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Nazi revision

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Nazi revision Nazi revision Presentation Transcript

  • Nazi Germany 1933 - 1945
  • The use of Terror
    • The SS
      • an elite group of committed Nazis, used to eliminate the SA in June 1934
      • charged with internal security
      • guarded concentration camps
      • hunted political enemies
      • commanded by Heinrich Himmler
  • The use of Terror
    • The Gestapo
      • The secret state police. Used to suppress hostility to the regime at home and in occupied territories.
      • Commanded by Himmler
  • The use of Terror
    • Concentration Camps
      • run by the SS to detain enemies of the state
      • Dachau 1933
      • Prisoners Jews, political, priests, anti-socials
      • By 1939 six camps were operating.
      • Extermination Camps Auschwitz-Birkenau
  • Role of Propaganda
    • The Press
      • all non Nazi newspapers and magazines were taken over or closed
      • all content was strictly controlled
    Radio All stations under state control. Cheap mass produced radios sold. Sets installed in cafes and factories. All Hitlers speeches broadcast .
  • Role of Propaganda
    • Films : Over 100 000 made all approved by Goebbels. All films given a pro Nazi stance
    Ministry for Public Propaganda and Enlightenment
  • Role of Propaganda
    • Rallies and Campaigns
      • Annual rally at Nuremburg
      • 1936 Olympic Games, used as propaganda
      • Local rallies and fund raising led by the Hitler Youth and local party organisations
      • Posters used to promote Nazi ideals
    Joseph Goebbels
  • Role of Propaganda
    • Books and Art
      • writers, and composers persuaded or forced to produce works in praise of Hitler
      • Books written by Jews, Communists etc were banned and many destroyed in public book burning in 1933
      • Jazz music banned because of its black origins
  • Religion Nazi Part Attitudes Claimed to approve of Christianity and offer religious freedom. In fact attacked Churches and religious sects Catholic Church : Concordat 1933 in theory allowed Catholic Church to operate freely in return for an oath of loyalty. 1937 after a steady erosion of its influence Pope condemns Nazi’s. Never take a stand on Jewish persecutions Protestant Churches : 1933 attempt by Hitler to gain control and establish a Reich Church. Reich Church was anti-Christian and promoted Nazism. Confessional Church founded in defiance of Nazis
  • Persecution of the Jews
    • Hitler blamed the Jews for
      • Treaty of Versailles
      • Inflation 1923
      • Economic collapse 1929 -32
  • Persecution of the Jews
    • 1933 - Unsuccessful boycott of Jewish shops
    • Jews excluded from Government jobs
    • Thousands of professional Jewish people were dismissed from jobs
    • 1934 - Jews banned from public places, parks, swimming pools etc.
  • Persecution of the Jews
    • 1935 - The Nuremburg Laws 15 September
    • 1 - The Reich Law on citizenship - only those of German blood can be citizens, and have the right to vote.
    • 2- Law for the protection of German Blood and Honour - forbids marriage or sexual relations between Jews and German citizens
  • Persecution of the Jews
    • 1936 - 37
      • The professional activity of Jews is banned or restricted - includes vets, doctors, dentists, accountants, teachers and nurses
      • 1938 Qualifications of Jewish doctors is cancelled
  • Persecution of the Jews
    • 1938 - Riechkristalnacht 9th November
      • Following the murder of a German diplomat in Paris by a Jew a campaign is started which last 3 days and targets Jewish shops, homes and synagogues. 90 killed 20 000 arrested and sent to concentration camps
      • Jewish children excluded form schools and Universities
  • Persecution of the Jews
    • 1939 - Jews no longer allowed to run businesses and shops
      • forbidden to own radios and to buy cakes and chocolate
      • 1940 - 42 Jews deported from Germany Jews in occupied territories moved into ghettos and used as slave labour. Special SS groups formed to deal with the Jews. Gassing in vans starts
  • Persecution of the Jews
    • The Wannsee Conference Jan 1942
    • Decision taken by Nazi leaders led by Heydrich meet to discuss the final solution
    • Decision to evacuate all Jews to extermination camps in Poland is taken
    • Over 4.5 million Jews killed in death camps
  • Persecution of minorities
    • Homosexuals, Gypsies and other undesirables sent to concentration camps
    • Mentally ill sent to concentration camps
    • The Euthanasia programme
      • people judged worthless to the regime were killed.
      • 5,000 children 71, 000 adults
      • Stopped in 1941 after protest from Pope
      • Forced Sterilisation programme to prevent contamination of the Aryan race