Presentational Speaking
Key Principles of
Presentational Speaking
We learn that speaking in public is a stressful event.
You do not have to be per...
Stress
Distress vs. Eustress
Stages of stress:
1.
2.

3.

Alarm
Adaptation or
resistance
Exhaustion
Types of Presentations and
Modes of Delivery
Memorized
Informative
Manuscript
Demonstrative
Notes
Persuasive
Impromptu
Creating and Delivering an
Effective Presentation
1.Know

your audience

2.Determine

the purpose

3.Narrow

the topic (as...
1. Know Your Audience

Who is going to be in the audience, and what do
you need to know about them?
Why are you delivering...
2. Determine the Purpose

Do you want to inform, persuade, demonstrate, or entertain?
What will you be speaking about and ...
3. Narrow the Topic

What might the audience already know?
What is the time allotment?
What materials will you present?
4. Gather Supporting
Material
5. Organize the Presentation:
Introduction
Introduce the subject clearly and
preview your main points
Get the audience’s a...
5. Organize the Presentation:
Tips for Answering Questions
Repeat or paraphrase the question
Answer the question directly ...
5. Organize the Presentation:
Conclusion

Provide closure
Reemphasize main ideas
Call to action
Rehearse the Presentation
7. Deliver the Presentation

Know your subject matter
Lose yourself in your presentation and be
enthusiastic
Be both profe...
Presentational Speaking
DO NOTs
DO NOTs
Read your presentation
Appear unprepared
Handle questions inappropriately
Forget t...
Visual Aids
Encourage understanding
Enhance memory
Help listeners organize ideas
Help gain and maintain attention
Illustra...
Using Visual Aids
Keep it simple and be certain that visual aids are
accurate and legible
Look at your audience, not the v...
Types of Nonverbal
Communication Behaviors
Appearance
Posture
Gestures
Movement
Eye contact
Facial expressions
Vocal deliv...
Vocal Delivery
Volume

Pauses

Pitch

Articulation

Rate

Pronunciation
Closing Thoughts
By managing your distress, you can make
presentational speaking a eustressful event.
The most effective m...
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Presentational speaking master 2pm

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  • State your agreement or disagreement with the following statement: If you want to advance within an organization, including Campbell Alliance, you must be willing – and able – to effectively speak in public and deliver effective presentations.
    Which statement do most you agree with?: People who are skilled at presentational speaking quickly advance through an organization.
    OR
    You are expected to be skilled at presentational speaking if you advance through an organization.
    What are some characteristics of an effective presenter:
    Knowledgeable
    Charismatic
    Engaging
    Credible
    Could one person's strength be another person's weakness?
  • Ask for a show of hands of people who do have some fear of speaking in public.
     
    Using a flipchart or whiteboard, draw a bell-curve. Emphasize that people who fear public speaking are “normal” and that those that have no fear are “abnormal.”
    Stressful Event:
    If you have some fear of speaking in public, you are “normal,” as the majority of people do indeed experience some fear. In fact, it is abnormal to NOT fear speaking in public!
    Not Perfect:
    If we were to observe two presenters, one who made a slight mistake, e.g., a Freudian slip, and the other who gave a “perfect” presentation, most people would evaluate the presenter who made a mistake more favorably. Why? Because they are more like us.
    Main Points:
    In other words, leave the audience wanting more! It will be up to you, however, to determine the two or three truly main points.
     
  • Stress itself is neither good nor bad. Distress is negative while Eustress is positive stress. Classic example: you are driving a car at a rapid speed on your way to a very important meeting, when a car in front of you quickly crosses into your lane. I distress reaction would be “freezing,” while a eustressful reaction would be looking in the rearview and side mirrors to gauge other oncoming traffic, determining if you could brake, determining if you could switch lanes, etc. By interpreting the event as eustressful, you may be able to avoid an accident.
    The prefix “Eu” derives from the Greek word meaning “good” or “well.” Eustress is therefore good stress. Eustress is a term coined by endocrinologist hans Selye which is defined as stress that is healthy, or gives one a feeling of fulfillment or other positive feelings.
    It is important to redirect the stress, and not merely attempt to eliminate the way it is displayed. For example, if you find that you pace forth and back when presenting, replace this behavior by walking to one side of the room and then stopping and speaking for one main point. During your transition move to the other side of the room and discuss your next main point. You will get rid of a lot of your nervous energy by walking the added length, you will be adding movement (which your audience will appreciate), and you will be using this movement as a transition.
    How you do display stress (distress and/or eustress) during a presentation?
    What are some ways to redirect your stress during a presentation?
  • The majority of presentations are informative as you are sharing information with the audience.
     
