Teach chap. 1 - intro - w 11

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  • FIGURE 1.3 Psychologists use the logic of science to answer questions about behavior Specific hypotheses can be tested in a variety of ways, including naturalistic observation, correlational studies, controlled experiments, clinical studies, and the survey method Psychologists revise their theories to reflect the evidence they gather New or revised theories then lead to new observations, problems, and hypotheses
  • FIGURE 1.6 Elements of a simple psychological experiment to assess the effects of music during study on test scores
  • Teach chap. 1 - intro - w 11

    1. 1. Chapter 1 Psychology and Research Methods
    2. 2. Psychology <ul><li>The scientific study of behavior and mental processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior: can be directly observed (crying) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental Processes: cannot be directly observed (remembering) </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. What Are the Goals of Psychology? <ul><li>Description of Behaviors : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the nature of this behavior? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Naming and classifying various observable, measurable behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What conditions affect it? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Understanding: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why does this occur? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The causes of behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prediction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can we forecast when this will occur? </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Psychology – A “Social” Science <ul><li>Through scientific observation and research methods </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology TODAY: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses a systematic way of answering questions about the world and the people who live in it </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Critical Thinking <ul><li>Critical thinkers are willing to ask the hard questions and challenge conventional wisdom </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to analyze, evaluate, critique, and synthesize information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who is making this claim? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has it been tested? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How reliable are the tests? </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Scientific Method <ul><li>Form of critical thinking based on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Careful collection of evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accurate description and measurement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precise definition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeatable results </li></ul></ul>
    7. 8. Scientific Theory <ul><li>What can I expect? </li></ul><ul><li>A system of ideas that interrelates facts and concepts, summarizes existing data, and predicts future observations </li></ul>
    8. 9. A Good Theory <ul><li>Must be falsifiable! </li></ul><ul><li>Experiments are conducted to prove a theory to be “untrue” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>operationally defined so that it can be disconfirmed </li></ul></ul>
    9. 10. Hypothesis <ul><li>A testable prediction </li></ul>
    10. 11. Review <ul><li>What is the definition of Psychology? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the four goals of Psychology? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the steps in Scientific Method? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a theory? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a hypothesis? </li></ul>
    11. 12. Types of Research <ul><li>Experiment </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical Method </li></ul><ul><li>Naturalistic Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Survey </li></ul>
    12. 13. Experiments <ul><li>A formal trial taken to confirm or disconfirm a hypothesis </li></ul>
    13. 14. In Psychology … <ul><li>Investigating the causes of behavior through a “controlled environment” - the experiment! </li></ul>
    14. 15. Cause and Effect <ul><ul><li>Through use of : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Independent variables </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dependent variables </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… .. we can experimentally measure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CAUSE and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EFFECT </li></ul></ul>
    15. 16. Variables <ul><li>Independent Variable: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Condition(s) altered by the experimenter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suspected CAUSE for behavioral differences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dependent Variable: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrates EFFECT that independent variables have on behavior </li></ul></ul>
    16. 17. Groups <ul><li>Experimental Group: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The group of participants that gets the independent variable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control Group: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The group of participants that does NOT get the independent variable </li></ul></ul>
    17. 19. Placebo <ul><li>Placebo: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A fake pill (sugar), injection (saline), or condition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Placebos alter our expectations about our own emotional and physical reactions </li></ul></ul>
    18. 20. Placebo Effect <ul><ul><li>Changes in behavior that result from expectations that a drug or other treatment will have some effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These expectancies then influence bodily activities </li></ul></ul></ul>
    19. 21. Types of Experiments <ul><li>Single Blind: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only the subjects have no idea whether they get real treatment or placebo </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Double Blind: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The subjects AND the experimenters have no idea whether the subjects get real treatment or placebo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Best type of experiment if properly set up </li></ul></ul></ul>
    20. 22. Review <ul><li>What is an experiment? </li></ul><ul><li>What does cause and effect mean? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a dependent variable? </li></ul><ul><li>What is an independent variable? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a placebo? </li></ul><ul><li>What is placebo effect? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the meaning of single blind vs. double blind? </li></ul>
    21. 23. <ul><li>Other Research Methods </li></ul><ul><li>“ Non- Experimental” </li></ul>
    22. 24. The Clinical Method <ul><li>Studying psychological problems in clinical settings </li></ul>
    23. 25. Naturalistic Observation <ul><li>Observing behavior as it unfolds </li></ul><ul><li>“ 911” </li></ul>
    24. 26. Survey Method <ul><li>Using public polling techniques to answer psychological questions </li></ul><ul><li>Question a random sample of people </li></ul><ul><li>Self reported data </li></ul><ul><li>“ Courtesy” replies </li></ul>
    25. 27. Populations <ul><li>Case study </li></ul><ul><li>Longitudinal study </li></ul><ul><li>Cross Sectional study </li></ul>
    26. 28. Case Study <ul><li>Observation technique </li></ul><ul><li>One person is studied in depth </li></ul><ul><li>Goal is for one person to reveal universal principles </li></ul><ul><li>Critical thinking … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you think one person can meet this scientific goal? </li></ul></ul>
    27. 29. Longitudinal Study <ul><li>Study the same group of people </li></ul><ul><li>Over a course of many years </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: reveal universal principles </li></ul>
    28. 30. Cross Sectional <ul><li>Study multiple ages </li></ul><ul><li>At one time </li></ul><ul><li>Study a certain task, trait, behavior, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: reveal universal principles </li></ul>
    29. 31. Review <ul><li>Describe other research methods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clinical method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Naturalistic Observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Survey </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Describe different populations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Case study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Longitudinal study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross sectional </li></ul></ul>

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