The Communication Tradition Week One: Chapter One
Chapter One Objectives:• Identify the four periods of rhetorical study• Describe the way in which scholars viewed communication in the classical period• Describe the five canons of rhetoric• Explain the major characteristics of communication study during the medieval period and the Renaissance• Outline rhetorical study during the modern period• Distinguish between humanistic and scientific approaches to communication study
The Four Periods of Rhetorical StudyThe Classical Period The Medieval Period (500BC – 400CE) (400 – 1600)
The Four Periods of Rhetorical StudyThe Modern Period The Contemporary (1600 – 1900) Period (1900 – )
The Classical Period:• This period arose with Greek democracy• The main idea was that public communication was an important tool for problem solving.• This period saw the development of the first Communication Model “The Five Canons of Rhetoric”• Famous Rhetorics included Plato, Socrates, Aristotle, Cicero and Quintilian.
The Five Canons of Rhetoric:1. Invention: what can be said about a certain topic and finding arguments that the audience can understand. The major speech occasions were forensic, deliberative and ceremonial. Modes of proof were ethos, pathos and logos.2. Style: select and arrange the wording of the message carefully. Language should be clear lively and appropriate to the audience.
The Five Canons of Rhetoric:3. Arrangement: arrange one‟s ideas for maximum impact (e.g. Introduction, body and conclusion). A speech must end with a summary and conclusion. Order would depend on the audience.4. Memory: find a way to keep the message firmly in mind. Also find ways to make speech material memorable, such as novelty.5. Delivery: present the speech in a natural varied and appropriate way. Voice should convey interest and emotion. Include gesture.
WORD MEANINGForensic pertaining to, connected with, or used in courts of law or public discussion and debate. Adapted or suited to argumentation; rhetorical.Deliberative having to do with policy; dealing with the wisdom and expediency of a proposal: a deliberative speech.Epideictic (Ceremonial) designed to display something, esp the skill of the speaker in rhetoricEthos the fundamental character or spirit of a culture; the underlying sentiment that informs the beliefs, customs, or practices of a group or society; dominant assumptions of a people or period: In the Greek ethos the individual was highly valued.Pathos the quality or power in an actual life experience or in literature, music, speech, or other forms of expression, of evoking a feeling of pity or compassion.Logos the rational principle that governs and develops the universe.
The Medieval Period:• This period arose with the rise of monolithic Christianity. Rhetoric became second to theology.• The main idea was an emphasis on letters and preaching, with the focus being prescriptive not theoretical. The emphasis was also on embellishing and amplifying rhetorical style.• Famous Rhetorics included Augustine, Cassiodorus, John of Salisbury and Erasmus.
WORD MEANINGMonolithic characterized by massiveness, total uniformity, rigidity, invulnerability, .Theology the field of study and analysis that treats of God and of Gods attributes and relations to the universe; study of divine things or religious truth; divinity.Prescriptive that prescribes; giving directions or injunctions:Embellishing to enhance (a statement or narrative) with fictitious additions.
The Modern Period:• This period focused on public rhetoric and developing public policy.• There was more importance being placed on writing as books and newspapers were becoming more available.• Modern rhetoric followed four paths.• Famous Rhetorics included Francis Bacon, Rene Descartes, John Locke, Fenelon, Lord Kames, George Campbell, Joseph Priestly and Thomas DeQuincey.
The Four Paths of the ModernPeriod of Rhetoric:1. The five canons of Classical rhetoric.2. Psychological /epistemological rhetoric (This investigated responses to persuasive messages)3. Belletristic rhetoric (This is where written and spoken communication were viewed as forms of art and aided the development of criticism)4. Elocutionist rhetoric (This path focused on elaborate rules for delivery)
WORD MEANINGEpistemological pertaining to epistemology, a branch of philosophy that investigates the origin, nature, methods, and limits of human knowledge.Belletristic literature regarded as a fine art, especially as having a purely aesthetic function.Criticism any of various methods of studying texts or documents for the purpose of dating or reconstructing them, evaluating their authenticity, analyzing their content or style, etc.: historical criticism; literary criticism.Elocution the study and practice of oral delivery, including the control of both voice and gesture.Elaborate marked by intricate and often excessive detail; complicated.
Contemporary Period:• This period saw the study of communication divide into two sides: Rhetoric and Communication Theory• Rhetoricians used humanistic methods to analyse public discussion.• Communication Theorists used scientific methods to analyse communication behaviors.• This period also expanded communication study to include interpersonal, group and public communication.• The rise in electronic media and rapid development of technology has also signaled many extra changes in communication therefore the study of communication.
Humanistic vs. Scientific approachesto communication study:• Both approaches want to understand how communicators affect each other as they interact.• Humanistic approaches use the historical and critical methods of the humanities in their studies of the ways which symbolic activity shapes public response to political and ethical issues.• Scientific methods use controlled laboratory experimentations, with careful, objective measurement to reduce a phenomenon to its most basic elements and variables. They would then test these variables in other controlled conditions. Areas of science such as psychology, anthropology and sociology developed during this contemporary period.
WORD MEANINGInterpersonal of or pertaining to the relations between persons.The humanities the humanities, a. the study of classical languages and classical literature. b. the Latin and Greek classics as a field of study. c. literature, philosophy, art, etc., as distinguished from the natural sciences. d. the study of literature, philosophy, art, etc.Objective not influenced by personal feelings, interpretations, or prejudice; based on facts; unbiased: an objective opinion.Psychology the science of the mind or of mental states and processes and the science of human and animal behavior.Anthropology the science that deals with the origins, physical and cultural development, biological characteristics, and social customs and beliefs of humankind.Sociology the science or study of the origin, development, organization, and functioning of human society; the science of the fundamental laws of social relations, institutions, etc.
Studying Communication:• People who study communication (Rhetoricians and Communication Scientists) can enter into professions such as: speechwriters, political consultants, politicians, legal consultants, lawyers, advertising executives, public relations experts, counselors, organizational training and development specialists, professional negotiators, personnel managers, specialists in information storage and retrieval, radio or television performers, media consultants, and so on!• Communication study is something that could help you in any future profession, and can even help in your personal life.
HOMEWORK: DAY TASKTuesday 1. Put the „5 Canons of Rhetoric‟ into your own words 2. Find the meanings of forensic, deliberative and ceremonial, ethos, pathos and logos.Wednesday Chose one of the following important Rhetoricians and find 10 important facts about him: Aristotle, Plato, Cicero, Quintilian, Francis Bacon, Rene Descartes, John Locke, George Campbell. (Each person is to choose a different Rhetorician)Thursday Find the meanings of the Key words located on the summary handout and add these to your vocab list.Friday Read ahead for Chapter 2 and start your first reading log.