Current Status of Hybrid Rice Research and Development at IRRI

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Current Status of Hybrid Rice Research and Development at IRRI

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Current Status of Hybrid Rice Research and Development at IRRI

  1. 1. Current Status of Hybrid Rice Research and Development At IRRI Fangming Xie IRRI
  2. 2. Trend of Hybrid Rice Development Public Private China Outside China China Outside China R & D Commercialization
  3. 3. Hybrid Rice Area in Major Rice Countries (000 ha) (2011) Country Total Rice Hybrid Rice % Bangladesh 12,000 700 5.83 India 44,100 2,000 4.54 Indonesia 13,201 650 3.91 Philippines 4,537 177.4 0.97 Myanmar 8,038 78.2 7.78 Vietnam 7,652 595 36.46 USA 1,204 439 14.5 L. America 5,047 70 1.39 Others 100 Subtotal 3,428 China 30,311 15,600 51.47
  4. 4. Changes of Hybrid Rice Area in Countries outside China 0 500 1000 1500 2000 25001000ha 2007 2011
  5. 5. Hybrid Rice is Growing Globally 2 million ha of hybrid rice added to production from 2007 to 2011 (10.2% increase), all were outside China 19.8 21.7 18.5 19.0 19.5 20.0 20.5 21.0 21.5 22.0 2007 2011 Millionha
  6. 6. 6.59 6.92 6.50 All (14) IRRI (3) Others (11) Yield (t/ha) of Philippines Hybrids Released in 2011 6.46% higher IRRI Rice Hybrids in the Philippines 9 11 24 PhilRice/UPLB/Phil SCAT IRRI Privatecompany Hybrids Released in the Philippines
  7. 7. Major Challenges of Hybrid Rice in the Tropics • Low yield advantage (<1 t/ha), low heterosis (< 15%) & inconsistency performance o Genetic causes – no clear concept of heterotic groups o Site / season specific hybrids - GxE interaction, rice ecosystems o Inappropriate field management • Low yield of seed production (1 - 2 t/ha) & high seed cost o Low outcrossing females & poor seed production technology o High cost of seed production o Weather & Market fluctuation • Unacceptable grain quality o High Chalk, low head rice yield and unacceptable cooking quality o Wide range of grain quality requirements/expectations o Last words from rice millers for quality, price and purchase
  8. 8. Major Challenges of Hybrid Rice in the Tropics • Lack of resistance to diseases and insects o Various diseases / insects in the tropics o Lack of appropriate resistance screening & breeding o Poor education to farmer for Integrated Pest Management • Poor seed quality • Inappropriate maturity of hybrids • Inconsistency of government policy (subsidy, seed production & extension) • Poor education to hybrid rice farmers • Insufficiency of hybrid rice technical personnel
  9. 9. IRRI organized HRDC in 2008 • Develop effective collaborations between public and the private sectors • Support research for parent and hybrid development – Hybrid rice research (heterosis & other traits); – Develop hybrids & parents and share w/ partners • Provide information on the performance of hybrids & develop best management practices • Support information sharing, public awareness & capacity building Objectives:
  10. 10. 22 24 30 27 29 31 17 20 25 31 31 36 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 HRDCMembership Private Public HRDC Members 2008 -2013
  11. 11. Hybrid Rice R&D Priorities at IRRI Traits Trait Detail Yield Heterosis • High yielding > 20% heterosis in the tropical • Heterotic pools – concept and parental grouping • Stable yielding over environments Seed Production • High-yielding • Stable sterility & high-outcrossing females • Elite male parents • Stable yielding Resistance & Tolerance • Diseases – BLB, Blast, Sheath Blight, False smut • Insects - Stem Borer, BPH & WBPH; • Drought, Salinity & Submergence Quality • Less chalk, non sticky • Long grain or Medium grain with specific amylose Maturity • 115 – 120 days, 120- 125 days Others • Wide adaption – parents & hybrids • Plant architecture for high-yielding
  12. 12. • 15 ha/season for hybrid rice breeding • 12,000 breeding lines & populations/year • 2,700 new hybrids/year Hybrid Rice Breeding
  13. 13. Germplasm shared with HRDC members & other partners increased
  14. 14. Heterosis Level in Hybrid Rice Indica x Japonica Indica x Javanica Japonica x Javanica Indica x Indica Japonica x Japonica Genetic Divergence HeterosisLevel
  15. 15. Cluster of IRRI Hybrid Rice Parents 168 lines based on 207 SSR markers 18 lines based on 207 SSR markers Study for Heterotic Groups • Parents clustered into 6 groups; • B & R lines are genetically separated, but some “mixed” & different degrees of “closing”; • 3 representatives selected from each 6 groups
