WISPRwandaGroup Members:Wendy TanYuen Zi ChunTan Ying TingKoo Lay SzeLiewJie Chun
Social Inequality Twa, Hutu and Tutsis Tutsis as herders were the upper class Hutus as farmers were the lower class In 1890, German took over during Brussels conference
Cont… German favoured the Tutsi class In 1916, Belgium took over Rwanda Hutus was forced to work under supervision of Tutsis Each citizen was issued a identity card which defined them as legally Hutu or Tutsi
Cont… Hutus begins demanding for social equality in around 1946 post World War II Millions Tutsis dead Tutsis with positions of political power had being sent into exile 1962 Rwanda became independent with Hutus in the ascendancy.
Prejudices leading to discrimination The Tutsi were generally taller than the Hutus and the Twas, and were distinct in physical appearance. The Roman Catholic Church and Belgian colonial authorities considered the Hutus and Tutsis different ethnic races based on their physical differences and patterns of migration. Belgian colonizers accepted existing class system of a minority Tutsi upper class and lower classes of Hutus and Tutsi commoners. The Belgian colonist depended on the Tutsi aristocracy to collect taxes and enforce Belgian policies. Hutus later stripped of power.
Prejudices leading to discrimination 1920, Belgians bring northwest Hutu kingdoms under Tutsi royalty rule. "Tutsi", "Hutu" and "Twa" were indicated on identity cards. Differences between Hutu and Tutsi reinforced, developed separate educational systems for each. The Rwandan Civil War vastly increased the ethnic tensions in the country and led to the rise of Hutu Power.
Rwanda:Gender and the Treatment of Women Gender discrimination Lack of access to resources: Women’s experiences of poverty may be more acute than those of men because of a number of gender based forms of exclusion. Women had no rights to inherit or own the property or land. Play a greater role in agriculture, women experience difficulty owning land and other farming assets, regardless of legal changes.
Gender discrimination Lack of resources: Only 5% of the loans from the Banquespopulaires were allocated to women. 2/3 of the female-headed household Grade 3 as compared with the male(48%). Less educated: Less literate than, therefore less involved in wages sector and generate low income. Rate of female-headed household increase from 1994 to 34% in 1996.
Treatment of women during genocide During genocide: In the 100 days of genocide, about one million people were killed, and an estimated 250,000 to 500,000 women and girls were raped by Hutus. Age does not matter, no one were spared from sexual violence. Victims are selected based on their gender and Tutsi ethnicity. Raped in victims’ or perpetrators’ houses or in the public like schools, government buildings and churches.
Treatment of women during genocide After genocide: Those survived in the genocide were victims of sexual violence and have greatly affected them. Unwanted children- Thought of self-induced abortions, but still there were 15000 “children of hate” were born. Severe health problems faced-Children gets HIV from their mothers. HIV rate from 1% to 11% in 1997.
Other Important Social, Economic And Political Factors Social Factors Deep distrust is a big factor of Rwanda society, this distrust occurs between people and the state, people are seen as overbearing and exercise power unjustly. Economic Factors The 1994 genocide destroyed Rwanda's fragile economic base, severely impoverished the population and the ability to attract private and external investment. Thus the economic factor drop devastatingly, gross domestic income (GDI) growth rate of 6.5% from 1973 to 1980 slowed to an average of 2.9% a year from 1980 through 1985 and was not improving at all from 1986 to 1990. Political Factors The State in Rwanda presents contradictory faces, power over states and weak in human and financial resources. The Government distrust political society, severely constrain civil society and free speech.
What about present day Singapore? Prejudices and discrimination from Rwanda situation with Singapore in 2009 Similarities Both countries devalues woman, they did not realize the importance of woman, Singapore flavorsome boy than girl because of tradition thinking of carry on family lines Differences Rwanda resolve prejudices and discrimination by initiating a war which only cause more conflicts, but Singapore only find tack able solutions.
How to prevent the imagined futureof 2061 from becoming a reality? Proposed Solutions to minimize social divisions Improve family relationship by spending more time together to understand the happiness of having a big family. Maintain good relationship with Malaysia and not taking advantage of the water supplies, we should also conserve water. Eliminate traditional mindset of only giving birth to males and realize the inequality for females through media or campaign, thus increasing the number of females babies. Problems/Challenges Met With the Proposed Solutions Due to economic downturn, many married adult opt to spend more time at work rather than with family. Singapore lack awareness in the importance and consequences of conserving water. Traditional thinking of giving birth to males to carry on family lines.