bandwidth plus twice the frequency tolerance. The width of band symmetrical around the center frequency within which the side band emissions are to be contained. ASSIGNMENT Authorization given to particular station to use a radio channel
    • AUTHORISED BANDWIDTH Necessary bandwidth. BANDWIDTH The capacity of a telecom line to carry signals. The necessary bandwidth is the amount of spectrum required to transmit the signal without distortion or loss of information. FCC rules require suppression of the signal outside the band to prevent interference. BROADBAND Broadband is a descriptive term for evolving digital technologies that provide consumers a signal switched facility offering integrated access to voice, high-speed data service, video-demand services, and interactive delivery services.
    • CALLING PARTY PAYS A billing method in which a wireless phone caller pays only for making calls and not for receiving them. The standard American billing system requires wireless phone customers to pay for all calls made and received on a wireless phone. CARRIER POWER Average power supplied to the antenna transmission line during one cycle when there is no modulation. CELLULAR TECHNOLOGY This term, often used for all wireless phones regardless of the technology they use, derives from cellular base stations that receive and transmit calls. Both cellular and PCS phones use cellular technology.
    • CLASS OF EMISSION The set of characteristics of an emission designated by standard alphanumeric symbols denoting modulation scheme, modulating signal, type of information transmitted etc. CLOSED CAPTIONING A service for persons with hearing disabilities that translates television program dialog into written words on the television screen. COMMERCIAL LEASED ACCESS Manner through which independent video producers can access cable capacity for a fee.
    • COMMON CARRIER In the telecommunications arena, the term used to describe a telephone company. COMMUNICATIONS ASSISTANT A person who facilitates telephone conversation between text telephone users, users of sign language or individuals with speech disabilities through a Telecommunications Relay Service (TRS). This service allows a person with hearing or speech disabilities to communicate with anyone else via telephone at no additional cost. COMMUNITY ANTENNA TELEVISION (CATV) A service through which subscribers pay to have local television stations and additional programs brought into their homes from an antenna via a coaxial cable.
    • CRAMMING A practice in which customers are billed for enhanced features such as voice mail, caller-ID and call-waiting that they have not ordered. DEEP SPACE Space Beyond 2 x 10$6 KM from the earth DIAL AROUND Long distance services that require consumers to dial a long-distance provider’s access code (or "10-10" number) before dialing a long-distance number to bypass or "dial around" the consumer’s chosen long-distance carrier in order to get a better rate.
    • DIGITAL TELEVISION (DTV) A new technology for transmitting and receiving broadcast television signals. DTV provides clearer resolution and improved sound quality. DIRECT BROADCAST SATELLITE (DBS/DISH) A high-powered satellite that transmits or retransmits signals which are intended for direct reception by the public. The signal is transmitted to a small earth station or dish (usually the size of an 18-inch pizza pan) mounted on homes or other buildings. E-MAIL Also called electronic mail, refers to messages sent over the Internet. E-mail can be sent and received via newer types of wireless phones, but you generally need to have a specific e-mail account.
    • ENHANCED SERVICE PROVIDERS A for-profit business that offers to transmit voice and data messages and simultaneously adds value to the messages it transmits. Examples include telephone answering services, alarm/security companies and transaction processing companies. EN BANC An informal meeting held by the Commission to hear presentations on specific topics by diverse parties. The Commissioners, or other officials, question presenters and use their comments in considering FCC rules and policies on the subject matter under consideration. EARTH STATION A station located on the surface of the earth (or atmosphere) intended for communication with one space station or another via a reflective object Located in space.
    • EIMP Power supplied to antenna multiplied by gain relative to short vertical antenna. EIRP Power supplied to antenna multiplied by gain relative to isotropic antenna ERP Power supplied to antenna multiplied by gain relative to half-wave dipole in a given direction
    • ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY (EMC) The prevailing condition under which a telecommunications equipment is capable of operating under its specified performance range in a common electromagnetic environment without causing or suffering unacceptable degradation in performance due to unintentional electromagnetic radiation to or from other equipment within the same environment. EMISSION Intentional radiation produced, or the production of wanted radiation by radio transmitting station. FEEDER LINK A radio link from an earth station at a given location to a space station or vice versa conveying information for a space radio communication service but which is not for a fixed satellite service.
    • FREQUENCY MODULATION (FM) A signaling method that varies the carrier frequency in proportion to the amplitude of the modulating signal. FREQUENCY SHIFT Maximum permissible departure of the center frequency of the frequency band occupied by the emission from the assigned frequency. GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS) A US satellite system that lets those on the ground, on the water or in the air determine their position with extreme accuracy using GPS receivers.
