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Europe First Lesson


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  • 1. Europe Beginnings of Western Civilization
  • 2. 48 Countries
  • 3.
    • Albania Andorra Austria Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria
    • Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany
    • Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania
    • Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino
    • Serbia and Montenegro Slovakia
    • Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey
    • Ukraine United Kingdom Vatican City
  • 4. The Aegean Civilization
  • 5. Chief Cultures
    • Minoans – Island of Crete
    • Mycenaeans – Greek mainland
    • Trojans – Asia Minor or Turkey
  • 6.  
  • 7. Minoan Civilization
    • Ended 1400 BC
    • Produced clay vases, bronze daggers, cups of gold and wall paintings
    • Traded with Egypt
    • Mycenaeans were a warlike people who likely destroyed them .
  • 8. Mycenaeans
    • On the Greek mainland
    • Greeks of the Trojan War in Homer’s epics of the Iliad and the Odyssey.
    • Arrived in Greece in 1900 BC and adopted the Minoan culture
    • Invaded by the Dorians 1100 to 800 BC
  • 9. Trojan War
    • 1200 BC
    • Mycenaeans destroyed the city of Troy after a 10 year siege.
    • They left a wooden horse – Trojan Horse
  • 10. Homer
    • Singing Poet
    • 700 BC
    • Iliad – War of the Greeks against Troy
    • Odyssey – Adventures of a brave Greek Warrior on his 10 year journey after the war with Troy.
  • 11. Greek Religion
    • The Olympian Gods – Homer wrote about them.
    • Associated with powers of nature
    • Zeus was the chief god – thunder and lightning
    • Apollo – Connection with the sun
    • Poseidon – Sea
    • Artemis - Moon
  • 12. Heroes
    • They were different than the gods
    • They could die
    • Achilles – invincible Greek warrior
  • 13. Greek down fall
    • Greek religion offered no standard of morality or incentives for just living
    • “How far, indeed, did the Olympian or “Homeric” deities of the Acropolis – those gods to whom magnificent temples were dedicated in every Greek city – offer true freedom of spirit of the Greek citizen?”
  • 14.
    • Those temples, and the gods’ images that stood within, were symbols of civic pride , and often of civic arrogance ; these were “official” gods, but they did not speak to private conscience, or nourish the human longing for immortality, or clearly declare a norm for what men and women ought to be.
  • 15. City- States
    • Grew from the worship of Ancestors
    • Acropolis – “polis” – city which was on a hilltop. Seat of government and of religion
    • 150 city – states
    • Start of the Olympics to honor the god Zeus 776 B.C. was the first year of the Olympics
    • Olympics were suspended in A.D. 394 but revived in 1896
  • 16. Acropolis
  • 17. Politics of Ancient Greece
    • Monarchy – rule by one
    • Council of the Elders and the Assembly
    • Aristocracy – rule by the best
    • Aristocrats were of noble birth and had an important religious role. They were better than the average citizen they thought.
  • 18.
    • Oligarchy – rule by the few (rich)
    • Tyranny – rule by one man who has seized power by rebellion and insurrection.
    • Democracy – rule by the many or the common people. Only citizens could participate in government. (Women, slaves and men born outside the city-state were not citizens)
  • 19. Spartan Military State
    • Three classes of people – Ruling class, middle class and the slaves (helots)
    • Expanded by conquering
    • Education was only physical training
    • Chief duty was that of a soldier
  • 20. Athenian Democracy
    • Last monarch 1050 BC
    • Chose “Archon” to be chief
    • Solon’s Laws 594 BC
    • Repealed harsh laws
    • Relieved debtors
    • Redeemed slaves
    • Forbade parents to sell their children
  • 21.
    • Ordered every father to teach his son a trade
    • Required sons to support their aged father
    • Every native born had the right to vote
  • 22. Pericles
    • 461 to 429 BC
    • Direct Democracy – citizens made the big decisions of government
    • All citizens could assemble in one place, speak and listen to speeches and then make the decisions
    • “Golden Age of Greece”
  • 23. Alexander the Great
  • 24.
    • Finished what his father Philip II started in conquering the Persian Empire
    • Pupil of Aristotle – learned Homer’s Iliad
    • Thought himself as the new Achilles
    • Introduced Greek culture to the world
    • Died 33 years of age – fever or poison after returning from India
    • Empire divided among 4 generals
  • 25. Greek Culture
    • 700 BC to 338 BC when conquered by the Macedonians
    • Hellenic Age
    • Philosophy – “Man is the measure of all things”
    • Education – high regard to learning , began at 7 years of age
  • 26.
    • Sculpture – 5 th century able to imitate the human form
    • Architecture – Temples in Athens, most famous is the Parthenon. It was dedicated to Athena, goddes of Athens.
  • 27.
    • Greek writers – Aesop – freed slave
    • He wrote fables – brief story used to teach a moral.
    • Hippocrates – Father of medicine
    • Disease resulted from rationally explainable causes.
  • 28. Hippocratic Oath
    • The regimen I adopt shall be for the benefit of my patients according to my ability and judgment, and not for their hurt or for any wrong. I will give no deadly drug to any, though it be asked of me, nor will I counsel such, and especially I will not aid a woman to procure abortion . . .
    • Whatsoever house I enter, there will I go for the benefit of the sick, refraining from all wrongdoing or corruption, and especially from any act of seduction, or male or female, of bond or free.
  • 29. Philosophy
    • Socrates 470-399 BC
    • Search for Absolutes (Ultimate foundational truths)
    • “ What is the best way to live?”
    • He was poisoned for denying the existence of the gods
    • Inspired Plato who attempted to find an explanation for the obvious order, design,and purpose in the universe
  • 30.
    • Aristotle – 384 -322 BC
    • Student of Plato
    • Concluded that the order of the universe must have come from God
    • Tutor of Alexander the Great
    • Hellenistic –
    • Stoicism – live according to reason, obey the law of nature, seek to do lasting good, honor all men as brothers and remain indifferent to the pleasures and pains of life.