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Management2.0

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  • 1. Management2.0: Competitive Advantage through Business Model Design & Innovation Guadalajara, June 2007 Alexander Osterwalder, PhD alex@arvetica.com
  • 2. change is the process by which the future invades our lives -> Alvin Toffler
  • 3. first of all: what are YOUR concerns? (buzz groups)
  • 4. what are YOUR biggest issues and fears you face in strategic management today?
  • 5. where do YOU see the largest opportunities to improve strategic management today?
  • 6. your expectations for today?
  • 7. what is innovation?
  • 8. tell me about the most important innovations in your company
  • 9. types of innovation?
  • 10. technology innovation
  • 11. process innovation
  • 12. product & service innovation
  • 13. business model innovation
  • 14. four rings of innovation business model innovation product & service innovation process innovation technology innovation
  • 15. which one of your examples qualify as business model innovation?
  • 16. “B u si e ss m o d e l i n o va ti n m a tte rs” a n d i n n o t is a top priority of CEOs
  • 17. Operating Margin Growth in Excess of Competitive Peers compound annual growth rate over five years [Source: IBM, CEOs are expanding the innovation horizon: important implications for CIOs]
  • 18. Benefits Cited by Business Model Innovators percent of respondents [Source: IBM, Global CEO Study 2006]
  • 19. some examples
  • 20. NetJets: Fractional Ownership
  • 21. Zopa.com: Peer-to-Peer lending
  • 22. Bellum Concepts
  • 23. why talk about business models?
  • 24. how do you describe a business model?
  • 25. without a common language
  • 26. how do you communicate a business model?
  • 27. 18% 1% 300% Strategy Text Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Cras in tortor. Sed posuere erat. Maecenas pulvinar nulla eu magna. Vivamus semper, risus ut egestas pulvinar, lectus ante feugiat quam, sit amet congue odio lacus ac ipsum. Aliquam suscipit, est ut volutpat vulputate, nulla felis pulvinar libero, non ornare libero ipsum tristique tortor. Fusce sed lorem vitae justo feugiat malesuada. Donec aliquet. Vivamus semper eros nec Text diam. Vivamus sem arcu, imperdiet nec, congue ac, scelerisque vel, nulla. Donec et mauris. Integer a nulla vulputate pede consequat euismod. Praesent molestie urna nec leo. Proin eros. Maecenas ac sem nec dui sodales tempus. Maecenas suscipit egestas velit. Suspendisse vel tortor. Proin imperdiet, sem nec aliquet ultrices, nunc est egestas eros, non hendrerit magna eros eget augue. Maecenas sed leo vitae leo faucibus vulputate. Proin dignissim eros at augue. Text Nam luctus nulla non nibh. Nam at lorem ac mauris laoreet viverra. In placerat consequat nunc. Donec rhoncus nunc ac urna. Integer vestibulum condimentum orci. Fusce velit turpis, malesuada quis, scelerisque ut, eleifend vitae, ipsum. Vestibulum eu erat. Vestibulum justo nisl, tincidunt et, semper vel, tristique quis, eros. Vestibulum tempus, massa vel consectetuer congue, erat magna consequat purus, a facilisis orci nibh vitae purus. Nam tincidunt venenatis ligula. Nunc orci nulla, ornare quis, lobortis viverra, dapibus at, turpis. Suspendisse sit amet nisl at enim tincidunt blandit. Curabitur augue est, suscipit sed, egestas sit amet, vehicula vitae, tellus. Maecenas nec metus vel nisi interdum pellentesque. Development plan • Quisque augue felis, commodo a, elementum id, faucibus id, sem. Aenean rutrum enim. Praesent pulvinar dignissim nisl. Cras a nunc. Donec tincidunt odio sit amet lacus. Pellentesque metus tortor, ullamcorper vitae, lobortis vel, euismod in, mi. Ut laoreet, tellus laoreet blandit mollis, massa purus posuere purus, quis molestie ligula massa eu metus. Duis placerat, nulla sit amet ornare interdum, neque nunc mollis leo, vitae porttitor mi orci sit amet neque. Donec at enim. In facilisis tellus gravida ligula. Phasellus ut lorem. Pellentesque ac tortor eget augue suscipit ullamcorper. Aenean eleifend porta orci. • Etiam at arcu. Vestibulum lacinia nunc in eros. Suspendisse potenti. Aliquam erat volutpat. Donec gravida. