Financial Markets & Institutions Ch01

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Financial Markets & Institutions

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Financial Markets & Institutions Ch01

  1. 1. Chapter One Introduction
  2. 2. Why study Financial Markets and Institutions? <ul><li>Prudent investment and financing requires a thorough understanding of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the structure of domestic and international markets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the flow of funds through domestic and international markets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the strategies used to manage risks faced by investors and savers </li></ul></ul>1- McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  3. 3. Financial Markets <ul><li>Financial markets are structures through which funds flow </li></ul><ul><li>Financial markets can be distinguished along two dimensions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>primary versus secondary markets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>money versus capital markets </li></ul></ul>1- McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  4. 4. Primary versus Secondary Markets <ul><li>Primary markets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>markets in which users of funds (e.g., corporations and governments) raise funds by issuing financial instruments (e.g., stocks and bonds) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary markets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>markets where financial instruments are traded among investors (e.g., NYSE and Nasdaq) </li></ul></ul>1- McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  5. 5. Money versus Capital Markets <ul><li>Money markets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>markets that trade debt securities with maturities of one year or less (e.g., CDs and U.S. Treasury bills) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Capital markets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>markets that trade debt (bonds) and equity (stock) instruments with maturities of more than one year </li></ul></ul>1- McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  6. 6. Money Market Instruments Outstanding, ($Bn) 1- McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  7. 7. Capital Market Instruments Outstanding, ($Bn) 1- McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  8. 8. Foreign Exchange (FX) Markets <ul><li>FX markets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>trading one currency for another (e.g., dollar for yen) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spot FX </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the immediate exchange of currencies at current exchange rates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forward FX </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the exchange of currencies in the future on a specific date and at a pre-specified exchange rate </li></ul></ul>1- McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  9. 9. Derivative Security Markets <ul><li>Derivative security </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a financial security whose payoff is linked to (i.e., “derived” from) another security or commodity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>generally an agreement to exchange a standard quantity of assets at a set price on a specific date in the future </li></ul></ul>1- McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  10. 10. Financial Market Regulation <ul><li>The Securities Act of 1933 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>full and fair disclosure and securities registration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Securities Exchange Act of 1934 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is the main regulator of securities markets </li></ul></ul>1- McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  11. 11. Financial Institutions (FIs) <ul><li>Financial Institutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>institutions through which suppliers channel money to users of funds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Financial Institutions are distinguished by whether they accept deposits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>depository versus non-depository financial institutions </li></ul></ul>1- McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  12. 12. Flow of Funds in a World without FIs 1- McGraw-Hill/Irwin Users of Funds (corporations) Suppliers of Funds (households) Financial Claims (equity and debt instruments) Cash Flow of Funds in a World without FIs
  13. 13. Flow of Funds in a World with FIs 1- McGraw-Hill/Irwin Users of Funds FIs (brokers) FIs (asset transformers) Suppliers of Funds Financial Claims (equity and debt securities) Financial Claims (deposits and insurance policies) Cash Cash Flow of Funds in a World without FIs
  14. 14. Depository versus Non-Depository FIs <ul><li>Depository institutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>commercial banks, savings associations, savings banks, credit unions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-depository institutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>insurance companies, securities firms and investment banks, mutual funds, pension funds </li></ul></ul>1- McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  15. 15. FIs Benefit Suppliers of Funds <ul><li>Reduce monitoring costs </li></ul><ul><li>Increase liquidity and lower price risk </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce transaction costs </li></ul><ul><li>Provide maturity intermediation </li></ul><ul><li>Provide denomination intermediation </li></ul>1- McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  16. 16. FIs Benefit the Overall Economy <ul><li>Conduit through which Federal Reserve conducts monetary policy </li></ul><ul><li>Provides efficient credit allocation </li></ul><ul><li>Provide for intergenerational wealth transfers </li></ul><ul><li>Provide payment services </li></ul>1- McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  17. 17. Risks Faced by Financial Institutions <ul><li>Credit </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Country or sovereign </li></ul><ul><li>Interest rate </li></ul><ul><li>Market </li></ul><ul><li>Off-balance-sheet </li></ul><ul><li>Liquidity </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Operational </li></ul><ul><li>Insolvency </li></ul>1- McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  18. 18. Regulation of Financial Institutions <ul><li>FIs are heavily regulated to protect society at large from market failures </li></ul><ul><li>Regulations impose a burden on FIs and recent U.S. regulatory changes have been deregulatory in nature </li></ul><ul><li>Regulators attempt to maximize social welfare while minimizing the burden imposed by regulation </li></ul>1- McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  19. 19. Globalization of Financial Markets and Institutions <ul><li>The pool of savings from foreign investors is increasing and investors look to diversify globally now more than ever before </li></ul><ul><li>Information on foreign markets and investments is becoming readily accessible and deregulation across the globe is allowing even greater access </li></ul><ul><li>International mutual funds allow diversified foreign investment with low transactions costs </li></ul>1- McGraw-Hill/Irwin
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