    • HARMFUL INTERFERENCE Interference that endangers the functioning of a radio navigation service or seriously degrades, obstructs or repeatedly interrupts a radio station. HIGH DEFINITION TELEVISION (HDTV) An improved television system which provides approximately twice the vertical and horizontal resolution of existing television standards. It also provides audio quality approaching that of compact discs. INTERFERENCE The effect of unwanted signal energy due to emissions, radiations or inductions upon the reception of radio station manifested by any performance degradation, misinterpretation, loss of information or distortion of wanted information
    • INTERACTIVE VIDEO DATA SERVICE (IVDS) A communication system, operating over a short distance, that allows nearly instantaneous two-way responses by using a hand-held device at a fixed location. Viewer participation in game shows, distance learning and e-mail on computer networks are examples. INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION FIXED SERVICE (ITFS) A service provided by one or more fixed microwave stations operated by an educational organization and used to transmit instructional information to fixed locations. LANDLINE Traditional wired phone service.
    • LAND MOBILE SERVICE A public or private radio service providing two-way communication, paging and radio signaling on land. LANDING RIGHT Right to transmit signals to and from the territory of a country other than the one that licensed the satellite. LOW POWER FM RADIO (LPFM) A broadcast service that permits the licensing of 50-100 watt FM radio stations within a service radius of up to 3.5 miles and 1-10 watt FM radio stations within a service radius of 1 to 2 miles.
    • LOW POWER TELEVISION (LPTV) A broadcast service that permits program origination, subscription service or both via low powered television translators. LPTV service includes the existing translator service and operates on a secondary basis to regular television stations. Transmitter output is limited to 1,000 watts for normal VHF stations and 100 watts when a VHF operation is on an allocated channel. MAJOR INTERFERENCE Any form of unwanted signals that causes total or partial loss of service to a radio communication station or any unwanted emission of radiation that endangers life such as interference to air craft operation, distress channels, ambulance or security services
    • MEAN POWER The average power supplied to antenna transmission line by a transmitter during an interval of time much larger than the lowest frequency in the modulating signal taken under normal modulating condition MINOR INTERFERENCE Any form of unwanted radiation, whether intentional or non-intentional, that causes degradation of or tolerable disturbance to radio communication service to the extent that it does not cause a [partial or total loss of service. MUST-CARRY (Retransmission) A 1992 Cable Act term requiring a cable system to carry signals of both commercial and noncommercial television broadcast stations that are "local" to the area served by the cable system.
    • NECESSARY BANDWIDTH The least bandwidth that permits satisfactory transmission of signal. NECESSARY BANDWIDTH For a given class of emission the bandwidth of the band, which is just sufficient to ensure transmission of information at the rate and quality, required under specified conditions. NETWORK Any connection of two or more computers that enables them to communicate. Networks may include transmission devices, servers, cables, routers and satellites. The phone network is the total infrastructure for transmitting phone messages.
    • NUMBER PORTABILITY A term used to describe the capability of individuals, businesses and organizations to retain their existing telephone number(s) –– and the same quality of service –– when switching to a new local service provider. OCCUPIED BANDWIDTH The bandwidth symmetrical around the assigned frequency within which 99% of the radiated power is contained or the width of the band between upper and lower frequency limits such that the mean radiated power outside these limits is equal to les than 0.5% of the total mean power of the emission. OPEN VIDEO SYSTEMS An alternative method to provide cable-like video service to subscribers.
    • OPERATOR SERVICE PROVIDER (OSP) A common carrier that provides services from public phones, including payphones and those in hotels/motels. OUT-OF-BAND EMISSIONS Unwanted emission radiated just outside the necessary bandwidth. PAGING SYSTEM A one-way mobile radio service where a user carries a small, lightweight miniature radio receiver capable of responding to coded signals. These devices, called "pagers," emit an audible signal, vibrate or do both when activated by an incoming message.
    • PEAK ENVELOP POWER Average power supplied to the antenna transmission system during one cycle at the crest of modulating envelope. PERMISSIBLE INTERFERENCE Observed or perceived interface which is within the qualitative limits set by the regulation for sharing frequencies. PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICE (PCS) Any of several types of wireless, voice and/or data communications systems, typically incorporating digital technology. PCS licenses are most often used to provide services similar to advanced cellular mobile or paging services. However, PCS can also be used to provide other wireless communications services, including services that allow people to place and receive communications while away from their home or office, as well as wireless communications to homes, office buildings and other fixed locations.
    • PRESCRIBED INTEREXCHANGE CHARGE (PICC) The charge the local exchange company assesses the long distance company when a consumer picks it as his or her long distance carrier. PROTECTION RATION The minimum value of wanted to unwanted signal ratio (dB) at the receiver input such that specified reception quality if the wanted signal is achieved at the receiver input. RADIODETERMINATION The determination of the position, velocity and/or other characteristics of an object by means of the propagation properties of radio waves.