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Cum sociis natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. Maecenas vel enim et metus semper fringilla. Donec ornare arcu. Maecenas faucibus ligula convallis nibh. Mauris dui quam, congue eu, commodo nec, tristique in, enim. Nulla auctor semper urna. Quisque a elit eu purus iaculis vestibulum. Aliquam dictum risus at odio. Fusce at lorem et elit faucibus placerat. Aenean velit. Proin elit odio, blandit et, scelerisque quis, pulvinar a, dui. Nunc magna dolor, bibendum ut, accumsan congue, tincidunt sit amet, neque. Proin consequat tincidunt lacus. In urna dui, congue nec, tincidunt sit amet, facilisis imperdiet, lorem. 12% • Morbi sed nibh. Vivamus vitae dolor. Ut bibendum volutpat mi. Pellentesque quis magna non lectus elementum pretium. Aliquam quis est vitae arcu consequat fringilla. Cras magna risus, placerat eget, egestas consectetuer, ornare vel, felis. Nam ornare justo id orci mattis ultricies. Morbi luctus. Ut pretium odio ac libero. Nunc sollicitudin pharetra lorem. Aenean scelerisque, lacus eget ullamcorper scelerisque, ipsum urna viverra mi, eget viverra quam eros eget velit. Ut Words lacinia feugiat purus. Cum sociis natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. Etiam nunc nisl, aliquam blandit, luctus id, commodo laoreet, sem. Phasellus sit amet orci ut sapien vulputate pellentesque. Pellentesque dapibus purus et quam. Nam sit amet magna in neque dignissim sodales. Aenean non justo nec magna lobortis volutpat. through inappropriate means
  • 28. Ok Here Here CEOs 10° Managers 60° Staff 360°
  • 29. how do you implement a business model?
  • 30. with outdated methods
  • 31. how do you measure the success of a business model?
  • 32. w e d on ’ t
  • 33. how do you change a business model and innovate?
  • 34. we re-invent the wheel
  • 35. what is a business model?
  • 36. business model framework INFRASTRUCTURE OFFER CUSTOMER PARTNER CUSTOMER NETWORK RELATIONSHIPS CORE VALUE CUSTOMER CAPABILITIES PROPOSITION SEGMENTS ACTIVITY DISTRIBUTION CONFIGURATION CHANNELS COST REVENUE FINANCE STRUCTURE STREAMS a business model describes the value an organization offers to various customers and portrays the capabilities and partners required for creating, marketing, and delivering this value and relationship capital with the goal of generating profitable and sustainable revenue streams [Osterwalder (2004) The Business Model Ontology]
  • 37. case study
  • 38. you become the new owner of a soccer cl b … u
  • 39. describe YOUR cl b ’ b u si ess us n model
  • 40. what value proposition do you offer, to which customer segments? describing how a wealth management bank acquires its clients
  • 41. what value proposition do you offer, to which customer segments? (model) OFFER CUSTOMER VALUE CUSTOMER PROPOSITION SEGMENTS value proposition 1 target customer 1 value proposition 2 target customer 2 … …
  • 42. what value proposition do you offer, to which customer segments? (example) OFFER CUSTOMER spectacular fans offensive football advertising space & advertisers high visibility … …
  • 43. how do you reach your customers?
  • 44. how do you reach your customers? (model) OFFER CUSTOMER COMMUNICATION VALUE CUSTOMER & DISTRIBUTION PROPOSITION SEGMENTS CHANNELS value proposition 1 channel 1 target customer 1 value proposition 2 channel 2 target customer 2 … … …
  • 45. how do you reach your customers? (example) OFFER CUSTOMER stadium & box office spectacular club owned TV fans offensive football channel mobile phone TV advertising space & sales force advertisers high visibility
  • 46. how do you build relationships?
  • 47. how do you build relationships with your customers? (model) OFFER CUSTOMER VALUE CUSTOMER CUSTOMER PROPOSITION RELATIONSHIP SEGMENTS value proposition 1 mechanism 1 target customer 1 value proposition 2 mechanism 2 target customer 2 … … …
  • 48. how do you build relationships with your customers? (example) OFFER CUSTOMER personalized website (ticketing) spectacular team blog (RSS) fans offensive football …
  • 49. how do you earn your money with this business model?
