Europe First Lesson
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    Europe First Lesson Europe First Lesson Presentation Transcript

    • Europe Beginnings of Western Civilization
    • 48 Countries
      • Albania Andorra Austria Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria
      • Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany
      • Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania
      • Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino
      • Serbia and Montenegro Slovakia
      • Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey
      • Ukraine United Kingdom Vatican City
    • The Aegean Civilization
    • Chief Cultures
      • Minoans – Island of Crete
      • Mycenaeans – Greek mainland
      • Trojans – Asia Minor or Turkey
    •  
    • Minoan Civilization
      • Ended 1400 BC
      • Produced clay vases, bronze daggers, cups of gold and wall paintings
      • Traded with Egypt
      • Mycenaeans were a warlike people who likely destroyed them .
    • Mycenaeans
      • On the Greek mainland
      • Greeks of the Trojan War in Homer’s epics of the Iliad and the Odyssey.
      • Arrived in Greece in 1900 BC and adopted the Minoan culture
      • Invaded by the Dorians 1100 to 800 BC
    • Trojan War
      • 1200 BC
      • Mycenaeans destroyed the city of Troy after a 10 year siege.
      • They left a wooden horse – Trojan Horse
    • Homer
      • Singing Poet
      • 700 BC
      • Iliad – War of the Greeks against Troy
      • Odyssey – Adventures of a brave Greek Warrior on his 10 year journey after the war with Troy.
    • Greek Religion
      • The Olympian Gods – Homer wrote about them.
      • Associated with powers of nature
      • Zeus was the chief god – thunder and lightning
      • Apollo – Connection with the sun
      • Poseidon – Sea
      • Artemis - Moon
    • Heroes
      • They were different than the gods
      • They could die
      • Achilles – invincible Greek warrior
    • Greek down fall
      • Greek religion offered no standard of morality or incentives for just living
      • “How far, indeed, did the Olympian or “Homeric” deities of the Acropolis – those gods to whom magnificent temples were dedicated in every Greek city – offer true freedom of spirit of the Greek citizen?”
      • Those temples, and the gods’ images that stood within, were symbols of civic pride , and often of civic arrogance ; these were “official” gods, but they did not speak to private conscience, or nourish the human longing for immortality, or clearly declare a norm for what men and women ought to be.
    • City- States
      • Grew from the worship of Ancestors
      • Acropolis – “polis” – city which was on a hilltop. Seat of government and of religion
      • 150 city – states
      • Start of the Olympics to honor the god Zeus 776 B.C. was the first year of the Olympics
      • Olympics were suspended in A.D. 394 but revived in 1896
    • Acropolis
    • Politics of Ancient Greece
      • Monarchy – rule by one
      • Council of the Elders and the Assembly
      • Aristocracy – rule by the best
      • Aristocrats were of noble birth and had an important religious role. They were better than the average citizen they thought.
      • Oligarchy – rule by the few (rich)
      • Tyranny – rule by one man who has seized power by rebellion and insurrection.
      • Democracy – rule by the many or the common people. Only citizens could participate in government. (Women, slaves and men born outside the city-state were not citizens)
    • Spartan Military State
      • Three classes of people – Ruling class, middle class and the slaves (helots)
      • Expanded by conquering
      • Education was only physical training
      • Chief duty was that of a soldier
    • Athenian Democracy
      • Last monarch 1050 BC
      • Chose “Archon” to be chief
      • Solon’s Laws 594 BC
      • Repealed harsh laws
      • Relieved debtors
      • Redeemed slaves
      • Forbade parents to sell their children
      • Ordered every father to teach his son a trade
      • Required sons to support their aged father
      • Every native born had the right to vote
    • Pericles
      • 461 to 429 BC
      • Direct Democracy – citizens made the big decisions of government
      • All citizens could assemble in one place, speak and listen to speeches and then make the decisions
      • “Golden Age of Greece”
    • Alexander the Great
      • Finished what his father Philip II started in conquering the Persian Empire
      • Pupil of Aristotle – learned Homer’s Iliad
      • Thought himself as the new Achilles
      • Introduced Greek culture to the world
      • Died 33 years of age – fever or poison after returning from India
      • Empire divided among 4 generals
    • Greek Culture
      • 700 BC to 338 BC when conquered by the Macedonians
      • Hellenic Age
      • Philosophy – “Man is the measure of all things”
      • Education – high regard to learning , began at 7 years of age
      • Sculpture – 5 th century able to imitate the human form
      • Architecture – Temples in Athens, most famous is the Parthenon. It was dedicated to Athena, goddes of Athens.
      • Greek writers – Aesop – freed slave
      • He wrote fables – brief story used to teach a moral.
      • Hippocrates – Father of medicine
      • Disease resulted from rationally explainable causes.
    • Hippocratic Oath
      • The regimen I adopt shall be for the benefit of my patients according to my ability and judgment, and not for their hurt or for any wrong. I will give no deadly drug to any, though it be asked of me, nor will I counsel such, and especially I will not aid a woman to procure abortion . . .
      • Whatsoever house I enter, there will I go for the benefit of the sick, refraining from all wrongdoing or corruption, and especially from any act of seduction, or male or female, of bond or free.
    • Philosophy
      • Socrates 470-399 BC
      • Search for Absolutes (Ultimate foundational truths)
      • “ What is the best way to live?”
      • He was poisoned for denying the existence of the gods
      • Inspired Plato who attempted to find an explanation for the obvious order, design,and purpose in the universe
      • Aristotle – 384 -322 BC
      • Student of Plato
      • Concluded that the order of the universe must have come from God
      • Tutor of Alexander the Great
      • Hellenistic –
      • Stoicism – live according to reason, obey the law of nature, seek to do lasting good, honor all men as brothers and remain indifferent to the pleasures and pains of life.