Teach chap. 8 - intelli - w 11


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  • FIGURE 8.12 The Stroop interference task. Test yourself by naming the colors in the top two rows as quickly as you can. Then name the colors of the ink used to print the words in the bottom two rows (do not read the words themselves). Was it harder to name the ink colors in the bottom rows? (Adapted from MacLeod, 2005.)
  • FIGURE 8.2 Distribution of Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test scores for 3,184 children. (Adapted from Terman & Merrill, 1960.)
  • FIGURE 8.4 Comparison of an adopted child and a biological child reared in the same family. (Adapted from Kamin, 1981.)
  • FIGURE 8.3 Approximate correlations between IQ scores for persons with varying degrees of genetic and environmental similarity. Notice that the correlations grow smaller as the degree of genetic similarity declines. Also note that a shared environment increases the correlation in all cases. (Estimates from Bouchard, 1983; Henderson, 1982.)
  • Teach chap. 8 - intelli - w 11

    1. 1. Cognition and Intelligence
    2. 2. <ul><li>Cognition </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Cognition: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mentally processing information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Thinking” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Language: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Words or symbols, and rules for combining them, that are used for thinking and communication </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Language plays an important role in thinking: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability of language to generate new thoughts or ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Translating information into symbols </li></ul></ul>
    5. 6. <ul><li>Semantics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study of meaning in language </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phonemes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic speech sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>44 sounds in English language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: P at vs. R at </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Morphemes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speech sounds collected into meaningful units, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Syllables or words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Pin </li></ul></ul>
    6. 7. <ul><li>Grammar: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set of rules for: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Making sounds into words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Words into sentences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Tomato vs. Tomato </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Syntax: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rules for word order in sentences </li></ul></ul>
    7. 8. <ul><li>Ethnic communities give emotional meaning to words </li></ul><ul><li>Communication can evoke emotion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Would you rather eat prime rib or dead cow? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Translating language can cause a rash of semantic problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: San Jose Public library’s banner was supposed to say “You are welcome.” in a native Philippine language but the sign actually said “You are circumcised”. </li></ul></ul>
    8. 9. <ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul>
    9. 10. <ul><li>Global capacity to act purposefully, think rationally, and deal effectively with the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Can intelligence be measured? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we measure intelligence? </li></ul>
    10. 11. <ul><li>Europe (1904) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alfred Binet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minister of Education in Paris wanted to distinguish slower students from the more capable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal: Help the struggling students to “catch up” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Devised a series of questions children of a specific “age” should be able to answer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Binet Intelligence test comes to America (1916) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Military and immigrants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stanford University revised the test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Known as Stanford-Binet Test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assumed child’s intellectual abilities improve with each passing year </li></ul></ul>
    11. 12. <ul><li>Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale - Fifth Edition (SB5): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Widely used by schools to measure individual intelligence test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Items are age-ranked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measures different abilities to determine intelligence: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Fluid reasoning, quantitative reasoning, visual-spatial processing, working memory </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 13. <ul><li>Easy to administer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large group of people with little supervision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple-choice items </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Normal Bell-Shaped Curve: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Average scores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extreme scores </li></ul></ul>
    13. 14. <ul><li>Wechsler Adult Intelligence Test, (WAIS-III): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WAIS – III </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children , (WISC-IV): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WISC – IV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Downscaled version of the WAIS-III </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For children from age: 6 – 16.11 months.30 days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Measure overall IQ </li></ul>
    14. 15. <ul><li>Verbal Intelligence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language or symbol-oriented intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Performance Intelligence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonverbal intelligence </li></ul></ul>
    15. 16. <ul><li>Chronological Age : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Person’s age in years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mental Age: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Average intellectual performance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intelligence Quotient (IQ): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental age/Chronological age x 100 = IQ </li></ul></ul>
    16. 17. IQ Facts <ul><li>Average IQ in the U.S.: 100 </li></ul><ul><li>Determines projected school performance </li></ul><ul><li>Remains relatively stable throughout life </li></ul><ul><li>Inherited intelligence </li></ul>
    17. 20. Giftedness <ul><li>Giftedness: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The possession of a high IQ or special talents or aptitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mentally Gifted: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 % population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Score above 130 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tend to be successful in adulthood </li></ul></ul>
    18. 21. Cognitively Impaired <ul><li>Cognitively Impaired </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presence of a developmental disability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant impairment of adaptive behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Past: Mental Retardation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2% population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Score below 70 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full inclusion in General Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptive skills </li></ul></ul>
    19. 22. <ul><li>Traditional IQ tests suffer from cultural bias </li></ul><ul><li>Psychologists rethink the concept of intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>IQ does not predict practical intelligence </li></ul>
    20. 23. <ul><li>Gardner </li></ul><ul><li>Theory of Eight Multiple Intelligence </li></ul>
    21. 24. <ul><li>Language : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lawyers, writers, comedians </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Logic and Math : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>scientists, accountants, programmers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Visual and Spatial Thinking: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>engineers, inventors, artists </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Music: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>composers, musicians, music critics </li></ul></ul>
    22. 25. <ul><li>Bodily-Kinesthetic Skills : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dancers, athletes, surgeons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intrapersonal Skills (Self-Knowledge): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>poets, actors, ministers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal Skills (Social Abilities): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>psychologists, teachers, politicians </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Naturalistic Skills (Ability to Understand Natural Environment): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>biologists, organic farmers </li></ul></ul>
    23. 26. <ul><li>Evidence proves “Nature” and “Nurture” significantly contribute to IQ scores </li></ul><ul><li>Identical Twin Studies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence of Nature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared DNA - Shared IQ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strong evidence for genetic component </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Adoption Studies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence of Nurture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared environment – Shared IQ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strong evidence for an environmental view of intelligence </li></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 29. <ul><li>No! </li></ul><ul><li>Drive, MOTIVATION and self-discipline are the keys to success! </li></ul><ul><li>Terman Study (next slide) </li></ul>
    25. 30. Terman Study <ul><ul><li>Tracked 1500 children with IQ scores in top 1% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most became successful in traditional ways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some felt short of their early promise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex.: dropped out of school, low level jobs, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Study compared the 100 most successful people with the 100 least successful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Study found that MOTIVATION made the difference! </li></ul></ul>
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