From 1998 – 2008, the English education system has experienced a twenty year period of transformation in order to raise standards of achievement for all learners and to prepare future members of the workforce for a global knowledge economy. This process of development has been characterised by centralisation of responsibility for curriculum, assessment and standards, whilst delegating to schools the means to deliver the government’s policies on education within a very strong national framework for accountability and inspection. Local authorities have responsibility for the quality of education and services for children and families in their areas of local democratic control. Schools have full responsibility for the quality of education experienced by the young people in their care. This includes teaching and learning, the appointment and management of all their staff, and the fitness for purpose of the buildings and site. A head teacher and senior leaders have enormous freedom to determine the ethos of their schools. Headteachers are accountable to governing bodies that represent parents, the community and often the relevant local authority or sponsoring businesses. There are national standards for headteachers and new headteachers must be accredited by a National Professional Qualification for Headship under the auspices of the National College of School Leadership. The Government holds local authorities accountable for standards in schools in their area. The role of local authorities is to enable schools, social care and health services to work together in the interests of individual children. They are responsible for ensuring that young people receive an education appropriate to their needs and they manage the admission of children to schools. Local authorities distribute government funding to schools and decide on the proportion of the budget different schools receive. Central government is responsible for education policy and has established bodies like the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority to regulate, develop and modernise national curricula, assessments, examinations and qualifications. The Government created the Office for Standards in Education (OfSTED) to regulate and inspect schools, colleges, children's services, teacher training, childcare and youth work. Ofsted is an impartial body and reports directly to Parliament.
ECM # Be healthy # Stay safe # Enjoy and achieve # Make a positive contribution # Achieve economic well-being The Children’s Plan also sets out goals we have for what we can and should achieve for our children by 2020. These should be aspirational for both children and young people’s educational attainment and for their wider wellbeing. We will consult widely over the next year on whether these goals represent the right national ambitions: ● enhance children and young people’s wellbeing, particularly at key transition points in their lives; ● every child ready for success in school, with at least 90 per cent developing well across all areas of the Early Years Foundation Stage Profile by age 5; ● every child ready for secondary school, with at least 90 per cent achieving at or above the expected level in both English and mathematics by age 11; ● every young person with the skills for adult life and further study, with at least 90 per cent achieving the equivalent of five higher level GCSEs by age 19; and at least 70 per cent achieving the equivalent of two A levels by age 19; ● parents satisfied with the information and support they receive; ● all young people participating in positive activities to develop personal and social skills, promote wellbeing and reduce behaviour that puts them at risk; ● employers satisfied with young people’s readiness for work; ● child health improved, with the proportion of obese and overweight children reduced to 2000 levels; ● child poverty halved by 2010 and eradicated by 2020; and ● significantly reduce by 2020 the number of young offenders receiving a conviction, reprimand, or final warning for a recordable offence for the first time, with a goal to be set in the Youth Crime Action Plan.
Uk basic education introduction
UK School System (England) Key themes in Education Key facts Phases of Education Characteristics of State Schools National Curriculum National Assessment Framework Autonomy & Accountability Current Government Priorities
Three Themes in Education Centralisation of the curriculum, assessments and standards Delegation to schools of the means to deliver the national agenda but with very strong national framework for accountability and inspection Local Authorities responsible for quality of education locally and services for children and families
Facts of Education 91% pupils attend state schoolsThere are 8.3 million pupils in25,300 schools in England 1% pupils attend special schools 7% pupils attend independent schools Distribution of pupils by school type Nursery 37,530 State Primary 4,204,500 State Secondary 3,316,050 State Special 85,500 Independent Special 4,870 Pupil Referral Units 14,470 Independent 579,930 City Technology Colleges 16,460 Academies 15,200
Phases of EducationPhase Age of Pupils (years)Pre-school or Nursery Under 5Primary Schools 5-11Secondary Schools 11-16 or 11-18Sixth Form Colleges 16-18Further Education 16+CollegesSpecial Schools 3-18
Characteristics of State SchoolsCharacteristic Primary Secondary% pupils eligible for 16.9 (includes 14free school meals nursery)% ethnic minorities 19.3 15.9% first language 11.6 9other than EnglishAverage class size 26.2 21.7
The National Curriculum (1)• Compulsory curriculum for pupils aged 5-14 (Key Stages 1-3) : English, Mathematics, Science History, Geography, Art and Design, Music Design and Technology, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Modern Foreign Language, Physical Education Religious Education (RE) Citizenship (not statutory at primary school) Sex and relationship education for pupils aged 8-14 Careers education at 14
The National Curriculum (2)• Pupils aged 14-16 (Key Stage 4) Compulsory: English, Mathematics, Science, ICT, PE, RE, Citizenship, careers and work-related learning Entitlement: The Arts, Design & Technology, Modern Languages, History or Geography Optional Subjects: Arts Sciences, languages and Humanities, vocational Qualifications, GSCE or equivalent examinations Careers Education, Sex Education and Work-related learning are compulsory but not examined
The National Curriculum (3)• Students aged 16-18 (Key Stage 5) Students choose from a wide range of academic and vocational subjects and take Advanced Level or equivalent examinations at the ages of 17 and 18. Normally four or five subjects are taken in the first year in the sixth form and three subjects in the second year. Religious Education and ICT to GCSE standard continue to be compulsory.