    Demonstrative presentations are a type of informative presentation. It is important that audience members be able to successfully do what is demonstrated.
     
    Persuasive presentations must also be informative, for you need to inform before you can persuade. Persuasive presentations are often more challenging to present than informative presentations.
    Campbell Examples:
    Informative – reviewing the results of a research project
    Demonstrative – presenting training on a new process
    Persuasive – proposals; most Campbell decks are expected to be persuasive around our recommendations
  • Who: Are there decision-makers in the audience? Are the audience members being asked or being made to attend?
     
    Why: Am I attempting to inform, persuade or entertain? Do I want member of the audience to change their minds? Do I want the audience to applaud at the end of my presentation, or would I prefer that they are stunned into silence?
     
    How: Do I need to open with an attention-getter, a story, or an appropriate joke? Should I organize the presentation from cause to effect, spatially, sequentially?
     
    WIIFM (What’s In It For Me): Will I advance in the organization because of my ability to effectively present? Will I get a raise? Will I get added responsibilities?
  • Inform:
    Once you know important details about your audience, determine if you are to merely inform, inform and persuade, or even entertain them. For example, “I am here today to inform you about the eDC.” Or, “I am here today to convince you to begin implementing the eDC.” Or still, “I am here today to show you my interpretive dance on what it’s like to be data being scrubbed by the eDC.”
  • Consider: Of course you’ll also want to dress for the occasion.
     
    Brainwriting: Instead of a verbal process, the group would write down ideas on paper anonymously, and then hand the paper to another member of the group. This allows for more reticent folks to share their ideas in a manner in which they are less likely to be criticized or “shot down.
     
    Review and Bundle: After brainstorming or brainwriting, review and bundle like topics and then choose your topic.
  • Imagination: This is perhaps the only time that you can experience a “perfect” presentation, for if you make a mistake while practicing in your imagination, stop and begin again.
     
    Coach: Your spouse, relational partner and/or best friend may or may NOT be the best coach.
     
    You may certainly watch videotaped presentations. It is also suggested that you observe speakers live and in person whenever possible.
     
    Paul's Guideline: Practice the presentation until you feel comfortable, and then practice it just one more time (preferably close to the time that you will be presenting). Why? That one extra time will give you added confidence. Not over-practicing will keep your presentation from becoming rote and memorized. Also, if you over-practice you may not be spontaneous enough with your reactions and responses to questions and comments from your audience.
  • Vocal Warm-Ups
    Before you present, be sure to warm-up your body and voice. To warm-up your body, engage in slow stretching exercises. Be sure to hold the stretch, and not to bounce.
    Tips for overcoming dry-mouth:
    Granny Smith apple
    Water with lemon slice
    Teaspoon of olive oil
    Read: Granted you will be using notes. Get in the habit of referring to them briefly, and keep your attention focused on your audience.
     
    Joke: Remember, too, that what might be funny to you may not be funny to audience members.
     
    Know: Don’t forget, though, that you can say, “I don’t know, but I’ll find out.”
     
    Lose yourself: The audience would generally prefer someone who comes across as over-excited as opposed to someone who comes across as stiff and dull.
  • Rapport: First impressions can make or you as a presenter.
    Humor: Again, remember that what is funny to you might not be funny to audience members.
     
    Language: When in doubt, throw it out. A word that you might not find objectionable may indeed be an objectionable word to a member of your audience.
  • Visual aids enhance your presentation; however, visual aids should not BE your presentation.
  • Simple: In the same way that you only want two of three main points in your presentation, you only want two or three points made on each visual aid.
     
    Legible: Audience members seated in the back of the room should be able to clearly view your visual aids.
     
    Professional: If possible and appropriate, have your visual aids computer-generated.
     
    Look: If possible, keep your eyes on the audience.
    Pass objects: One way to do this is to wait until the end of the presentation to pass around objects. You may also want to allow time during your presentation for this to happen, so that audience members can focus on the object while not being distracted by your presentation.
    Covered: For example, if your visual aid has three main points, display them one at a time – as they fit into your presentation.
     
    Explain: If your audience is concentrating on figuring out the visual aid, they won’t be paying much attention to you.
     
  • Appearance: As previously mentioned, dress appropriately. If you are giving a demonstrative presentation on using a new software application to a group of new hires, business casual dress would more than likely be appropriate. If you were giving this same presentation to the board of directors, professional business attire would be most appropriate.
     