  16. 16. P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11 P12 P13 P14 P15 P16 P17 P18 P1 P X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X P2 P X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X P3 P X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X P4 P X X X X X X X X X X X X X X P5 P X X X X X X X X X X X X X P6 P X X X X X X X X X X X X P7 P X X X X X X X X X X X P8 P X X X X X X X X X X P9 P =18 P X X X X X X X X X P10 BxB = 66 P X X X X X X X X P11 BxR = 72 P X X X X X X X P12 RxR = 15 P X X X X X X P13 P X X X X X P14 P X X X X P15 P X X X P16 P X X P17 P X P18 P G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6 G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6 Diallel Cross of 18 Parents • Study heterosis between & within groups • Total entries = 153 hybrids + 18 parents + 5 CKs • Evaluated in 5 environments in 2 seasons: (1) 2010WS & 2011DS, Los Baños, Philippines, (2) 2010WS and 2011DS, General Santos, Philippines, (3) 2011DS, Hyderabad, India
  17. 17. MEAN
  18. 18. Correlation between GD and Hybrid Yield MPH Based on Individual Hybrids Based on Marker-GD Groups R2 on Marker-based Groups >>> R2 on Individual Hybrids
  19. 19. Conclusions: • IRRI-bred hybrid rice lines could be clustered into clearly separated B- and R-line groups, with some minor “mixtures”; • Some B-line groups (G1 and G4) are closer to R-lines than other B-line groups (G5 and G6) – need to improve; • Current IRRI B- and R-line groups suitable for hybrid development (BxR) w/o genetic change for categories; • Preferred choice for breeding heterotic hybrids within current germplasm: o Females = G5 and G6; o Males = G2 and G3; • Limited value to use marker-based GD for predicting heterosis, but valuable for grouping parents to increase opportunity of breeding heterotic hybrids.
  20. 20. Other Heterotic Groups • Two-line hybrid rice currently in China? • Other indica germplasm? • NPT germplasm? • Tropical and temperate japonica rice? • Heterosis mechanism – heterotic gene blocks?
  21. 21. Studies of heterotic groups – Molecular markers + field evaluation • 2nd Experiment: variety groups of IRRI and southern China indica (215) • 3rd Experiment: variety groups of IRRI, China, some Asian and L. America countries (736, major indica regions, genotyping = done, phenotyping = 2 locations / 1 season China IRRI CIAT/L. America Africa China IRRI
  22. 22. Development of high outcross female parents Data: 05WS, 06DS, AxB Paircross, 92 CMS lines 2013DS AxB Paircross MEAN = 31.5% 2013DS AxB Yield Trial (3 Rep) MEAN = 24.7%
  23. 23. Develop new CMS lines with high outcrossing IR58025A New CMS A New CMS BNew CMS A High Seed Set of New CMS line
  24. 24. Other on-going Hybrid Rice R & D at IRRI – Bacterial blight resistance o Xa4, xa5, Xa7, xa13, Xa21, and Xa23 o IR68897B, IR58025B, IR 93559B, IR93560B, IR93561B o Inoculums + Field screen + MAS o BC3F1 (2012DS) PCR product Bandings using Xa21 marker, a 1400 bp band (R) for IRBB21 & a 1200 bp band (S) for IR24 M: DNA size standard; Lane 1–7: IR24, IRBB66, IR93561B, IR93560B, IR93559B, IR58025B, IR68897B; Lanes 8–26: BC1F1’s
  25. 25. Other on-going Hybrid Rice R & D at IRRI – Submergence tolerance o Submergence + MAS o IR68897B & SRT3R, and other B/R lines o BC3F1 (2012DS)
  26. 26. Other on-going Hybrid Rice R & D at IRRI – Drought tolerance: Transfer drought-tolerant QTLs to hybrid parents using conventional and MAS – Low chalk: Low chalk QTLs + MAS to improve parents – TGMS: Line selection and breeding – Outcrossing: Conventional screening + traits from wild rice – SNP markers: Convert and confirm SNP markers for Rf, sub-1, BLB, Blast, Amylose genes
  27. 27. JAAS-HRDC Hybrid Rice Training Class Room Field VisitSeed Plant Visit Hands-on
  28. 28. 2012 DS HRDC MRYT at IRRI Objectives: 1. Assist HRDC members in assessing the performance of hybrids 2. To enable HRDC members to generate reliable performance data across a set of marketing locations
  29. 29. Recommendations from the 6th International Hybrid Rice Symposium Sept. 10-12, Hyderabad, India • Increase hybrid yield and yield heterosis – 2-line hybrid rice program outside China – Rice heterotic group study – Using marker technology – Disease and insect resistances • Improve seed production & seed production efficiency – Refine seed production technology – Find favorable locations to seed production – Training for hybrid rice breeders and seed producers – Reduce seed cost • Strengthen public private partnership • Policies favorable for hybrid rice production
  30. 30. Thanks & Questions

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