Failure of the league ab.

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Failure of the league ab.

  1. 1. Failure of the League The crisis over Abyssinia 1935 - 37
  2. 3. Background to events <ul><li>Abyssinia : An independent country ruled by Haile Selassie, the only independent black country in Africa. In 1896 its army had defeated an Italian invasion. </li></ul><ul><li>Mussolini : Fascist dictator of Italy, was determined to build an Empire. He also wanted revenge for defeat of 1896. </li></ul>
  3. 4. Timeline of Events <ul><li>December 1934 - Italian troops provoke a clash at Wal Wal </li></ul><ul><li>October 1935 - Italian invasion begins </li></ul><ul><li>December 1935 - Britain and France produce Hoare-Laval Plan. Large parts of Abyssinia to be given to Italy in return for Italian withdrawal. Public outcry- plan abandoned </li></ul><ul><li>May 1936 Italian conquest complete </li></ul>
  4. 5. The League: actions and results <ul><li>Dec 1934 offers arbitration </li></ul><ul><li>Rejected by Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Jan-Feb 1935 debates its response </li></ul><ul><li>no further action </li></ul><ul><li>May-Sept sets up a five power commission </li></ul><ul><li>Abyssinia rejects proposals </li></ul><ul><li>Oct 1935 Italy condemned limited economic sanctions imposed </li></ul>
  5. 6. The League: actions and results <ul><li>March 1936 - Oil embargo threatened </li></ul><ul><li>No impact Italy complete conquest. Hitler noted weakness of the League and remilitarize the Rhineland (March 1936) </li></ul><ul><li>June 1936 - Haile Selassie addressed Assembly of League calling for help </li></ul><ul><li>No additional action by League </li></ul>
  6. 7. The League: actions and results <ul><li>July 1936 - sanctions against Italy abandoned </li></ul><ul><li>Italy - Kept Abyssinia </li></ul><ul><li>Became allied with Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Left the Stresa Front </li></ul><ul><li>Left the League (1937) </li></ul>
  7. 8. Why did the League Fail? <ul><li>Britain and France were unwilling to take a lead they feared Italian action against their interests in the area </li></ul><ul><li>Also wanted to keep Mussolini in the Stresa Front to contain the threat posed by Hitler. </li></ul><ul><li>The Hoare-Laval Plan discredited and weakened the League </li></ul>
  8. 9. Long Term Results <ul><li>Countries lost faith in the League </li></ul><ul><li>Countries started to form secret alliances </li></ul><ul><li>Countries started to rearm. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Aims of the Treaty of Versailles G uilt - find some one to blame A rmed forces to be dealt with R eparations - who has to pay G erman territories - what to do LE ague of Nations to be formed
  10. 11. German reaction to Treaty of Versailles U nrepresented N ot allowed to join League of Nations F orced to accept terms - diktat A ngry with armed forces reductions I njustice - War guilt, loss of land etc R eparations - set to high
  11. 12. Why the L of N failed F rench and British self interest A bsent powers - USA I neffective sanctions L ack of an armed force U nfair treaty R eaching decisions too slowly E uropean club, everyone had to agree
  12. 13. The steps to war 1936 - 39 C ivil War in Spain R e-occupation of the Rhineland A nschluss with Austria S udetenland crisis H itler takes over rest of Czechoslovakia I taly and Germany form pact of Steal N azi-Soviet Pact G ermany invades Poland

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