  • 50. how do you earn your money with this business model? (model) OFFER FINANCE VALUE REVENUE CUSTOMER PROPOSITION STREAMS SEGMENTS value proposition 1 revenue stream 1 target customer 1 value proposition 2 revenue stream 2 target customer 2 … … …
  • 51. how do you earn your money with this business model? (example) OFFER FINANCE ticket sales spectacular TV channel fans offensive football subscriber fees mobile phone TV subscriber fees advertising space & advertising revenues advertisers high visibility
  • 52. the business models place in a company
  • 53. STRATEGY BUSINESS MODEL ORGANIZATION TECHNOLOGY th e b u si ess m od els p l n ’ ace i th e com p an y n
  • 54. external forces
  • 55. 5 forces customer technological needs change BUSINESS MODEL legal social environment environment competition
  • 56. the big picture (business model)
  • 57. the big picture Partner Network Customer Relationship • food & beverages • personalized web profile • ticketing services • newsletter • promoters • team blog (RSS) • ad placement • VIP events with team • telecom operator •… • TV operator •… Core Capability Activity Configuration Value Proposition Distribution Channel Target Customer • play attractive & win • team management • attractive soccer • stadium • fans (families, etc.) • event management • 360º event (match, • POS networks • fan groups games • brand management • venue management • club website (+online TV) • companies dining, shopping) • video images • ticketing • exclusive VIP lounges • club cable TV channel • event/concert organizers • channel management • VIP relationship • merchandising • mobile phone TV channel • advertisers • renting out stadium •… •… management • video crew •… •… Cost Structure Revenue Model • team & maintenance • Ticket fees & season tickets • infrastructure management • online TV subscription revenues • marketing • revenue sharing cable & mobile phone TV • video • renting out stadium for events • advertising revenues • merchandising revenues
  • 58. value creates revenues Partner Network Customer Relationship • food & beverages • personalized web profile • ticketing services • newsletter • promoters • team blog (RSS) • ad placement • VIP events with team • telecom operator •… • TV operator •… Core Capability Activity Configuration Value Proposition Distribution Channel Target Customer • play attractive & win • team management • attractive soccer • stadium • fans (families, etc.) • event management • 360º event (match, • POS networks • fan groups games • brand management • venue management • club website (+online TV) • companies dining, shopping) • video images • ticketing • exclusive VIP lounges • club cable TV channel • event/concert organizers • channel management • VIP relationship • merchandising • mobile phone TV channel • advertisers • renting out stadium •… •… management • video crew •… •… Cost Structure Revenue Model • team & maintenance • Ticket fees & season tickets • infrastructure management • online TV subscription revenues • marketing • revenue sharing cable & mobile phone TV • video • renting out stadium for events • advertising revenues • merchandising revenues
  • 59. creating value requires infrastructure Partner Network Customer Relationship • food & beverages • personalized web profile • ticketing services • newsletter • promoters • team blog (RSS) • ad placement • VIP events with team • telecom operator •… • TV operator •… Core Capability Activity Configuration Value Proposition Distribution Channel Target Customer • play attractive & win • team management • attractive soccer • stadium • fans (families, etc.) • event management • 360º event (match, • POS networks • fan groups games • brand management • venue management • club website (+online TV) • companies dining, shopping) • video images • ticketing • exclusive VIP lounges • club cable TV channel • event/concert organizers • channel management • VIP relationship • merchandising • mobile phone TV channel • advertisers • renting out stadium •… •… management • video crew •… •… Cost Structure Revenue Model • team & maintenance • Ticket fees & season tickets • infrastructure management • online TV subscription revenues • marketing • revenue sharing cable & mobile phone TV • video • renting out stadium for events • advertising revenues • merchandising revenues