    • RADIO LOCATION A radio determination service used for purpose other than those o f radio-navigation. RADIONAVIGATION An electronic service used for the purpose of navigation, including obstruction warning. RADIOTELEMETRY Telemetry by means of radio waves.
    • ROAMING The use of a wireless phone outside of the "home" service area defined by a service provider. Higher per-minute rates are usually charged for calls made or received while roaming. Long distance rates and a daily access fee may also apply. SATELLITE A radio relay station that orbits the earth. A complete satellite communications system also includes earth stations that communicate with each other via the satellite. The satellite receives a signal transmitted by an originating earth station and retransmits that signal to the destination earth station(s). Satellites are used to transmit telephone, television and data signals originated by common carriers, broadcasters and distributors of cable TV program material.
    • SATELLITE HOME VIEWER IMPROVEMENT ACT OF 1999 (SHVIA) An Act modifying the Satellite Home Viewer Act of 1988, SHVIA permits satellite companies to provide local broadcast TV signals to all subscribers who reside in the local TV station’s market. SHVIA also permits satellite companies to provide "distant" network broadcast stations to eligible satellite subscribers. SATELLITE LINK One uplink and one downlink SATELLITE MASTER ANTENNA TELEVISION (SMATV) A satellite dish system used to deliver signals to multiple dwelling units (e.g., apartment buildings and trailer parks).
    • SCANNER A radio receiver that moves across a wide range of radio frequencies and allows audiences to listen to any of the frequencies. SERVICE PLAN The rate plan you select when choosing a wireless phone service. A service plan typically consists of a monthly base rate for access to the system and a fixed amount of minutes per month. SERVICE PROVIDER A telecommunications provider that owns circuit switching equipment.
    • SLAMMING The term used to describe what occurs when a customer’s long distance service is switched from one long distance company to another without the customer’s permission. Such unauthorized switching violates FCC rules. SPECTRUM The range of electromagnetic radio frequencies used in the transmission of sound, data and television. SPURIOUS EMISSION Energy of an emission whose frequency lies beyond 2.5 times the necessary bandwidth relative to the center frequency of the emission
    • SUBSCRIBER LINE CHARGE (SLC) A monthly fee paid by telephone subscribers that is used to compensate the local telephone company for part of the cost of installation and maintenance of the telephone wire, poles and other facilities that link your home to the telephone network. These wires, poles and other facilities are referred to as the "local loop." The SLC is one component of access charges. STATION (RADIO) One or more transmitters or /and receivers, including accessory equipment necessary at one location for carrying on a radio communication service. TARIFF The documents filed by a carrier describing their services and the payments to be charged for such services.
    • TELECOMMAND The use of telecommunication for the transmission of signals to initiate, modify or terminate the function of an equipment at a distance. TELECOMMUNICATIONS RELAY SERVICE (TRS) A free service that enables persons with TTYs, individuals who use sign language and people who have speech disabilities to use telephone services by having a third party transmit and translate the call. TELEMETRY The use o f telecommunication for automatically indicating or recording measurements at a distance from the measuring instrument.
    • TELEPHONY The word used to describe the science of transmitting voice over a telecommunications network. TTY A type of machine that allows people with hearing or speech disabilities to communicate over the phone using a keyboard and a viewing screen. It is sometimes called a TDD. UNBUNDLING The term used to describe the access provided by local exchange carriers so that other service providers can buy or lease portions of its network elements, such as interconnection loops, to serve subscribers.
    • VIDEO DESCRIPTION An audio narration for television viewers who are blind or visually disabled, which consists of verbal descriptions of key visual elements in a television program, such as settings and actions not reflected in dialog. Narrations are inserted into the program’s natural pauses, and are typically provided through the Secondary Audio Programming channel.
    • UNIVERSAL SERVICE The financial mechanism which helps compensate telephone companies or other communications entities for providing access to telecommunications services at reasonable and affordable rates throughout the country, including rural, insular and high costs areas, and to public institutions. Companies, not consumers, are required by law to contribute to this fund. The law does not prohibit companies from passing this charge on to customers. VERY HIGH FREQUENCY (VHF) The part of the radio spectrum from 30 to 300 megahertz, which includes TV Channels 2-13, the FM broadcast band and some marine, aviation and land mobile services.
    • Guide to Job Search
    • How to write an application
      • It is strange how Nigerians learnt the popular style of featuring their sex, religion, state of origin, local government area as the first important things in their application letters or cv’s.
      • All the above hardly contribute anything to productivity and employers do not care a hoot about them
    • What to feature Early in your application
      • State the skills you possess. This is different from presenting a catalogue of your certificates. Skills is what you can do not what you have been trained to become.
      • Employers no longer have interest in your certificate but in the way you can produce for them. It is however unusual to possess some skills without attaining some level of education and certification. Your certificate becomes relevant only when you can do a job.
