Teach chap. 6 - learn - w 11 - student

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Teach chap. 6 - learn - w 11 - student

  1. 1. LEARNING
  2. 2. LEARNING <ul><li>Learning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. GLOSSARY OF TERMS <ul><li>Response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An identifiable behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Antecedents: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Events before a response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Eva hears father’s car pull up the drive way and runs to the door </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consequences: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effects that follow a response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Dad walks in and gives Eva a hug </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any event that increases the probability that the response will happen again </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. LEARNING <ul><li>CLASSICAL CONDITIONING </li></ul><ul><li>OPERANT CONDITIONING </li></ul><ul><li>OBSERVATIONAL </li></ul>
  5. 5. CONDITIONING <ul><li>Associations between a stimuli AND </li></ul><ul><li>Person’s response </li></ul><ul><li>Two kinds of CONDITIONING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classical Conditioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operant Conditioning </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>CLASSICAL CONDITIONING </li></ul>
  7. 7. IVAN PAVLOV <ul><ul><li>Russian physiologist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Original goal: study digestion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dogs salivated before at the sound of footsteps </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. RESPONSE BEHAVIOR <ul><li>Reflex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic, non-learned response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: blink, cough, gag </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Puff of air hits your eye … you blink! </li></ul><ul><li>Sound a horn right before a puff of air </li></ul><ul><li>If the horn and the air puff occur together many times … what happens? </li></ul><ul><li>Sound of the horn will make you blink! </li></ul>
  9. 9. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING <ul><li>Antecedent </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Based on what happens before we respond </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bell rings before food is presented </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Passive approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simply happens to the learner </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Key Concept : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antecedent stimulus that doesn’t produce a response is linked with one that does </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example: A horn is linked with a puff of air to the eye </li></ul>
  10. 10. BEFORE AND AFTER CLASSICAL CONDITIOING
  11. 11. EXPECTANCIES <ul><ul><li>Anticipation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predicts future events or relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Get a shot with a hypodermic needle </li></ul><ul><li>Pull hand away from a stove </li></ul>
  12. 12. EXTINCTION <ul><ul><li>Remove the reinforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Response STOPS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Pavlov’s dog stopped salivating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ringing the bell eventually lost its effectiveness when food was not presented </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY <ul><ul><li>Reappearance of a learned response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As soon as food was introduced again, Pavlov’s dog salivated </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>GENERALIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>John B. Watson </li></ul><ul><li>Pavlov’s dog > people </li></ul><ul><li>People can be conditioned </li></ul>
  15. 15. GENERALIZATION – LEARN TO FEAR <ul><li>All fears are learned </li></ul><ul><li>Babies born with one fear … loud noises! </li></ul><ul><li>J. Watson : “We learn to be afraid” </li></ul><ul><li>Phobia: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intense, unrealistic, irrational fear of a specific situation or object </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: claustophobia – fear of tight spaces </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elevators > MRI </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Watson and Rayner’s </li></ul><ul><li>( Little Albert ) </li></ul>
  17. 17. PLAY VIDEO Watson & Rayner’s Research with Little Albert
  18. 18. <ul><li>OPERANT CONDITIONING </li></ul><ul><li>B.F. Skinner </li></ul>
  19. 19. CONSEQUENCES <ul><ul><li>Response may be followed by: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforcement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Positive </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Negative </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Punishment </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. REINFORCEMENT <ul><ul><li>Goal: Makes the behavior more likely to occur again </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinds of reinforcement: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Positive reinforcement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Negative reinforcement </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. REINFORCEMENT: POSITIVE VS. NEGATIVE <ul><li>Positive Reinforcement: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Response followed by a pleasant desirable event </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Praise and rewards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Negative Reinforcement: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take something negative away to increase response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ends discomfort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove unpleasant event </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Car bells stop when seatbelt applied </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chirp stops when batteries changed in smoke detector </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. PUNISHMENT <ul><li>Consequence that decreases the likelihood of behavior happening again </li></ul>
  23. 23. SPEEDING DOWN THE HIGHWAY <ul><li>Punishment = Fine </li></ul>
  24. 24. EFFECTIVENESS DEPENDS ON … <ul><li>Timing </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul><ul><li>Intensity </li></ul>
  25. 25. SIDE EFFECTS <ul><li>Escape and Avoidance Learning </li></ul>
  26. 26. SIDE EFFECTS <ul><li>Aggression </li></ul><ul><li>increases </li></ul>
  27. 27. WHAT’S THE REWARD? <ul><li>Aggression releases frustration and anger and makes us feel good </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforced and repeated </li></ul>
  28. 28. CLASS EXERCISE <ul><li>Should schools be permitted to punish? </li></ul>
  29. 29. WHAT’S MOST EFFECTIVE? <ul><li>Encourage desirable behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment does NOT </li></ul><ul><li>teach desired behaviors </li></ul>
  30. 30. PUNISHMENT TIPS <ul><li>Timing </li></ul><ul><li>Be consistent </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid severe punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Expect anger from the punished person </li></ul><ul><li>Punish with kindness and respect </li></ul>
  31. 31. SCHEDULES REINFORCEMENT SCHEDULES AFFECT LEARNING <ul><li>Reinforcement occurs every time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning is fastest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stop reinforcement – behavior stops </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement is too infrequent or the wait is too long </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning may or may not appear </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. SCHEDULES PARTIAL REINFORCEMENT <ul><ul><li>Reinforcement does NOT follow every response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Never know when the reinforcement will appear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates STRONGEST response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most RESISTANT to extinction! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Slot machine – every pull “could be” a win </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. LAW OF EFFECT <ul><ul><li>Pleasurable consequence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually repeated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. “Kick the vending machine” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. TIMING OF REINFORCEMENT <ul><li>Most effective </li></ul><ul><li>Present soon after the response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tips for a waiter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pat on the helmet after sacking the quarterback </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING </li></ul>
  36. 36. MODELING ( ALBERT BANDURA ) <ul><li>Watching and imitating actions of others </li></ul><ul><li>Making note of the consequences of others actions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bo-Bo Dolls </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Model: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Someone who serves as an example </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. PARENTS CLAIM: DO AS I SAY, NOT AS I DO … <ul><li>Children model what parents “DO” </li></ul><ul><li>NOT what they “SAY” </li></ul>

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