My Dog is Broken!<br />Presented by: Nicole L., Marvi C.<br />
The Problem<br />Other then the fact that Tessa bought a champion Yorkshire terrier for an asinine amount, her dog, Akira Edelweiss, has erectile dysfunction.<br />She asked her friend, Melody, about the possible problems that Akira could have been suffering. And so, Melody suggests:<br />Akira cannot have an erection because erections, which are controlled by cell signaling pathways, and there may be a malfunction with cell signaling pathways within Akira.<br />
Steps of Signaling Pathway<br />Step One:<br />The nitric oxide activates the guanylylcyclase (which was initially inactive) and becomes N:O guanylylcyclases which is now active.<br />The guanylylcyclase was the receptor and the nitric oxide is the signaling molecule.<br />
Steps of Signaling Pathway<br />Step Two<br />The activation of the N:O-Guanylylcyclase causes a protein to bind with GTP and a subunit to guanylylcyclase.<br />The binding of the subunit to the guanylylcyclase promotes the synthesis of cGMP.<br />
Steps of Signaling Pathway<br />Step Three<br />cGMP binds to subunits of PKG, releasing the catalytic subunits of PKG and turning the once inactive PKG active.<br />
Steps of Signaling Pathway<br />Step Four<br />The activated PKG is phosphorylated and become phospho-proteins.<br />The phospho-proteins lead to the lowering of Ca2+ as well as the desensitization to Ca2+.<br />
Steps of Signaling Pathway<br />Step Five<br />The lowering of the Ca2+ and desensitization of Ca2+ then leads to the relaxation of the smooth muscles.<br />The smooth muscles, which make up the vascular system, relax and let blood flow through the blood vessels increase and lead to the erectile stimulation.<br />
Suggestions from Melody<br />She suggests two things for Tessa’s dog to solve his problem of erectile dysfunction:<br />Viagra<br />The Viagra would work on phosphodieterase, which acts on cyclic guanosine monophosphate, therefore breaking it down and deactivating it.<br />Ginseng<br />Ginseng acts on the nitric oxide in the cell signaling pathway that leads to erection.<br />
Viagra<br />The effects of Viagra, as stated before, is to work on phosphodieterase (PDE).<br />The PDE break downs and deactivates cGMP, the more PDE there is, the more the blood flow is constricted.<br />
Steps of Signaling Path - Viagra<br />When the PDE is there, it breaks down cGMP.<br />The cGMP cannot activate PKG.<br />The PKG cannot lead to the lowering of Ca2+ levels. <br />And, because the Ca2+ is not lowered, relaxation increases.<br />
Ginseng<br />It helps produce more nitric acid (the signaling molecule).<br />More nitric acid, more guanylylcyclase is activated, more cGMP produced.<br />With the more PKG produced, it increases Ca2+, which increases the relaxation rather than the contraction.<br />
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