    • Your Certificates
      • Mention, or list out, your certificates especially those that are relevant to the position you are seeking. Do not make a fuss of them though.
    • Concluding your application
      • Conclude your application by letting the employer know how you will increase his output or sell his products better than without you.
    • How to prepare for an Interview (Repeated emphasis)
    • Make it appoint of duty to find out everything you can about the specific position you are about to be interviewed for. Find out things about the Company its products and a few other public domain information. Search the web for the company’s website and what is contained in it. Approach people who may know about the company and ask questions. Find a way to let your interviewers know you did so much. Don’t bluff though.
    • Don’t give an impression that you are looking for just any job. Show that you want to contribute your skills to improve the services and products of your future company. The better you understand the position and the employer's needs the more effectively you can show how you'll benefit their organization. Read the job advert thoroughly - it will often tell you some of the employers major concerns and you must use this in your discussion.
    • Types of interview questions Practice responses to interview questions - but don't try to memorize them. Being yourself is essential to interview success. Responses need to feel and sound natural. When you've thought through how you can add value to a specific employer, you'll be able to easily add examples of how in the answers you provide. Don’t say what you do not know and don’t let them feel you just read things in the books and reciting them at the interview.
    • Knowledge, ability and skills questions These questions often deal with the technical aspects of the job or basic knowledge that is essential to learn the job. In engineering jobs skills is your best asset. Experience is next. That you are brilliant or not matters least. Sometimes you may be lucky the interviewers themselves read texts to prepare for the interview and you are the type that reads wide, you would have stumbled on some of their questions. Some of them even buy this 100 Standard Interview Questions and Answers and read before they come to interview you.
    • Situational questions and behaviour based questions Situation questions provide you with a hypothetical situation and ask how you would deal with it. Employers can check your understanding of specific processes as well as your interpersonal or working with others skills.
    • Prepare your references Select references who will comment fairly and positively on you. Choose them from among people who can write well and who know what to write. Don’t choose a reference simply because he is your relative , teacher or casual acquaintance who may find it difficult to write. Ask permission to use them as a reference and allow them to say know if they cannot do a good job for you Find a way to ask your reference what they would say about you especially in regards to such things such as interpersonal and team work skills, reliability, and work habits. Inform your references promptly about any job interviews so that they know it means a lot to you. You can ask them to comment specifically on key skills that are relevant to the position. Give your reference a copy of your resume.
    • The way you introduce yourself is important You don’t have a second chance of making a first impression. The decision to hire is often made in the first thirty seconds of your sitting in front of your interviewers. Practice opening a door, coming into a room, offering your hand confidently, smiling and introducing yourself. Use your left hand for carrying, leaving your right hand free for the handshake. You can even do it with your brother or sister at home before you go for the interview and he/she would tell you how well you have done it.
    • PLAN AHEAD
      • Do a little homework! Research the company and the position if possible, as well, the people you will meet with at the interview. Review your work experiences. Be ready to support past career accomplishments with specific information targeted toward the companies needs. Have your facts ready!
    • EYE CONTACT
      • Maintain eye contact with your interviewer. Show you want the job with your interest.
    • BE POSITIVE
      • Talk positively about other people if you must talk about them
      • In particular, avoid negative comments about past employers.
      • Show interest in discussing issues, not persons
    • ADAPT TO THE INTERVIEW ENVIRONMENT
      • Listen and adapt. Be sensitive to the style of the interviewer. Pay attention to those details of dress, office furniture, and general decor which will afford helpful clues to assist you in tailoring your presentation.
    • ICT Question & Answers
    • What is ICT?
      • Information Communication Technology (ICT) are those devices, methodologies, and capacities often represented by the “computer” and the electronic networks that are formed when two or more computers are linked.
      • A “ computer network ” includes the interconnection of computers or computer systems in whatever manner.
      • Data can be considered to be the raw material which computer systems process into a product called information .
      • There are other classes of Information Communication Technology (ICT):
        • Radio (FM, MW, SW, & Walkie-talkie)
        • Telephones (GSM, Fixed Wireless & landlines)
        • Television (Terrestrial & Satellite)
    • ICT As Tool!!
      • ICT tools are the primary cross cutting ubiquitous tools that provide the competitive edge required to become a leader in the evolving modern world.
      • Modern economies and therefore modern leadership relies heavily on ICT as a tool to influence and help people reach their potential.
      • In the today ’ s operational environment only ICT can ensure that we can realistically aspire and achieve leadership in any endeavour.
      • Continuous formal & informal education.
      • The first to secure, understand and apply information wins.
    • Help this Teach yourself series
      • Send comments to [email_address] to state the topics you would have wished included in this program.
      • It is a continuously changing program, so do not expect this content will be the same as what you will get if you acquire this download in another few months time.
    • For comments
      • [email_address]