Bone cancer


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bone cancer presentation for BHSECQ
s. guzikowski
please do not use without my written permission.

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Bone cancer

  1. 1. Bone Cancer<br />By: Sylvia Guzikowski<br />Biology of Cancer – Ms. Paroly <br />
  2. 2. What is (bone) cancer?<br />Cancer: a neoplastic growth of tissue, specifically in the bone.<br />Most of the time, bone cancer is metastatic. <br />Ex: multiple myeloma: cancer blood cells form in the bone marrow instead of the bone itself. <br />Although leukemia is considered a blood cancer, it’s actually a bone cancer. Be careful not to mislabel cancers. <br />In image: <br />[normal plasma cell, bone marrow, bone  myeloma-affected cell, normal plasma cell.]<br />
  3. 3. So. How do we get bone cancer?<br />Most of the time, bone cancer is actually metastasized breast, lung, thyroid, prostate, or kidney cancer. <br />Carcinoma cancers are much more likely to metastasize to bone than sarcoma cancers.<br />Primary bone cancers are much more rare. [cancers that arise from bone tissue] About 2000 people are affected by p-cancers each year in the U.S.<br />Children are more likely to develop bone cancer than adults; people with metal implants as bones have an increased risk<br />Myeloma is A malignant tumor of the bone marrow. It gathers in the bone and bone marrow. It can matastasize.<br />*There is no defined cause of bone cancer.<br />
  4. 4. Bone Cancer Symptoms<br />We have 206 bones. <br />Painful – WORSENS OVER TIME.<br />Compress normal bone tissue. <br />If the tumor compresses the surrounding nerve it can cause pain, numbness, or tingling in the extremities. <br />If the surrounding blood vessels are compressed, it can affect the blood flow to the extremities.<br />In some cases, a mass or lump may be felt either on the bone or in the tissues surrounding the bone. <br />bones can become weakened by the tumor and lead to a fracture<br />Fever, chills, night sweats, and weight loss– but these symptoms are rarer and will spread after the tumor moves to other tissues.<br />
  5. 5. How is bone cancer diagnosed?<br />Check medical history first!<br />complete physical examination [strength, awareness of touch, reflexes]<br />X-rays [normal, followed by a ct {computed tomography} scan or an mri {magnetic resonance imaging} if suspicious]<br />X-rays will tell if bone is fractured.<br />The x-rays tell if malignant/benign. Benign = smooth, Malignant = ragged. <br />Benign tumors typically grow more slowly and the bone has time to try and surround it. <br />If tumor identified, the doctor will attempt to find the cause. *<br />
  6. 6. Types of bone cancers<br />Benign bone tumors<br />Osteoidosteoma, Osteoblastoma, Osteochondroma, Enchondroma, Chondromyxoidfibroma.<br />Malignant Bone Tumors:<br />Osteosarcoma: starts in the bone cells, occurs in young people between the age of 10 and 30 [10% develop intheir 60’s and 70’s] +most often in bones of the arms, legs, or pelvis<br />Chondrosarcoma: cancer of cartilage cells. <br />Other malignant tumors: Ewing tumor, Malignant fibrous histiocytomam, Fibrosarcoma, Giant cell tumor of bone, Chordoma, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Multiple myeloma .<br />
  7. 7. Treatment<br />Treatment is based on type of cancer, location, aggressiveness, and if it has metastasized. <br />Main types of treatment: surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.<br />Side effects include but are not limited to: hair loss, nausea, infection, fatigue & diarrhea. <br />
  8. 8. Treatment: surgery<br />First move = biopsy<br />Surgery: Goal: to remove the entire tumor and a surrounding area of normal bone. If unsuccessful, the cancer may come back. <br />Historically, amputations were frequently used to remove bone cancer. Now, 10% people with bone cancer need one. <br />the surgeon will replace something in its location<br />Bone cement or bone graft [small areas]<br />larger grafts from bone bank or metal implants [larger areas]<br />Some metal implants can lengthen when implanted in children!<br />
  9. 9. Treatment: Chemotherapy<br />Use various medications to stop growth of cancer cells <br />can be used prior to surgery [to shrink the tumor]<br />can also be used after surgery to try to kill any remaining cancer cells.<br />
  10. 10. Treatment: Radiation<br />radiation therapy uses high-energy X-rays aimed at the site of the cancer to try to kill the cancer cells.<br />Small, daily doses for a good number of days, possibly months. <br />As with chemotherapy, radiation therapy can be used either before or after surgery, depending on the specific type of cancer. <br />This is what the machinery looks like; It’s huge, but it focuses a fine ray on the point where the cancer is. <br />
  11. 11. Treatment risks<br />Surgery: <br />Infection, recurrence of the cancer, injury to the surrounding tissues; removal of portions of bone, muscle, nerves, or blood vessels. [may cause weakness, loss of sensation, and chances of fractures. <br />Chemotherapy:<br />normal cells are killed in the process, the medications kill rapidly dividing cells [therefore, hair, blood forming cells, & cells lining the digestive system.] <br />Radiation: <br />fatigue, loss of appetite, and damage to the surrounding skin and soft tissues, increased risk of wound problems from surgery<br />Remember to eat plenty of nutritious food to balance everything out! Cancer is evil. <br />
  12. 12. Statistics <br />2,570 people (1,480 men and 1,090 women) get bone cancer each year [in America]<br />About ½ of the people that get bone cancer die because of it. <br />58.2% people are diagnosed under 44. <br />41.8% people are diagnosed 45-85+.<br />34.2% people died under 44.<br />65.8% people died 45+.<br />Survival rates: 67.5% : Caucasian men 72.1% : Caucasian women 70.0% : African-American men 68.4% : African-American women.<br /><br />
  13. 13. Articles Used:<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
  14. 14. The end~<br />