  • 60. infrastructure generates costs Partner Network Customer Relationship • food & beverages • personalized web profile • ticketing services • newsletter • promoters • team blog (RSS) • ad placement • VIP events with team • telecom operator •… • TV operator •… Core Capability Activity Configuration Value Proposition Distribution Channel Target Customer • play attractive & win • team management • attractive soccer • stadium • fans (families, etc.) • event management • 360º event (match, • POS networks • fan groups games • brand management • venue management • club website (+online TV) • companies dining, shopping) • video images • ticketing • exclusive VIP lounges • club cable TV channel • event/concert organizers • channel management • VIP relationship • merchandising • mobile phone TV channel • advertisers • renting out stadium •… •… management • video crew •… •… Cost Structure Revenue Model • team & maintenance • Ticket fees & season tickets • infrastructure management • online TV subscription revenues • marketing • revenue sharing cable & mobile phone TV • video • renting out stadium for events • advertising revenues • merchandising revenues
  • 61. the profit zone Partner Network Customer Relationship • food & beverages • personalized web profile • ticketing services • newsletter • promoters • team blog (RSS) • ad placement • VIP events with team • telecom operator •… • TV operator •… Core Capability Activity Configuration Value Proposition Distribution Channel Target Customer • play attractive & win • team management • attractive soccer • stadium • fans (families, etc.) • event management • 360º event (match, • POS networks • fan groups games • brand management • venue management • club website (+online TV) • companies dining, shopping) • video images • ticketing • exclusive VIP lounges • club cable TV channel • event/concert organizers • channel management • VIP relationship • merchandising • mobile phone TV channel • advertisers • renting out stadium •… •… management • video crew •… •… Cost Structure Revenue Model • team & maintenance • Ticket fees & season tickets • infrastructure management • online TV subscription revenues < • marketing • revenue sharing cable & mobile phone TV • video • renting out stadium for events • advertising revenues • merchandising revenues
  • 62. the process of designing innovative business models
  • 63. the focus of the business model innovator & designer
  • 64. user-centered
  • 65. PARTNER CUSTOMER NETWORK RELATIONSHIPS CORE VALUE CUSTOMER CAPABILITIES PROPOSITION SEGMENTS ACTIVITY DISTRIBUTION CONFIGURATION CHANNELS COST REVENUE STRUCTURE STREAMS
  • 66. Nokia: Jan Chipchase
  • 67. creativity & exploration
  • 68. Googleplex
  • 69. 70:20:10
  • 70. API
  • 71. PARTNER CUSTOMER NETWORK RELATIONSHIPS CORE VALUE CUSTOMER CAPABILITIES PROPOSITION SEGMENTS ACTIVITY DISTRIBUTION CONFIGURATION CHANNELS COST REVENUE STRUCTURE STREAMS
  • 72. continuous innovation
  • 73. interdisciplinary approach
  • 74. Grameen Phone Bangladesh
  • 75. Grameen Bank customer relationships telecom operators micro-credit village phone ladies villager telephony mobile activity telephony configuration source of Grameen phone ladies revenue Bank (billing) billing telecom mobile phone infrastructure revenues
  • 76. holistic design
  • 77. Apple iTunes & iPod
  • 78. content producers lifestyle brand hardware suppliers hardware & prod. & softw. softw. dev. design iPod Apple stores brand e-commerce management “h i h -e n d ” g dealer iBook consumer network multimedia hardware rights mgmt distribution multimedia iTunes downloads content content distribution hardware revenues cost structure multimedia revenues
  • 79. strategic fit
  • 80. the Amazon.com you know
  • 81. Amazon Simple Storage Services (S3)
  • 82. customer partners relationships product selection content selling stuff mass Amazon.com management on the Web customer distribution Web2.0 warehousing Amazon S3 Internet API companies & distribution product search A9 product e-commerce data services Internet search sites Amazon.com data grid selling stuff IT infra data storage fees marketing search engine revenues
  • 83. the business m od el s tool ox er’ b
  • 84. co-creation
  • 85. ideation
  • 86. visualization
  • 87. prototyping
  • 88. the design process
  • 89. 1. identify interdisciplinary stakeholders -> set-up team
  • 90. do you have to get the IT team out of their cubicles?
