The State Of Pakistan

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The State Of Pakistan

  1. 2. THE STATE OF PAKISTAN
  2. 3. GROUP MEMBERS MUHAMMAD Asim Ali MUHAMMAD Tariq
  3. 4. PART-1 ASIM ALI
  4. 5. JUNE 3 RD PLAN <ul><li>IN MARCH 1947 LORD WAVELL WAS REPLACED BY LORD MOUNTBATTEN. </li></ul><ul><li>HE FOUND INDIA IN A GRIP OF CIVIL WAR. HE SOON REALIZED THAT TERE WAS NO WAY OUT OF TANGLE OTHER THAN PARTITION. THEN HE GAVE A PLAN OF INDEPENDENCE NAMED AS 3 RD JUNE PLAN. </li></ul>
  5. 6. INDEPENDENCE <ul><li>14 TH AUGUST 1947 PAKISTAN EMERGED AS AN INDEPENDENT MUSLIM STATE ON WORLD’S MAP. </li></ul>
  6. 7. JINNAH OF PAKISTAN <ul><li>IT WAS FORTUNATE THAT THE MUSLIMS POSSESSED A LEADER OF JINNAH’S CALIBRE DURING THE STRUGGLE FOR PAKISTAN. </li></ul>
  7. 8. INTIAL PROBLEMS OF PAKISTAN <ul><li>REFUGEES PROBLEM AND THEIR RESETTLEMENT. </li></ul>
  8. 11. KASHMIR CONFLICT. <ul><li>THE ACCESSION OF INDIAN PRINCELY STATES. </li></ul>
  9. 12. STRUGGLE TO BUILD A STATE <ul><li>PAKISTAN FACED IMMENSE LEADERSHIP GAP WHEN JINNAH DIED AND HIS 2 ND LIAQUAT ALI KHAN WAS ASSASINATED IN RAWALPINDI. </li></ul><ul><li>AFTER THEM DUE TO LACK OF GOOD POLITICAL LEADERSHIP PAKISTAN FACED HUGE POLITICAL CRISIS. </li></ul><ul><li>THESE POLITICAL CRISIS GIVES AN OPPORTUNITY TO ARMY TO CAME INTO POWER. </li></ul>
  10. 13. DISINTEREST IN DEMOCRACY <ul><li>MAJOR PLAYERS OF DEMOCRACY WISHED FOR BETTER STRONG DEMOCRACY IN PAKISTAN BUT THEY WERE NOT WILLING TO MAKE IT SO. </li></ul><ul><li>PAKISTAN’S INTERNATIONAL FRIENDS WERE AMBIVALENT ABOUT DEMOCRACY TOO. SPECIALLY AMERICA HAVE SERIOUS INTERESTS IN PAKISTAN. </li></ul>
  11. 14. CONT… <ul><li>SO AMERICA ALWAYS PLAYS VITAL ROLE IN POWERPLAYS OF PAKISTAN, </li></ul><ul><li>OVER THE YEARS EMBASSY AND MOST EMBASSADORS HAVE BEEN MAJOR PARTICIPANTS IN THE PAKISTANI POLITICAL PROCESS. </li></ul>
  12. 15. CONSTITUTIONAL HISTORY <ul><li>A CONSTITUTENT ASSEMBLY MET ON 11 AUGUST 1947 3 DAYS BEFORE BIRTH OF PAKISTAN , JINNAH WAS ELECTED AS 1 ST GOVERNOR GENERAL OF PAKISTAN . </li></ul><ul><li>ASSEMBLY TOOK 9 YEARS TO FORMULATE A CONSTITUION </li></ul>
  13. 16. CONT.. <ul><li>IN 61 YEARS HISTORY OF PAKISTAN , PAKISTAN HAVE 3 CONSTITUTIONS 1956, 1962 AND 1973. </li></ul><ul><li>1973 CONSTITUTION IS THE FINAL CONSTITUTION WHICH WAS MOULDED LOTS OF TIME BY THE EVERY DICTATOR FOR PROTECTING ITS OWNSELF. </li></ul>
  14. 17. AYUB AND END OF DEMOCRACY <ul><li>ON THE NIGHT OF 7 OCTOBER 1958 THE CONSTITUTION WAS SUSPENDED BY A PRESIDENTIAL PROCLAMATION. THE MINISTRIES WERE DISMISSED, THE LEGISLATURES DISSOLVED AND POLITICAL PARTIES BANNED. </li></ul><ul><li>AYUB KHAN WAS APPOINTED AS CHIEF MARTIAL LAW ADMINISTRATOR . </li></ul>
  15. 18. DOMESTIC REFORMS <ul><li>AYUB KHAN’S PERIOD IS FAMOUS BECAUSE OF HIS REFORMS. </li></ul><ul><li>AYUB STARTED LOTS OF REFORMS IN EVERY SECTOR OF THE COUNTRY LIKE IN EDUCATION, AGRICULTUERE AND IN INDUSTRIAL AND ECONOMIC SECTOR. </li></ul>
  16. 19. AGRICULTURAL REFORMS <ul><li>CONSTRUCTION OF TWO STORAGE DAMS AND 400 MILES OF LINK CANALS. </li></ul><ul><li>IN SEPTEMBER 1960 A TREATY WAS SIGNED BETWEEN BOTH COUNTRIES FOR SETTLEMENT OF CANAL WATER DISPUTE. </li></ul>
  17. 20. INDUSTRAIL REFORMS <ul><li>AYUB REDUCED THE RATE OF SUPERTAX, EXTENDED THE TAX HOLIDAY,AND INTRODUCED THE EXPORT BONUS SCHEME. </li></ul><ul><li>THESE MEASURES ACCELERATED THE INDUSTRIAL GROWTH. </li></ul>
  18. 21. INDUSTRAIL REFORMS <ul><li>DUE TO THESE POLICIES TEXTILE AND JUTE INDUSTRY ACHIEVED SELF SUFFICIENCY. </li></ul><ul><li>COUNTRY STARTED TO PRODUCED NEEDED QUANTITIES OF CIGRATTES, MATCHES , SOAP AND WOOLENS. </li></ul><ul><li>CEMENT AND CHEMICAL INDUSTRY ALSO ESTABLISHED IN HIS ERA. </li></ul><ul><li>NUMBER OF HYDRO PROJECTS WERE STARTED. </li></ul>
  19. 22. ECONOMIC GROWTH <ul><li>AYUB INTIATED EXPORT PERMOTION STRATEGY THAT LED PAKISTAN TOWARDS STRONGEST ECONOMIC GROWTH IN ITS HISTORY. </li></ul><ul><li>DUE TO KOREAN WAR PAKISTAN’S EXPORT BOOST UP DUE TO HIGH DEMAND OF COTTON AND JUTE . </li></ul>
  20. 23. ECONOMIC GROWTH <ul><li>WEST PAKISTAN’S TEXTILE PRODUCTION CAPACITY INCREASED FROM LESS THAN 0.2 SPINDLES TO 1.3 MILLION SPINDLES. </li></ul><ul><li>EAST PAKISTAN WENT FROM 0 TONS TO 55000 TONS OF JUTE PRODUCTION DURINGTHE SAME TIME. </li></ul><ul><li>PAKISTAN INSTITUTE OF DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION WAS ESATABLISHED AND IT FINANCED 25 LARGE INDUSTRIAL PROJECTS IN PRIVATE SECTOR. </li></ul>
