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GE498-ECI, Lecture 7: The semantic web

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GE498-ECI, Lecture 7: The semantic web

GE498-ECI, Lecture 7: The semantic web

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    GE498-ECI, Lecture 7: The semantic web GE498-ECI, Lecture 7: The semantic web Presentation Transcript

    • Enterprise Collaboration and Innovation Support Systems (GE/IE 498 ECI): The Semantic Web Xavier Llorà Illinois Genetic Algorithms Lab & National Center for Supercomputing Applications University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign xllora@uiuc.edu
    • Where did we leave it? • Focus on how enterprise storage is arranged • Cover basic notions about relational databases • A simple example • Set up the storage system • Enter and query information from the storage system GE/IE 498 ECI - Spring 2007 Xavier Llorà © Spring 2007 2
    • What’s the plan for today? • Giving structure to information exchange • Markup languages • XML basics • The semantic web (RDF) GE/IE 498 ECI - Spring 2007 Xavier Llorà © Spring 2007 3
    • Information sharing • Relational bases hold data, but made not claim about information interoperability • Sharing and exchanging information requires a standard (or a common language) • For a long time there has been niche-oriented standards (e.g. EDI for banking) • Two comfortable pair of shoes: – XML (extensible markup language) – RDF (resource description framework) GE/IE 498 ECI - Spring 2007 Xavier Llorà © Spring 2007 4
    • One old friend • HTML is a common markup language for content visualization • It is based on a set of tags • A tag takes the form of <XXX> • A tag may have attributes <XXX key=value> • A tag may enclose marked contents • A tag may have a finalization tag expressed as </XXX> • The basic HTML page have 2 main tag sections: – The header section containing metadata about the page – The body section contains the contents to be rendered GE/IE 498 ECI - Spring 2007 Xavier Llorà © Spring 2007 5
    • A HTML example <HTML> <HEAD> <TITLE>This a test Head section. Contains metadata like the title of the page page</TITLE> </HEAD> <BODY> Hello world! This is a simple page that show Body section. Contains the content to be rendered some basic HTML markup to describe a page. </BODY> </HTML> GE/IE 498 ECI - Spring 2007 Xavier Llorà © Spring 2007 6
    • A HTML example GE/IE 498 ECI - Spring 2007 Xavier Llorà © Spring 2007 7
    • Some basic HTML content tags • Sectioning: <H1>, <H2>,… • Paragraphs and line breaks: <P>, <BR>, <HR> • Text presentation: <STRONG>, <EM> • Images: <IMG> • Links to other pages: <A> • Tables: <TABLE> GE/IE 498 ECI - Spring 2007 Xavier Llorà © Spring 2007 8
    • Another HTML example <HTML> <HEAD> <TITLE>This a test page</TITLE> </HEAD> <BODY> <H1>Presentation</H1> <P><EM>Hello world!</EM><BR>This is a <STRONG>simple page</STRONG> that show some basic HTML markup to describe a page.</P> <H1>Photos</H1> <IMG src=“http://www-illigal.ge.uiuc.edu/xllora/wp-content/uploads/me.jpg”> You can find more pictures <A href=“http://www-illigal.ge.uiuc.edu/xllora”>here</a>. <H1>Table</H1> <TABLE> <TR><TD>Column 1</TD><TD>Column 2</TD></TR> <TR><TD>Potato</TD><TD>20</TD></TR> <TR><TD>Onion</TD><TD>11</TD></TR> </TABLE> </BODY> </HTML> GE/IE 498 ECI - Spring 2007 Xavier Llorà © Spring 2007 9
    • Another HTML example GE/IE 498 ECI - Spring 2007 Xavier Llorà © Spring 2007 10
    • XML • It is also a markup language • Basic rules about how to markup infomation • It requires to be well formed: – Any open tag needs to be close – Proper nesting needs to be provided – Tags may have attributes • General purpose • Provide mechanisms to describe the possible markups (for instance via document type definitions) GE/IE 498 ECI - Spring 2007 Xavier Llorà © Spring 2007 11