  • 91. 2. understand (business) environment – > frame problem
  • 92. various starting points / depending on context PARTNER CUSTOMER NETWORK RELATIONSHIPS CORE VALUE CUSTOMER CAPABILITIES PROPOSITION SEGMENTS ACTIVITY DISTRIBUTION CONFIGURATION CHANNELS COST REVENUE STRUCTURE STREAMS [Osterwalder (2004) The Business Model Ontology]
  • 93. 3. suspend reality -> ideate
  • 94. 4. bring back reality -> prototype
  • 95. 5. chose suitable design -> decide
  • 96. 6. sketch out projects & workload -> draw implementation plan
  • 97. Project Estimated Area name workload 10 Project V1 man/days Value Proposition 120 Project V2 man/days Distribution 38 Project C1 Channels man/days …
  • 98. 7. outline key indicators to follow -> choose measures
  • 99. Target Project Estimated KPI Area name workload (measure) level 10 Project V1 man/days Value Proposition 120 Project V2 man/days Distribution 38 Project C1 Channels man/days …
  • 100. 8. select the right teams and people -> make responsible
  • 101. Target Project Estimated KPI Area leader name workload (measure) level 10 Project V1 Mr. Jan man/days Value Proposition 120 Project V2 Ms. Tee man/days Distribution 38 Project C1 Channels man/days …
  • 102. 9. execute the plan -> manage implementation & change
  • 103. 10. evaluate, learn and redesign -> manage improvement
  • 104. designing blue oceans
  • 105. > market boundaries are not given > they are reconstructed by the actions & beliefs of industry players
  • 106. RED OCEAN BLUE OCEAN • create uncontested • compete in existing markets markets • make competition • beat the competition irrelevant • explore existing demand • create & capture new demand • make the value/cost trad- off • break value/cost trad-off • align with differentiation • align with differentiation OR low cost AND low cost
  • 107. differentiate your value proposition
  • 108. working definition value proposition • a customer value proposition gives an overall view of a company's bundle of products, services and client advice. • it is the sum of the total benefits a customer is promised to receive in return for a payment (or other value transfer)
  • 109. group warm-up what are the 5 most important competitive attributes that characterize a game con sol s offer? e’ (e.g. price, performance, design) attribute 1 e.g. performance attribute 2 e.g. price
  • 110. 5 attributes 1 2 1. most important attribute 2. second most important 3. … 4. … 3 4 - -
  • 111. 1. … 2. … 3. … 4. … 5. …
  • 112. draw a value proposition 5 - high b an k’ p erform an ce 3 - medium s 1 - low [Kim & Mauborgne (2002) Charting Your Company's Future]
  • 113. live Excel
  • 114. eliminate raise reduce create
  • 115. strong & valuable approach, but limited view
  • 116. PARTNER CUSTOMER NETWORK RELATIONSHIPS CORE VALUE CUSTOMER CAPABILITIES PROPOSITION SEGMENTS ACTIVITY DISTRIBUTION CONFIGURATION CHANNELS COST REVENUE STRUCTURE STREAMS
  • 117. examples
  • 118. Goldcorp “g eo l g y p rize” o CUSTOMER 500’ 000 $U S RELATIONSHIPS exploiting CUSTOMER mining mines SEGMENTS DISTRIBUTION research CHANNELS low costs through REVENUE open exploration STREAMS Goldcorp publicly shared all of its geological data and o ffe re d U S $ 5 0 0 ’ 0 0 i p ri s fo r d e te rm i i g w h e re 0 n ze nn they might find the next 6 million ounces of gold
  • 119. from copyright to creative commons
  • 120. Skype “eB ay” website deliver voice & free VoIP & value global video quality added services (non segmented) software internet development software large scale development low margin free voice-over-IP VoIP telephony & value-added services
  • 121. 1291 Cityhomes low-cost hotel/rental in New York City young curious Swiss CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIPS apartment owners keep down low cost DISTRIBUTION the cost renting out costs accommodation CHANNELS sensible rooms New York find demand low cost rents
  • 122. Tecnovate “im p o rt” yo u n g CUSTOMER curious RELATIONSHIPS Europeans to India to work low-cost multi- ACTIVITY DISTRIBUTION lingual call keep down European CONFIGURATION CHANNELS center costs corporations outsourcing REVENUE low cost STREAMS b u si e ss p ro ce ss o u tso u rci g “u p -si e d o w n ” i In d i n n d n a
  • 123. Netflix independent profile films (niche) movies large movie specialized over the database clientele Internet ACTIVITY Web CONFIGURATION COST REVENUE STRUCTURE STREAMS online movie rental (with large niche movie database)
  • 124. from bloated head to the long tail
  • 125. Alexander Osterwalder, PhD alex@arvetica.com www.arvetica.com
  • 126. all photos from Flickr under a creative commons license authors indicated in comment page of ppt
  • 127. Nobody knows your business environment better than yourself. We co-design your strategic vision by building we co-create on your knowledge. Through group thinking we find the right answers to the right questions together Having a great vision is not sufficient - implementation counts. We help you reconcile long term views with short we operationalize term actions. We make strategy everyone's job by translating it into pragmatic and prioritized projects. Change does not happen accidentally it has to be managed. We help you align strategy, people and we manage change processes with respect to your organizational culture and values. When you stop learning, you stop competing. We scan the knowledge universe for you, across disciplines and we build knowledge industries. We transfer the best methods, tools and theory in business to your organization. Specific problems require specific skills that you do not necessarily dispose of in-house. Through our we connect interdisciplinary network we connect you with leading domain experts.