    Gestures: Instead of gesturing with your hands with your arms placed closely beside your body, expand your arms so that your gestures are made (literally) at am arm’s length from your body. Avoid parallel gestures. Keep all gestures above your waist.
     
    Movement: As with any nonverbal behavior, you don’t want to overdo it. Avoid appearing as if you’re pacing. Avoid backwards and forwards movement.
     
    Posture: One way to avoid poor posture is to rest your weight evenly on both hips.
    Eye contact: Connect with audience members but do not stare at them. Look them in the face and not always the eyes.
    Facial Expressions: Appropriately reflect the content of the material. Make sure to warm up the muscles of your face too.
    Vocal delivery- Be aware of pitch, rate and volume. Use those techniques to add variety, interest and emphasis in various areas.
  • Rate: On average, people speak between 120 and 180 words per minute. Generally, we will listen more closely to “fast” as opposed to “slow” speakers – if the fast speaker is enunciating clearly.
     
    Pauses: Avoid vocalized pauses. If vocalized pauses are used, most people generally prefer “non-meaning” words such as “uhm” and “ah” as opposed to “you know” or “I’m saying,” etc.
     
    Regardless, be careful not to overuse non-words.
     
    Be sure to warm-up before your presentation!
     
    Articulation: Practice articulating to make sure you are easily understood.
     
    Pronunciation: Again, practice pronouncing difficult works. Your audience will expect you to pronounce words correctly.
  • Presentational speaking master 2pm

    1. 1. Presentational Speaking
    2. 2. Key Principles of Presentational Speaking We learn that speaking in public is a stressful event. You do not have to be perfect to succeed. All that you need are two or three main points. Humility can go a long way. When you speak in public, unexpected things can happen, but they can be handled effectively. You do not have to (and you generally cannot) control the behavior of your audience. Your audience truly wants you to succeed!
    3. 3. Stress Distress vs. Eustress Stages of stress: 1. 2. 3. Alarm Adaptation or resistance Exhaustion
    4. 4. Types of Presentations and Modes of Delivery Memorized Informative Manuscript Demonstrative Notes Persuasive Impromptu
    5. 5. Creating and Delivering an Effective Presentation 1.Know your audience 2.Determine the purpose 3.Narrow the topic (as necessary) 4.Gather supporting material 5.Organize 6.Rehearse 7.Deliver the presentation the presentation the presentation
    6. 6. 1. Know Your Audience Who is going to be in the audience, and what do you need to know about them? Why are you delivering the presentation and what do you want to accomplish?
    7. 7. 2. Determine the Purpose Do you want to inform, persuade, demonstrate, or entertain? What will you be speaking about and when and where will you be delivering the presentation?
    8. 8. 3. Narrow the Topic What might the audience already know? What is the time allotment? What materials will you present?
    9. 9. 4. Gather Supporting Material
    10. 10. 5. Organize the Presentation: Introduction Introduce the subject clearly and preview your main points Get the audience’s attention Give the audience a reason to listen
    11. 11. 5. Organize the Presentation: Tips for Answering Questions Repeat or paraphrase the question Answer the question directly and precisely; stay focused Don't answer a question with a question Don’t be afraid to say, “I don’t know”
    12. 12. 5. Organize the Presentation: Conclusion Provide closure Reemphasize main ideas Call to action
    13. 13. Rehearse the Presentation
    14. 14. 7. Deliver the Presentation Know your subject matter Lose yourself in your presentation and be enthusiastic Be both professional and conversational
    15. 15. Presentational Speaking DO NOTs DO NOTs Read your presentation Appear unprepared Handle questions inappropriately Forget to establish rapport Use inappropriate humor
    16. 16. Visual Aids Encourage understanding Enhance memory Help listeners organize ideas Help gain and maintain attention Illustrate a sequence of events or procedures
    17. 17. Using Visual Aids Keep it simple and be certain that visual aids are accurate and legible Look at your audience, not the visual aid Explain your visual aid Practice using visual aids before presenting
    18. 18. Types of Nonverbal Communication Behaviors Appearance Posture Gestures Movement Eye contact Facial expressions Vocal delivery
    19. 19. Vocal Delivery Volume Pauses Pitch Articulation Rate Pronunciation
    20. 20. Closing Thoughts By managing your distress, you can make presentational speaking a eustressful event. The most effective method of delivery is presenting with speaker notes. Too much practice may make your presentation sound memorized. Visual aids can enhance (or hinder) a presentation. Remember all of the steps you must go through before delivering a presentation.
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