Cultural standards ver3.0

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  • 1. Cultural Standards Xixie Zhang & Prof. Dr. Hora Tjitra Hangzhou, Dec 11th 2010
  • 2. Agenda 1 Conceptualization of Cultural Standards 3 Background of Cultural Standards 4 How were Cultural Standards developed? 6 Features of Cultural Standards 8 2 Cultural Standards Method 12 3 Examples of Cultural Standards 15 4 Application of Cultural Standards 19 5 References 22 2
  • 3. Agenda Conceptualization of Cultural Standards
  • 4. Background of Cultural Standards• Kluckhohn & Strodtbeck (1961), Hofstede (1980), Hall (1990), Schwartz (1992), Trompenaars (1993) and House et al. (2002) have done many researches on cultural value dimensions. But in most cases they are quantitatively measured.• However, cultural dimensions do not directly predict the actual problems emerging in business and management encounters. They do not explain how business encounters are perceived, and how and why managers and staff react in specific ways. Building the Global Competence for Asian Leaders 4
  • 5. Background of Cultural Standards• Jean Paul Piagets (1962 & 1976) developmental psychology• Ernst Boeschs (1980) cultural psychology• Concept of action: • "An acting person is always considering possible views and judgments of their counterparts as well as own experiences and assumed experiences of others. A person reacting will always consider the desirability or necessity to achieve a consensus with a specific partner and also the norms of judgment of his own culture" or cultural context of an organization. Building the Global Competence for Asian Leaders 5
  • 6. How were Cultural Standards developed?• In 1991, by Alexander Thomas.• In Article Psychologische Wirksamkeit von Kulturstandards in interkulturellen Handeln (Psychological effectiveness of Cultural Standards in intercultural act ) Alexander Thomas• In the book Kulturstandards in der internationalen Begegnung (Cultural Standards in University of Regensburg international encounters).• Thomas developed “Cultural standards” as a way to generate more cultural specific and actionable knowledge. (Fink, Neyer, & Fölling, 2006) Building the Global Competence for Asian Leaders 6
  • 7. Definition of Cultural Standards• “Culture standards can be seen as the socially shared and accepted norms and values that are used by the individuals living within a particular culture to evaluate the behavior of each other.” (Thomas, 1999)• Culture standards are used to set standards, limits and to establish a frame of reference against which to measure behavior.• They are the central characteristics that define a culture.• They are the types of perceptions, thoughts, values, and behaviors, which are treated as normal, typical, and obligatory by the majority of the members of certain culture. (Thomas, 2005) Building the Global Competence for Asian Leaders 7
  • 8. Cultural Standards as Orientation System• Culture standards serve as the orientation system for perception, thought and behavior.• Culture standards offer us a form of orientation to guide us through the process of deciding which mode of behavior is normal, typical, and acceptable and conversely, which mode of behavior is unacceptable.• Culture standards function as implicit theories or rules and are internalised by the individual during the process of socialisation. (Sylvia, 2005)• Culture standards make our fellowman’s behavior predictable. (Reisch)• Cultural standards regulate behaviour and guide individuals to assess observed behaviour. (Thomas, 1993) Building the Global Competence for Asian Leaders 8
  • 9. Characteristics of Cultural Standards• Cultural standards are not static, but constantly undergoing change. • Existing cultural standards can be gradually and incompletely repressed and replaced by more recent developments. • This only occurs when older elements prove unsuitable and restrictive in the present context. (Dinzelbacher, 1993) • However, “mentality is what changes the slowest (Le Goff, 1987)”, the rhythm of the rise and fall of cultural standards is therefore measured in generations and centuries. (Sylvia, 2005)• A cultural standard does not have the same strength in each member of a society or culture. (Sylvia, 2005) Building the Global Competence for Asian Leaders 9
  • 10. Limitations of Cultural Standards• Greatly reduces the complexity of reality• Be guilty of promoting stereotyping• There does not exist an individual whose thinking, feelings and actions always correspond exactly to the culture standards of their respective culture.• Reality is much more complex and multi-layered than the generalized and standardized culture standards. (Sylvia, 2005)• Cultural standards just describe each culture simply, incomplete, and undetailed. (Slate &Schroll-Machl, 2006)。 Building the Global Competence for Asian Leaders 10
  • 11. Limitations of Cultural Standards• It is the interplay between cultural identity and individual personality that defines the spectrum of available adaptation processes and possibilities for change within a culture.• Situations and structures also produce variables which in turn influence behavior: the conditions of the contact, the status of the groups and individuals involved, any possible competition taking place between them, etc.• The use of culture standards is just on way of preparing, planning and analyzing certain situations in which the cultural factors can be recognized and labelled.• All individuals involved as well as the respective situations are also major contributing factors to the success. (Sylvia, 2005) Building the Global Competence for Asian Leaders 11
  • 12. Cultural Standards MethodBuilding the Global Competence for Asian Leaders
  • 13. Cultural Standards Method• In more detail and more descriptively the cultural standard method deals with differences in the kinds of perceiving, norms of sensing, thinking, judging, and acting, which can cause critical incidents in cross cultural encounters (Thomas 1996, Fink/ Meierewert 2001).• There are four steps to collect data and to cope with various biases that might occur in this qualitative research approach: • narrative interview to collect critical incidents • transcription and content analysis • feedback with culture experts from home and counterpart culture • mirror studies/triangulation studies Building the Global Competence for Asian Leaders 13
