OBJECTIVES• Describe differences between commonsense ways of knowing and systematic ways of knowing.• List the characteristics of scholarly research.• Explain the five common tasks in communication enquiry
OBJECTIVES• Define briefly the nine research methodologies outlined in the text.• Explain the purpose of rhetorical criticism and identify some contemporary critical approaches.• Explain the purpose and methods used in ethnographic research.
OBJECTIVES• Describe the steps in conducting a survey.• Describe the nature and steps in experimental research.• Understand the goals and methods of performance research.
COMMONSENSE WAYS OF KNOWING• Our everyday models of human behaviour are often models of our own behaviour.• Our everyday models of human behaviour may also be models of what we wish were true rather than what is true.• Our everyday models of human behaviour are based on simplistic thinking.
SYSTEMATIC WAYS OF KNOWING: The Characteristics of Scholarly Research• Question Oriented• Methodological• Replicable• Self-Critical• Cumulative and Self-Correcting• Cyclical
COMMUNICATION ENQUIRY TASK 1: Formulate a research question TASK 2: Choose a research methodology TASK 3: Design a sampling strategy TASK 4: Gather and analyze data TASK 5: Interpret data and share results
TASK 1: Research question• It should be specific and clear• Define key concepts and terms Conceptual: explains the meaning in a general abstract way Operational: how the term will be measured in the study
TASKS 2-5: ResearchPopular Research Methododologies: Rhetorical Criticism Survey Research Content Analysis Experimental Research Conversation Analysis Performance Research Ethnography Mixed Methods Unobtrusive methods …
RHETORICAL CRITICISM• It is an extension and refinement of the everyday critical impulse; it is a systematic way of describing, analyzing, and evaluating a given act of communication.• The rhetorical critic’s goal is to increase understanding and appreciation of a rhetorical act. They must demonstrate that they understand the context and structure of the rhetorical act being judged and provide support for critical claims.
RHETORICAL CRITICISM cont.Neo-Aristotelion Criticism: Social Movement Studies:Evaluates a speaker’s rhetorical Analyses how a social cause gainschoices adherents, how members communicate to the public and its impact on culture at largeGenre Criticism: Cultural Ideological Criticism:Discusses how a message fits into a Examines acts for political messagesgenre or specific type ofcommunicationBurkean Dramatistic Analysis: Social Values Criticism:Views symbolic acts as “drama” Looks at the way cultural products represent a culture’s basic valuesFantasy Theme Analysis:Examines the implicit narrativestructure of rhetoric acts
ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH• Ethnographers learn from observation. They want to understand how members of other cultures interpret their world.• To achieve this goal the researcher must make direct contact with the individuals he/she wishes to observe.
ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH cont.Covert Role The researcher goes “under-cover”Overt Role The researcher enters the field as a scientist and people know they are being observedField Notes A record of critical events and behaviours and the researcher’s self-observations, feelings and interpretationsInformant A member of the culture who is willing to show the researcher around and answer questions and set up interviews with othersPresuppositionless research Research where the researcher’s own prejudices, norms and values are set aside
SURVEY RESEARCH STEP 1: Choose a sample of people to question STEP 2: Decide what to ask STEP 3: Decide how to ask it (Interview or questionnaire) STEP 4: Code responses and look for meaningful patterns STEP 5: Draw conclusions from the data
SURVEY RESEARCH cont.Probability sampling Allows generalizations as it assures the researcher that the sample is representative.Simple random sampling Each member of the population has an equal chance of being in the sample.Nonprobability sampling Some members of the population may virtually have no chance of being included whereas others may be overrepresented.Accidental sampling Uses the most convenient people availableDouble-barreled questions Asking several questions at onceLeading questions Questions that indicate a preferred responseClose-ended questions Choose from a finite list of answersOpen-ended questions Respondent is free to answer in their own words
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH STEP 1: Conduct a pretest STEP 2: Decide how the treatment is to be administered STEP 3: Decide when the dependent variable is to be measured STEP 4: Conduct a posttest STEP 5: Draw conclusions from the data
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH cont.Dependent variable The expected effectIndependent variable The expected causePretest The measurement of the dependent variable before the treatmentPosttest The measurement of the dependent variable after the treatmentControl group Equivalent to the first group but it does not receive the experimental treatmentReliable It must consistently yield the same resultsValid It must actually measure the dependent variable
PREFORMANCE AS RESEARCH STEP 1: Selecting – identifying a communication act or text STEP 2: Playing – experiments with ways of interpreting STEP 3: Testing – interpretation tested against evidence STEP 4: Choosing – picks a way of performing that conveys meaning to an audience STEP 5: Repeating – rehearse until there is a natural flow STEP 6: Presenting – displays to others his/her understanding
COMMUNICATION STUDY• You can take formal communication courses.• You can explore other subject areas: – Psychology and sociology – Literary criticism and liguistics – History and politics• Reading novels and watching plays or films.• Observing human interaction• Develop your curiosity
FIELDS OF COMMUNICATION STUDYInterpersonal Communication: Mass Communication:The study of verbal and non-verbal The study of mediated messages created forexchanges in everyday interaction. a wide public audience.Small-group/Organizational Language and Semiotic Systems:Communication: The study of code systems used to createThe study of how communication helps messages in any of the contexts listed in thispeople in groups accomplish goals and table.maintain group identity. Also the study ofhow communication operates in complexorganizations.Public Communication: Intercultural Communication:The study of communication in face-to-face, The study of communication across culturalone-to-many communication settings boundaries.Performance Studies:The study of ways people perform personal,cultural, or artistic scripts before audiences.
HOMEWORK Day TaskMonday Continue working through revision sheet for chapters 1, 2 and 12. These will end up being your study notes for the first exam – so make sure you complete this to your best ability!Tuesday Preview and start taking notes for Chapter 13: Methods of Discovery (Text pp348-377)Wednesday Take notes for the first 5 objectives for Chapter 13.Thursday Take notes for objectives 6-9 for Chapter 13. Find the meanings of key words (located on p377) and add to your vocab lists for this subject.Friday Complete reading log #3 and email to Danni. Make any final corrections to reading log #2 for final submission [This means Reading Logs #1 and #2 should be ready to send to SLU] firstname.lastname@example.org