Art of Using Xen at Scale

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Art of Using Xen at Scale

  1. 1. Art  of  Using  Xen  at  Scale   Pradeep  Vincent  Principal  Engineer,  Amazon  Web  Services      
  2. 2. Agenda  •  Amazon  Web  Services  -­‐  Intro  •  Virtualiza@on  in  the  Cloud  •  Scale  Impact  on  Virtualiza@on  •  Xen  Enhancements..  •  Future  Features  –  Some  Thoughts  
  3. 3. AMAZON  WEB  SERVICES  -­‐  INTRO    
  4. 4. Amazon  Web  Services       “..delivers  a  highly  scalable  cloud  compu@ng   plaIorm  with  high  availability  and   dependability,  and  the  flexibility  to  enable   customers  to  build  a  wide  range  of   applica@ons.”  
  5. 5. Amazon  Web  Services    •  Includes  more  than  20  Services   –  Compute  Services   •  EC2   –  Storage  Services   •  S3   •  EBS   –  Database  Services   –  Content  Delivery  Services   –  Messaging  Services   –  And  many  more..  •  More  Details  :  aws.amazon.com  
  6. 6. EC2  Instance  Types   High   High   Cluster  Standard   Micro   Memory   Compute   Compute  Instances   Instances   Instances   Instances   Instances  
  7. 7. VIRTUALIZATION  IN  THE  CLOUD  
  8. 8. Virtualiza@on  and  Cloud  •  Virtualiza@on  a  key  enabler  for  Cloud   Compu@ng  •  Virtualiza@on  Provides..   –  Secure  Control  Plane     –  Fine  grained  resource  alloca@on   –  Cloud  Specific  Business  Logic  in  Dom-­‐0    
  9. 9. Virtualiza@on  in  the  Cloud  •  Guest  OS(Kernel)  chosen  by  customer   –  Large  and  ever  changing  set  •  Aggressive  inges@on  of  Security  fixes   –  Security  is  paramount  •  Unique  Challenges  at  Scale..      
  10. 10. SCALE  IMPACT  ON  VIRTUALIZATION  
  11. 11. Scale  Ma_ers..  
  12. 12.     Intra  Host  ‘Scaling’   Mul@-­‐tenancy    
  13. 13. Mul@-­‐tenancy  •  Scaling  Challenges   –  Performance  Scaling:  I/O  performance  etc   –  Tools  Scaling:  XM  etc  •  Isola@on  Challenges   –  Performance  Isola@on   –  VM  Fault  Isola@on  
  14. 14. Fault  Isola@on  
  15. 15. VM-­‐level  Fault  Isola@on  •  Failure  related  to  one  VM  isolated  from  Peer   VMs  •  Good  Hypervisor  Level  Fault  Isola@on  in  Xen  •  End-­‐to-­‐End  Fault  Isola@on  Important   –  Including  Dom-­‐0  I/O  Stack   –  Including  Control  Plane  (e.g.  Xenwatch)  
  16. 16. Performance  
  17. 17. Consistency  of  Performance     Performance  Isola@on    
  18. 18. Performance  Scaling  •  Cri@cal  for  Mul@-­‐tenancy  •  Par@cularly  I/O  Performance  •  Good  in  Xen  •  Deserves  con@nued  Focus..    
  19. 19. I/O  Performance    Direct  AHached  Device  Performance  Good  But..     Loss  of  Control  and  Flexibility  Not  Great  
  20. 20.     Para-­‐virtualized  I/O  Performance   Important    
  21. 21. Reduce  Cost  
  22. 22. Hardware  Enablement  •  Xen  Enablement  bit  ‘Slow’  for  some  hardware  •  Faster  ‘Produc@on’  quality  enablement  in  Xen   –  Help  Cloud  adopt  new  hardware  faster    
  23. 23.    Upstream  Linux  IntegraOon  GREAT  !!  
  24. 24. Interface  Compa@bility  
  25. 25. Interface  Compa@bility  •  Applies  to  Many  Types  of  Interfaces   –  Paravirtualized  Driver  Interface     •  Blkfront  –  Blkback   •  NeIront  –  Netbk   –  Hypercall  Interface   –  Control  Plane  Interface  (XM  vs  XL)  •  Has  Been  Good  in  Xen     –  Deserves  con@nued  focus  
  26. 26. XEN  ENHANCEMENTS..  
  27. 27. Serve  Spiky  Workloads  For  Less  
  28. 28. Micro  instance  in  EC2  
  29. 29. Micro  Instance  and  CPU  Hogs  
  30. 30. Large  ‘CPU  Time’  Bucket   Bigger  than  10s  of   millisecs   10s  of    milliseconds  
  31. 31. Some  Thoughts  on  FUTURE  FEATURES    
  32. 32. Mul@-­‐@er  Scheduling  ?  •  Lots  of  use  cases  in  the  Cloud  •  Classes  with  priori@za@on   –  Beyond  ‘CPU  Pools’   –  Similar  to  Linux  Scheduler  ?   –  Real  Time  Scheduling/Advanced  Func@onality  •  Preserve  exis@ng  Scheduler  Seman@cs  to  the   extent  possible  
  33. 33. Dom-­‐0  Resource  Accoun@ng  •  CPU  consumed  in  Dom-­‐0  for  each  VM   –  Isn’t  accounted  against  the  VM  per  se   –  Fairness  Issues   –  Priori@za@on  Issues    
  34. 34. Dom-­‐0  Resource  Accoun@ng  •  Possible  Solu@ons   –  Group  Scheduling  in  Dom-­‐0  –  Par@al  Solu@on   –  Xen  and  Dom-­‐0  Scheduler  Coopera@on  ??   •  Hypervisor  –  Dom-­‐0  Interface  Blurred..   –  Something  else  ??  •  Scheduler  deals  with  Threads..   –  One  Thread  serving  Mul@ple  VMs  not  great   –  ‘Thread  Aligned’  VM  Resource  Consump@on  Good  
  35. 35. Key  Takeaways  •  Virtualiza@on  Key  For  Cloud  •  End-­‐to-­‐End  Fault  Isola@on  Important  •  Performance  Isola@on  And  Performance   Consistency  Important  •  Para-­‐virtualized  I/O  Performance  Important  •  Faster  ‘Produc@on’  Quality  Hardware   Enablement    •  Interface  Compa@bility  Cri@cal  
  36. 36. SHAMELESS  MARKETING  
  37. 37. We  are  Hiring  !  
  38. 38. We  are  Hiring  !  We  are  Hiring  !  
  39. 39. We  are  Hiring  !  We  are  Hiring  !   We  are  Hiring  !   aws.amazon.com/careers   We  are  Hiring  !  
  40. 40. THANK  YOU  •  EMAIL:  PRADEEPV@AMAZON.COM  •  MORE  INFO:  WWW.AWS.AMAZON.COM  

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