  • 128. annexes
  • 129. annex I business model template
  • 130. INFRASTRUCTURE OFFER CUSTOMER PARTNER CUSTOMER NETWORK RELATIONSHIP CORE VALUE TARGET CAPABILITIES PROPOSITION CUSTOMER VALUE DISTRIBUTION CONFIGURATION CHANNEL COST REVENUE FINANCE STRUCTURE STREAMS a business model describes the value an organization offers to various customers and portrays the capabilities and partners required for creating, marketing, and delivering this value and relationship capital with the goal of generating profitable and sustainable revenue streams
  • 131. d e scri i g a co m p a n y’ b u si e ss m o d e l bn s n PARTNER CUSTOMER INFRASTRUCTURE CUSTOMER NETWORK RELATIONSHIP OFFER CORE TARGET portrays the network of explains the CAPABILITIES CUSTOMER cooperative relationships a agreements with other company establishes VALUE companies with its customers PROPOSITION outlines the capabilities describes the required to run a customers a company company's business wants to offer value to model DISTRIBUTION gives an overall view of VALUE a company's bundle of CHANNEL CONFIGURATION products and services describes the channels describes the to communicate and arrangement of get in touch with activities and resources customers sums up the monetary describes the revenue COST REVENUE FINANCE consequences to run a streams through which STRUCTURE STREAMS business model money is earned
  • 132. d e scri i g a co m p a n y’ o ffe r bn s OFFER VALUE PROPOSITION value proposition 1 value proposition 2 …
  • 133. describing who a company offers value to OFFER CUSTOMER VALUE TARGET PROPOSITION CUSTOMER value proposition 1 target customer 1 value proposition 2 target customer 2 … …
  • 134. describing how a company reaches its customers OFFER CUSTOMER VALUE DISTRIBUTION TARGET PROPOSITION CHANNEL CUSTOMER value proposition 1 distribution channel 1 target customer 1 value proposition 2 distribution channel 2 target customer 2 … … …
  • 135. describing the relationships a company builds OFFER CUSTOMER VALUE CUSTOMER TARGET PROPOSITION RELATIONSHIP CUSTOMER value proposition 1 relationship type 1 target customer 1 value proposition 2 relationship type 2 target customer 2 … … …
  • 136. describing how a company makes money OFFER FINANCE CUSTOMER VALUE REVENUE TARGET PROPOSITION STREAM CUSTOMER value proposition 1 revenue stream 1 target customer 1 value proposition 2 revenue stream 2 target customer 2 … … …
  • 137. describing what capabilities are required INFRASTRUCTURE OFFER CORE VALUE CAPABILITIES PROPOSITION core capability 1 value proposition 1 core capability 2 value proposition 2 … …
  • 138. describing what activities are required INFRASTRUCTURE OFFER CORE VALUE VALUE CAPABILITIES CONFIGURATION PROPOSITION core capability 1 activity 1 value proposition 1 core capability 2 activity 2 value proposition 2 … … …
  • 139. describing the partners that leverage the business model INFRASTRUCTURE OFFER CORE PARTNER VALUE CAPABILITIES NETWORK PROPOSITION core capability 1 partner 1 value proposition 1 core capability 2 partner 2 value proposition 2 … … …
  • 140. describing the costs of a business model INFRASTRUCTURE FINANCE OFFER CORE COST VALUE CAPABILITIES STRUCTURE PROPOSITION core capability 1 cost account 1 value proposition 1 core capability 2 cost account 2 value proposition 2 … … …
  • 141. annex ii other

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