    • XML preliminaries • A tag needs to be closed <XXX> …. </XXX> • If a tag is empty as short version can be used<XXX /> • Tags may have attributes <XXX key=value /> • A tag may contain more tags, content with tags, or unprocessed data • Any XML document starts with an specific header <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> where <? ?> are directives for the parser GE/IE 498 ECI - Spring 2007 Xavier Llorà © Spring 2007 12
    • Remember the simple example? Customer Customer_ID First_Name Middle_Name Last_Name 0 Joe John Doe 1 Jean Mary Doe … … … … 10101 Sembei Slump Norimaki Order_Products Order Order_ID Product_ID Order_ID Customer_ID 0 6 0 6 1 3 1 3 … … … … 10101010 9 10101010 9 GE/IE 498 ECI - Spring 2007 Xavier Llorà © Spring 2007 13
    • A simple XML <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <Store> <Customers> <Customer> <Customer_ID>0</Customer_ID> <First_Name>Joe</First_Name> <Middle_Name>John</Middle_Name> <Last_Name>Doe</Last_Name> </Customer> <Customer> <Customer_ID>1</Customer_ID> <First_Name>Jean</First_Name> <Middle_Name>Mary</Middle_Name> <Last_Name>Doe</Last_Name> </Customer> </Customers> <Orders> <Order> <Order_ID>0</Order_ID> <Customer_ID>6</Customer_ID> </Order> <Order> <Order_ID>1</Order_ID> <Customer_ID>3</Customer_ID> </Order> </Orders> </Store> GE/IE 498 ECI - Spring 2007 Xavier Llorà © Spring 2007 14
    • A simple XML <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <Store> <Customers> <Customer Customer_ID="0" First_Name="Joe" Last_Name="Doe" Middle_Name="John"/> <Customer Customer_ID="1" First_Name="Jean" Last_Name="Mary" Middle_Name="John"/> </Customers> <Orders> <Order Customer_ID="6" Order_ID="0"/> <Order Customer_ID="3" Order_ID="1"/> </Orders> </Store> GE/IE 498 ECI - Spring 2007 Xavier Llorà © Spring 2007 15
    • XML namespaces • Designed to avoid collisions • Based on using URIs <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <Store xmlns:foo="http://foo.org/store/" xmlns:note="http://foo.org/note/"> <foo:Customers> <foo:Customer Customer_ID="0" First_Name="Joe" Last_Name="Doe" Middle_Name="John"/> <foo:Customer Customer_ID="1" First_Name="Jean" Last_Name="Mary" Middle_Name="John"/> </foo:Customers> <foo:Orders> <foo:Order Customer_ID="6" Order_ID="0"/> <foo:Order Customer_ID="3" Order_ID="1"/> </foo:Orders> <note:math> <![CDATA[ 1+1>=2 ]]> </note:math> </Store> GE/IE 498 ECI - Spring 2007 Xavier Llorà © Spring 2007 16
    • The semantic web • Semantic nets are designed to allow machines to infer semantics out of information • Semantic web heavily rely on XML • They use a standardized version of XML documents known as RDF • Attach descriptions to resources • Statements have the form (subject predicate object) GE/IE 498 ECI - Spring 2007 Xavier Llorà © Spring 2007 17
    • An RDF Example <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" xmlns=”http://foo.org/store/data#”> <rdf:Description about="http://foo.org/store/data/customer/0"> <Customer_ID>0</Customer_ID> <Fist_Name>Joe</Fist_Name> <Middle_Name>John</Middle_Name> <Last_Name>Doe</Last_Name> </rdf:Description> </rdf:RDF> GE/IE 498 ECI - Spring 2007 Xavier Llorà © Spring 2007 18
    • What will we do in the next lecture? • Graphs as structure • Basic concepts • Types of graphs • Basic concepts of graph analysis GE/IE 498 ECI - Spring 2007 Xavier Llorà © Spring 2007 19
    • Something to think about Further reading • http://www.xml.com/pub/a/98/10/guide0.html http://www.w3schools.com/xml/default.asp Homework: Read this article carefully • http://www-128.ibm.com/developerworks/library/w-rdf/ GE/IE 498 ECI - Spring 2007 Xavier Llorà © Spring 2007 20