Leadership Hashim


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Leadership Hashim

  2. 2. HASHIM MUHAMMAD IBRAR KAYANI <ul><li>MBA-MARKETING </li></ul><ul><li>BBA-ITM (IIUI) </li></ul><ul><li>RAWALPINDI </li></ul>
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>If one has misdiagnosed a problem, then one is unlikely to prescribe an effective cure. This is the situation regarding the scarcity of women in top leadership because people with the best of intentions have misread the symptoms, the solutions that managers are investing in are not making enough of a difference. </li></ul>
  5. 5. UNITED STATES <ul><li>Women occupy more than 40% of all managerial positions. </li></ul><ul><li>In “FORTUNE 500” companies only 6% are women at top positions, 2% of the CEOs and 15% of the seats of the boards of directors are held by women. </li></ul>
  6. 6. EUROPEAN UNION <ul><li>50 largest publicly traded corporations got an average of 11% of the top executives and 4% of the CEOs and heads of boards, and just 1% of fortune magazine’s “Global 500” have female CEOs. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Glass Ceiling Metaphor <ul><li>“ Wall Street Journals ” Carol Hymowitz and Timothy Schellhard. </li></ul><ul><li>they just couldn’t break through the glass ceiling. </li></ul><ul><li>President Richard Nixon </li></ul><ul><li>“ I don’t think a women should be in any government job whatsoever .. mainly because they are erratic. And emotional. Men are erratic and emotional, too, but the point is a woman is more likely to be” </li></ul>
  8. 8. WALLS ALL AROUND <ul><li>Vestiges of prejudice </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance to women’s leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Issues of Leadership Style </li></ul><ul><li>Demands of family life </li></ul><ul><li>Underinvestment in social capital. </li></ul>
  9. 9. VESTIGES OF PREJUDICE <ul><li>United States in 2005 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>men $1 = women 81 ¢ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>U.S. Government Accountability office </li></ul><ul><ul><li>survey 1983 through 2000. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>wages predicted by gender and other characteristics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>women earned 44% less than men. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Christine Williams (sociologist) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Men ascend to supervisory and administrative positions more quickly than women. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. RESISTANCE TO WOMEN’S LEADERSHIP <ul><li>Kim Campbell, the prime minister of Canada in 1993. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“I don’t have a traditionally female way of speaking …I’m quite assertive. If I didn’t speak the way I do, I wouldn’t have been seen as a leader. But my way of speaking may have grated on people who were not used to hearing it from a woman. It was the right way for a leader to speak, but it wasn’t the right way for a woman to speak. It goes against type.” </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Sets Of Associations <ul><ul><li>Affectionate, helpful, friendly, kind, sympathetic, Gentle, interpersonally sensitive, soft-spoken. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aggressive, ambitious, dominant, self-confident, forceful, self-reliant, individualistic. </li></ul></ul>Communal (Female) Agentic (Male) RESISTANCE TO WOMEN’S LEADERSHIP
  12. 12. RESISTANCE TO WOMEN’S LEADERSHIP <ul><li>Nonverbally </li></ul><ul><ul><li>such as starting at others while speaking to them or pointing at people, is a more damaging behavior for women than for men. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Verbally </li></ul><ul><ul><li>assertive behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple disagreeing can sometimes get women into trouble. </li></ul></ul>MALE DOMINANCE
  13. 13. ISSUES OF LEADERSHIP STYLE <ul><li>(Marietta Nien-hwa Cheng) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I used to speak more softly, with a higher pitch. Sometimes my vocal cadences went up instead of down. I realized that these mannerisms lack the sense of authority. I strengthened my voice. The pitch has dropped … I have stopped trying to be everyone’s friend. Leadership is not synonymous with socializing.” </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. ISSUES OF LEADERSHIP STYLE <ul><li>TYPES OF LEADERSHIP STYLE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transformational leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transactional leadership </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. ISSUES OF LEADERSHIP STYLE <ul><li>Transformational leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>establish themselves as role models by gaining follower’s trust and confidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>state future goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>develop plans to achieve those goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>innovate </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. ISSUES OF LEADERSHIP STYLE <ul><li>Transactional leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>establish give-and-take relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>clarifying subordinate’s responsibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rewarding them for meeting objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>correcting them for failing to meet objectives </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. ISSUES OF LEADERSHIP STYLE Transformational leadership Transactional leadership LEADERSHIP STYLES
  18. 18. ISSUES OF LEADERSHIP STYLE Transformational leadership Transactional leadership LEADERSHIP STYLES LAISSEZ-FAIR STYLE
  19. 19. ISSUES OF LEADERSHIP STYLE <ul><li>laissez-fair style . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It concluded that transformation style along with the rewards and positive incentives associated with the transactional style to be more suited to leading the modern organizations. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. DEMANDS OF FAMILY LIFE <ul><li>The most fateful turns in the labyrinth are the ones taken under pressure of the family responsibilities. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>they have fewer years of job experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fewer hours of employment per year, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In one study of Chicago lawyers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women are partner in some law firms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>60% had no children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>had delayed childbearing until attaining partner status. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. UNDERINVESTMENT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL <ul><li>very little time for socializing. </li></ul><ul><li>Women can find it difficult to engage in and benefit from informal networking composed of men which are centered on masculine activities. </li></ul><ul><li>The recent gender discrimination lawsuit against Wal-Mart provides example that one executive received feedback that she probably would not advance in the company because she didn’t hunt or fish. </li></ul>
  22. 22. MANAGEMENT INTERVENTIONS THAT WORK: <ul><li>Increase people’s awareness of the psychological drivers of prejudice toward female leaders, and work to dispel those perceptions. </li></ul><ul><li>Change the long-hours norm. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce the subjectivity of performance evaluation. </li></ul><ul><li>Use open-recruitment tools, such as advertising and employment agencies, rather than relying on informal social networks and referrals to fill positions. </li></ul><ul><li>Help shore up social capital. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare women for line management with appropriately demanding assignments. </li></ul><ul><li>Welcome women back. </li></ul>
  23. 23. CONCLUSION <ul><li>Labyrinths become infinitely more tractable when seen from above. When the eye can take in the whole of the puzzle – the starting position, the goal, and the maze of walls – solutions begin to suggest themselves. . </li></ul>