Specialised Diplomas 14 - 19Specialised diplomas will be available at three levels:Level 1, equivalent to four or five GCSEsLevel 2, equivalent to six GCSEsLevel 3, equivalent to three Advanced LevelsAt levels 1 and 2 students study the core curriculum plus the diploma. Level 3 prepares students for higher education
Transformation (1988 - 2008) Centralisation of the curriculum, assessment and standards Delegation to schools of the means to deliver the government agenda within a very strong national framework for accountability and inspection Local Authorities responsible for quality of education locally and services for children and families
National Assessment Framework• Pupils are assessed at each Key Stage of the curriculum Tests at age 7, 11 and 14 (Key Stages 1, 2 and 3) General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) at 16 (Key Stage 4) Pupils usually take 9 GCSE or equivalent Advanced Level GCE at 17 and 18 (Key Stage 5) Pupils usually take 4-5 subjects in the first year of sixth form and 3-4 in their second year• Annual targets are set at national, local authority and school level
National BodiesQualifications and Curriculum Regulates, develops and modernises theAuthority curriculum, assessments, examinations and qualificationsOffice for Standards in Regulation and inspection of childcare,Education (OfSTED) schools, colleges, childrens services, teacher training and youth workExamination Boards Provide GCSE and Advanced Level Examinations and vocational qualifications for which schools and colleges payDepartment for Children, Examples, DCSF National Director forSchools and Families (DCSF) Languages: strategy in teachingand Department for Innovation, languages, supported by centre forUniversities and Skills (DIUS), language teaching (CILT)plus government funded non National College for School Leadershipgovernmental organisations
Autonomy of Schools The headteacher and senior leaders have freedom to determine school ethos They have full responsibility for the quality of education of pupils in their care Schools are responsible for - Teaching and learning - Appointment and management of all staff - Buildings and site – including playing fields - Budget
Accountability of schools A headteacher is accountable to a Governing body that represents parents, the community and often the Local Authority There are national standards for headteachers New headteachers must be accredited by the National Professional Qualification for Headship Schools are regularly inspected by the Office for Standards in Education (Ofsted)
Responsibilities of Local Authorities (1) Accountable for standards in their area and advocate for children and families Legally responsible for the actions of schools in their areas Enabling schools, social care and health services to work together in the interests of individual children within a framework of children’s services and children’s trusts
Responsibilities of Local Authorities (2) Ensuring children receive an education appropriate to their needs Managing the admission of children to schools Distributing government funding to schools and deciding on the proportion of the budget different schools receive
Government Priorities (1)The Children’s Plan, incorporating Services shaped by and respond to young people and familiesEvery Child Matters Integration of the services that work with childrenNational Strategies at Key Stage 2 The standards unit at the DCSF is(ages 8-11), Key Stage 3 (ages responsible for national11-14) and Key Stage 4 (ages 14- programmes to improve teaching16) and learning and literacy and numeracyInclusion Children with physical disabilities and learning and behavioural difficulties to be educated in mainstream schools
Government Priorities (2)Personalisation Tailoring education to individual need, interest and aptitude so that all pupils achieve the highest standards possible, whatever their economic circumstances and prior achievementIntroduction of more Vocational diplomas in 14 areasvocational pathways for will be introduced from 2008-young people aged 14- 201519Continued expansion of More than two thirds of secondaryspecialist schools schools have subject specialisms
Government Priorities (3)Remodelling the workforce to reduce bureaucracy and focus on learning and teachingICT central to learning and All pupils to have a level 2teaching qualification in ICT by the age of 18.Increasing participation in Target of 50% attendance athigher education university (44% attend now)Schools to work in partnership Successful schools to join withand federations with each failing schools and specialistother and opportunity to create schools to support partners,trust schools greater independence for trust schools
Government Priorities (4)Building schools for the Rebuild or renew all schools over afuture 10-15 year periodInternational Strategy Every child in England to have an international experience while at schoolHealthy Schools Improving dietary, physical and emotional health of young peopleNational skills strategy and Developing the skills of theNational Skills Alliance workforce to meet the needs of(DCSF and Department for employers and improve the basicTrade and Industry) skills of some adults