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Research Design
Research Design
Research Design
Research Design
Research Design
Research Design
Research Design
Research Design
Research Design
Research Design
Research Design
Research Design
Research Design
Research Design
Research Design
Research Design
Research Design
Research Design
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Research Design

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stat, statistic, research, design, techniques, data, questions, sample, survey, problems, business, information, education,projection

stat, statistic, research, design, techniques, data, questions, sample, survey, problems, business, information, education,projection

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  1. Research Design The role of planning in research “ If your result needs a statistician then you should design a better experiment” - Ernest Rutherford Compiled: Athar Hussain
  2. Objective <ul><li>Understanding the importance of planning and designing approaches or techniques used in research processes. </li></ul>Compiled: Athar Hussain
  3. Research Design <ul><li>The Design Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Problem Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploratory Research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Descriptive Research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Casual Research </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problem of “ cause ” </li></ul><ul><li>Classic Experiment </li></ul>Compiled: Athar Hussain Research Design
  4. Research Design (cont.) <ul><li>Validity Threats </li></ul><ul><li>Other Research Designs </li></ul><ul><li>Requirement in Research Design </li></ul><ul><li>The Importance of Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-Section Designs </li></ul>Compiled: Athar Hussain Research Design
  5. Design Problem <ul><li>Foundation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most important step to set the direction of your research </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Questions & Queries </li></ul><ul><li>List of questions targeted to extract the required information </li></ul><ul><li>Choice of Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Poorly chosen questions can mislead the information </li></ul><ul><li>Precision of Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How effective and productive the results are towards required information </li></ul></ul>Compiled: Athar Hussain Research Design
  6. Problem Structure <ul><li>Exploratory Research </li></ul><ul><li>The problem is badly understood. The objective or goal is unclear </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive Research </li></ul><ul><li>The objective or goal is clear and structured </li></ul><ul><li>Casual Research </li></ul><ul><li>Blend of both natures. Problems are structured and also confronted with cause-and-effect problem </li></ul>Compiled: Athar Hussain Research Design
  7. Exploratory Research <ul><li>The objective or goal is “ unclear” or the problem is “ badly understood ” </li></ul><ul><li>Requires strong skills and deep observations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The sale is dropping … why? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the “primary” reason people spend money more on consumable items than long term investments? </li></ul></ul>Compiled: Athar Hussain Research Design
  8. Descriptive Research <ul><li>The objective or goal is “ clear ” and “ structured ” </li></ul><ul><li>Usually involves surveys & comparisons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Running an ice-cream business - Alaska or Miami? </li></ul></ul>Compiled: Athar Hussain Research Design
  9. Casual Research <ul><li>Mixture of both natures. Problems are structured and also confronted with “cause-n-effect” problem </li></ul><ul><li>Look for & isolate the “cause” </li></ul><ul><li>Examine if cause has effect on result </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does the advertising help in achieving greater market share? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is this medical drug effective? </li></ul></ul>Compiled: Athar Hussain Research Design
  10. Problem of “cause” <ul><li>Variable affecting the increment or decrement behavior of other variable </li></ul><ul><li>Concomitant covariation should exist between cause and effect </li></ul><ul><li>Cause should proceed the effect </li></ul><ul><li>Rule out alternative causes </li></ul>Compiled: Athar Hussain Research Design
  11. Importance of Theory <ul><li>It is impossible to know what to look for without the theory </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying research problems </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying relevant factors & their relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Raising questions </li></ul><ul><li>Attitude of variables with each other </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>X > Y (X causes Y) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Y < X (Y causes X) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>X <> Y (Mutual causation) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>X =! Y (no relationship) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpreting observations </li></ul></ul>Compiled: Athar Hussain Research Design
  12. Classic Experiment <ul><li>Include multiple experiment groups </li></ul><ul><li>Groups can be segmented for multiple variables </li></ul><ul><li>Separate the segments into controlled and experimental groups </li></ul><ul><li>Take observations treating both groups randomly with same experimental stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>Interpret the result based on observations </li></ul><ul><li>Notice the difference in observations </li></ul>Compiled: Athar Hussain Research Design
  13. Validity Threats <ul><li>Types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal validity – whether the results obtained within the study are true. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External validity – whether the findings can be generalized </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Experimental design is to isolate and estimate the effects of causes </li></ul><ul><li>The solid design allows manipulation of treatment and proves the validity and authenticity of effects on cause </li></ul><ul><li>Highlights covariation between variables </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiates internal and external threats </li></ul>Compiled: Athar Hussain Research Design
  14. Validity Threats (cont.) <ul><ul><li>History </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specific event external to the study that occurs at the same time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Maturation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Processes which operate within the test units as function of the passage of time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Test Effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indicates the experiment itself may affect the observed response </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Selection bias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serious threat to validity when the subjects are not assigned randomly </li></ul></ul>Compiled: Athar Hussain Research Design
  15. Other Research Designs <ul><li>There are sometimes constraints on researchers to conduct certain types of experiments </li></ul><ul><li>Some of these constraints are: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time interval in which to conduct the research </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The effects of properties are too general or not specific enough </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot find same type groups to perform comparisons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The time order of events is often difficult </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Causing the research designs to move away from the “True” experiment and turning to other research designs </li></ul>Compiled: Athar Hussain Research Design
  16. Other Research Designs (cont.) <ul><li>Cross-sectional Designs </li></ul><ul><li>Time Series </li></ul><ul><li>The one-shot case study </li></ul>Compiled: Athar Hussain Research Design
  17. Requirements <ul><li>User’s intentions </li></ul><ul><li>Context </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Experience </li></ul>Compiled: Athar Hussain … for Research Design Research Design
  18. Questions “ Research is to see what everybody else has seen, and to think what nobody else has thought” - Albert Szent-Gyorgyi Compiled: Athar Hussain

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