  • 14. Criteria of interview materials• Daily, often recurring and typical behaviors for the nation• Confusing and conflict-like behaviors, which often cause false interpretation• Can be clearly explained by corresponding cultural background knowledge• Relevant to the target group’s action• (Müller & Thomas, 1991) Building the Global Competence for Asian Leaders 14
  • 15. Examples of Cultural StandardsBuilding the Global Competence for Asian Leaders
  • 16. Different Cultural Standards in different fields ofactivity• German cultural standards in • German cultural standards in activity with Chinese managers activity with American students and language teachers/students: and interns:• 1) Rule-oriented • 1) Differentiate distance• 2) Individualism • 2) Need for organizing (plan)• 3) Directness / honestness • 3) Aware of responsibility• 4) Privacy • 4) Differentiate gender roles• 5) Authority thinking • (Markowsky & Thomas, 1995) (Autoritätsdenken)• (Thomas & Schenk, 1996) Building the Global Competence for Asian Leaders 16
  • 17. Different Cultural Standards in different fields ofactivity• The differences of German cultural standards in different fields of activity and cultural perspectives show the importance of environment and point of view. (Tjitra, 2001)• In contact with different peoples, Chinese cultural standards can also be quite different. Building the Global Competence for Asian Leaders 17
  • 18. Chinese Cultural Standards from Germanperspectives• Unit-System• Hierarchy-oriented• Trick and tactic• Social harmony• Guanxi-System• Bureaucracy• Etiquette• (Thomas & Schenk, 2005) Building the Global Competence for Asian Leaders 18
  • 19. Application of Cultural StandardsBuilding the Global Competence for Asian Leaders
  • 20. Relationship between cultural values, personalitytraits and cultural standards in management• Based on Parsons and Shils’ model of action(1961)• Fink, Neyer, & Kölling (2006) developed a cross-cultural performance model of cultural values, personality traits and cultural standards in business and management. Individuals may adjust their values and their personality traits, reconsider their cultural standards, and may act different in future actions. From a management perspective, this will lead to less critical incidents and improved cross-cultural performance. Building the Global Competence for Asian Leaders 20
  • 21. Related to the HCLI project• Currently there’s no Chinese/Singaporean/Indonesian cultural standards from Asian perspectives.• Useful for Asian leaders working in other Asian countries or working with other Asians in providing information to aid their understanding the peculiarities of behavior of other cultures, which have previously had a negative effect on their interactions with other Asians.• Providing the basis for training materials for Asian leaders, so that they will be better equipped to deal effectively, productively and enjoyably with people from other cultures. Building the Global Competence for Asian Leaders 21
  • 22. References• Fink, G., Kölling, M., & Nezer, A.K., (2005).The cultural standard method. EI Working Papers .• Fink, G., Kölling, M., & Nezer, A.K., (2006). Understanding cross-cultural management interaction: Research into cultural standards to complement cultural value dimensions and personality traits. International studies of management and organization , 36(4), 38-60.• Holzmüller, H.H., St öttinger, B. (2001). International marketing managers ‘ cultural sensitivity: relevance, training requirements and a pragmatic training concept. International Business Review , 10, 597-614.• Reisch, B. Kultur und Kulturstandards (in German).• Schroll-Machl, S. (2005). Doing business with Germans: Their perception, our perception. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.• Thomas, A. (2005). Grundlagen der interkulturellen Psychologie (in German). Interkulturelle Bibliothek.• Tjitra, H.W. (2001). Synergiepotenziale und interkulturelle Probleme: Chancen und Herausforderungen am Beispiel deutsch-indonesischer Arbeitsgruppen (in German). Deutscher Universitäts-Verlag.• 梁杰 (2010). 在华德国留学生文化适应策略与主观幸福感的关系研究 . Building the Global Competence for Asian Leaders 22
  • 23. Research Partners: Global Competence for Asian Leaders Zhejiang University www.zju.edu.cn An applied research collaboration supported by the Human Capital Leadership China Institute (Singapore) with the objective to derive a model for Asian leaders, which will lead to systematic global leadership development programs with Asian characteristics. Atma Jaya Catholic University Built on our previous researches on Chinese and Indonesian intercultural www.atmajaya.ac.id Indonesia sensitivity, we continue in this study by elaborating the cross-cultural experiences of the Chinese, Indonesian and Singaporean international assignees and their respective local co-workers in China and Indonesia. Intercultural sensitivity has been widely accepted as one of the most significant element of global competencies and one of the strongest predictor for global leaders and managers Zhejiang University of Technology accomplishments. www.zjut.edu.cn China The principal investigators of the project are Dr. Hora Tjitra, Dr. Hana Panggabean, and the research team of the the Zhejiang University (Hangzhou, China), Zhejiang Funding Partner: University of Technology (Hangzhou, China) and the Atma Jaya Indonesia Catholic University (Jakarta, Indonesia). Human Capital Leadership Institute www.smu.edu.sgHora Tjitra Xixie ZHANG Teng SHENTUGlobal Juliana MurniatiAsian Leaders Building the Competence for Jia ZHOU Dan ZHAO Chaohui ZHANG SingaporeJiewei ZHENG Hana Panggabean Sebastian Partogi Xiaojuan WANG Quan HE Yuanbo LIU Tayyibah Mushtaq
  • 24. Thank YouContact us via … via…Mail: ceciaz611@gmail.comFollow: xixiezhang@sinau.meWebsite: http://sinau.me/hcli