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Teach   chap. 6 - learn - w 11 - student
 

Teach chap. 6 - learn - w 11 - student

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    Teach   chap. 6 - learn - w 11 - student Teach chap. 6 - learn - w 11 - student Presentation Transcript

    • LEARNING
    • LEARNING
      • Learning:
        • Relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience
    • GLOSSARY OF TERMS
      • Response
        • An identifiable behavior
      • Antecedents:
        • Events before a response
        • Ex. Eva hears father’s car pull up the drive way and runs to the door
      • Consequences:
        • Effects that follow a response
        • Ex. Dad walks in and gives Eva a hug
      • Reinforcement
        • Any event that increases the probability that the response will happen again
    • LEARNING
      • CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
      • OPERANT CONDITIONING
      • OBSERVATIONAL
    • CONDITIONING
      • Associations between a stimuli AND
      • Person’s response
      • Two kinds of CONDITIONING
        • Classical Conditioning
        • Operant Conditioning
      • CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
    • IVAN PAVLOV
        • Russian physiologist
        • Original goal: study digestion
        • Dogs salivated before at the sound of footsteps
    • RESPONSE BEHAVIOR
      • Reflex
        • Automatic, non-learned response
        • Example: blink, cough, gag
      • Puff of air hits your eye … you blink!
      • Sound a horn right before a puff of air
      • If the horn and the air puff occur together many times … what happens?
      • Sound of the horn will make you blink!
    • CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
      • Antecedent
          • Based on what happens before we respond
            • Bell rings before food is presented
      • Passive approach
        • Simply happens to the learner
      • Key Concept :
        • Antecedent stimulus that doesn’t produce a response is linked with one that does
      • Example: A horn is linked with a puff of air to the eye
    • BEFORE AND AFTER CLASSICAL CONDITIOING
    • EXPECTANCIES
        • Anticipation
        • Predicts future events or relationships
      • Examples:
      • Get a shot with a hypodermic needle
      • Pull hand away from a stove
    • EXTINCTION
        • Remove the reinforcement
        • Response STOPS
        • Ex. Pavlov’s dog stopped salivating
          • Ringing the bell eventually lost its effectiveness when food was not presented
    • SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY
        • Reappearance of a learned response
        • Example:
          • As soon as food was introduced again, Pavlov’s dog salivated
      • GENERALIZATION
      • John B. Watson
      • Pavlov’s dog > people
      • People can be conditioned
    • GENERALIZATION – LEARN TO FEAR
      • All fears are learned
      • Babies born with one fear … loud noises!
      • J. Watson : “We learn to be afraid”
      • Phobia:
        • Intense, unrealistic, irrational fear of a specific situation or object
          • Ex: claustophobia – fear of tight spaces
          • Elevators > MRI
      • Watson and Rayner’s
      • ( Little Albert )
    • PLAY VIDEO Watson & Rayner’s Research with Little Albert
      • OPERANT CONDITIONING
      • B.F. Skinner
    • CONSEQUENCES
        • Response may be followed by:
          • Reinforcement
            • Positive
            • Negative
          • Punishment
    • REINFORCEMENT
        • Goal: Makes the behavior more likely to occur again
        • Kinds of reinforcement:
          • Positive reinforcement
          • Negative reinforcement
    • REINFORCEMENT: POSITIVE VS. NEGATIVE
      • Positive Reinforcement:
        • Response followed by a pleasant desirable event
          • Praise and rewards
      • Negative Reinforcement:
        • Take something negative away to increase response
        • Ends discomfort
        • Remove unpleasant event
          • Car bells stop when seatbelt applied
          • Chirp stops when batteries changed in smoke detector
    • PUNISHMENT
      • Consequence that decreases the likelihood of behavior happening again
    • SPEEDING DOWN THE HIGHWAY
      • Punishment = Fine
    • EFFECTIVENESS DEPENDS ON …
      • Timing
      • Consistency
      • Intensity
    • SIDE EFFECTS
      • Escape and Avoidance Learning
    • SIDE EFFECTS
      • Aggression
      • increases
    • WHAT’S THE REWARD?
      • Aggression releases frustration and anger and makes us feel good
      • Reinforced and repeated
    • CLASS EXERCISE
      • Should schools be permitted to punish?
    • WHAT’S MOST EFFECTIVE?
      • Encourage desirable behaviors
      • Punishment does NOT
      • teach desired behaviors
    • PUNISHMENT TIPS
      • Timing
      • Be consistent
      • Avoid severe punishment
      • Expect anger from the punished person
      • Punish with kindness and respect
    • SCHEDULES REINFORCEMENT SCHEDULES AFFECT LEARNING
      • Reinforcement occurs every time
        • Learning is fastest
        • Stop reinforcement – behavior stops
      • Reinforcement is too infrequent or the wait is too long
        • Learning may or may not appear
    • SCHEDULES PARTIAL REINFORCEMENT
        • Reinforcement does NOT follow every response
        • Never know when the reinforcement will appear
        • Creates STRONGEST response
        • Most RESISTANT to extinction!
          • Example: Slot machine – every pull “could be” a win
    • LAW OF EFFECT
        • Pleasurable consequence
        • Usually repeated
          • Ex. “Kick the vending machine”
    • TIMING OF REINFORCEMENT
      • Most effective
      • Present soon after the response
        • Tips for a waiter
        • Pat on the helmet after sacking the quarterback
      • OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING
    • MODELING ( ALBERT BANDURA )
      • Watching and imitating actions of others
      • Making note of the consequences of others actions
        • Bo-Bo Dolls
      • Model:
        • Someone who serves as an example
    • PARENTS CLAIM: DO AS I SAY, NOT AS I DO …
      • Children model what parents “DO”
      • NOT what they “SAY”