  21. 24. THANKS!
  22. 26. The State of Pakistan - II Muhammad Tariq Nawas
  23. 27. Main Topics Covered <ul><li>Pakistan’s Ruling Elite </li></ul><ul><li>The 1965 war and the Second Partition </li></ul><ul><li>Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto: The Innovator </li></ul><ul><li>The Zia Decade </li></ul><ul><li>Ten Years of Democracy </li></ul><ul><li>9/11 and Pakistan </li></ul>
  24. 28. Pakistan’s Ruling Elite <ul><li>Formulation of “Establishment” in Ayub’s Era. </li></ul><ul><li>Membership subject to adherence to broad set of values and norms. </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic nationalist subset in Establishment. </li></ul>
  25. 29. The 1965 War and the Second Partition <ul><li>Ayub’s mistake of going to war against India. </li></ul><ul><li>Pakistan a Punjab-centric state. </li></ul><ul><li>Inferior treatment of Bengalis. </li></ul>
  26. 30. The After-math <ul><li>1971 war was lost. </li></ul><ul><li>East Wing separation. </li></ul><ul><li>Shift in political balance. </li></ul><ul><li>Change in culture and social diversity. </li></ul><ul><li>Balance of power from secular to Islamist forces. </li></ul>
  27. 31. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto: The Innovator <ul><li>Bhutto came into power after defeat of 1971 war. </li></ul><ul><li>1973 constitution and executive powers. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in Army and Establishment’s power. </li></ul><ul><li>Alliance with China. </li></ul>
  28. 32. Nuclear Weapons and Pakistan’s Identity <ul><li>Initiation of Nuclear Weapons Program by Bhutto. </li></ul><ul><li>Delusion created. </li></ul>
  29. 33. Bhutto’s Economic Experiments <ul><li>Economic Reform Order. </li></ul><ul><li>Initial support. </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease in foreign investment. </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalization of small and medium enterprises. </li></ul>
  30. 34. The Zia Decade <ul><li>Zia came into power after Bhutto’s arrest by the army on July 5, 1977. </li></ul><ul><li>Islam and army the center of Zia’s vision. </li></ul><ul><li>Islamization in the army. </li></ul><ul><li>Reliance on the Establishment. </li></ul><ul><li>Zia’s politics. </li></ul>
  31. 35. Culture Wars <ul><li>Contradiction in policies. </li></ul><ul><li>Anger of Westernized Pakistanis against the US. </li></ul><ul><li>The feeling of abandonment growing stronger. </li></ul>
  32. 36. Ten Years of Democracy <ul><li>Struggle of democracy after Zia’s death. </li></ul><ul><li>Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif the most important leaders of the “Decade of democracy” </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease in voters’ turnout. </li></ul><ul><li>Neither challenged the idea of Pakistan as a Muslim or Islamic state nor made it a core for policies. </li></ul><ul><li>Army still in control of the politicians. </li></ul>
  33. 37. Foreign Policy and Pakistan <ul><li>Impact of relations with other countries on internal politics. </li></ul><ul><li>Preservation of ties with Saudi Arabia and China, and Expansion to North Korea. </li></ul><ul><li>Active policy in Afghanistan and Central Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>Economical, social and political problems. </li></ul>
  34. 38. System Collapse <ul><li>Backfire of the support to Afghan Taliban and Islamic militants. </li></ul><ul><li>Civil-military crisis after Kargil war and alienation of US and China by Pakistan’s Nuclear Program and support for Islamic Radicalism. </li></ul><ul><li>Pakistan included in the ranks of “Extremely risky” countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Human Rights. </li></ul><ul><li>Corruption on the rise. </li></ul>
  35. 39. 9/11 and Pakistan <ul><li>Pakistan in deep trouble. </li></ul><ul><li>Effects of 9/11 events on Pakistan. </li></ul><ul><li>Abandonment of the Taliban and support to US. </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure to stop cross-border terrorism. </li></ul><ul><li>Pakistan Stuck between democracy and military autocracy. </li></ul>
  36. 40. Thank you for your patience
  37. 41. Questions?

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