Learner- Centered Approaches


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Learner- Centered Approaches

  1. 1. ` XENIA S. BAESA
  2. 2. LEARNER-CENTERED APPROACHES <ul><li>Task-based language learning </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Content-Based Second Language Instruction: </li></ul><ul><li>Whole Language </li></ul>
  3. 3. Task-based language learning <ul><li>Task-based language learning (TBLL) , also known as Task-based language teaching (TBLT) or Task-based instruction (TBI) is a method of instruction in the field of language acquisition . </li></ul>
  4. 4. Task-based language learning ` <ul><li>It focuses on the use of authentic and to the students meaningful tasks using the target language; for example, visiting the doctor, conducting an interview, or calling customer services for help. Assessment is primarily based on task outcome (ie: the appropriate completion of tasks) rather than simply accuracy of language forms. </li></ul>The core of the lesson is, as the name suggests, the task .:
  5. 5. Pre-task <ul><li>In the pre-task, the teacher will present what will be expected of the students in the task phase. The instructor may also present a model of the task by either doing it themselves or by presenting picture, audio, or </li></ul>
  6. 6. Task <ul><li>During the task phase, the students perform the task, typically in small groups, although this is dependent on the type of activity. And unless the teacher plays a particular role in the task, then the teacher's role is typically limited to one of an observer or counselor—thus the reason for it being a more student-centered methodology. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Planning <ul><li>Having completed the task, the students prepare either a written or oral report to present to the class. The instructor takes questions and otherwise simply monitors the students. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Report <ul><li>The students then present this information to the rest of the class. Here the teacher may provide written or oral feedback, as appropriate, and the students observing may do the same. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Analysis <ul><li>Here the focus returns to the teacher who reviews what happened in the task, in regards to language. It may include language forms that the students were using, problems that students had, and perhaps forms that need to be covered more or were not used enough. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Practice <ul><li>The practice stage may be used to cover material mentioned by the teacher in the analysis stage. It is an opportunity for the teacher to emphasize key language. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Advantages <ul><li>Task-based learning is advantageous to the student because it is more student-centered. Although the teacher may present language in the pre-task, the students are free to use what they want. This allows them to use all the language they know and are learning, rather than a single construct. [2] Furthermore, as the tasks are supposed to be familiar to the students, students are more likely to be engaged, which may further motivate them in their language learning. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Disadvantages <ul><li>There have been criticisms that task-based learning is not appropriate as the foundation of a class for beginning students. Others claim that students are only exposed to certain forms of language, and are being neglected of others, such as discussion or debate. Teachers may want to keep these in mind when designing a task-based learning lesson plan. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Disadvantages <ul><li>As with content-based instruction , a task-based approach aims to provide learners with a natural context for language use . As learners work to complete a task , they have abundant opportunity to interact . Such interaction is thought to facilitate language acquisition as learners have to work to understand each other and to express their own meaning . By so doing , they have to check to see if they have comprehended correctly and , at times , they have to seek clarification . </li></ul>
  14. 14. Disadvantages <ul><li>By interacting with others , they get to listen to language which may be beyond their present ability , but which may be assimilated into their knowledge of the target language for use at a later time . As Candlin and Murphy ( 1987 : 1 ) note ,“ The central purpose we are concerned with is language learning , and task present this in the form of a problem-solving negotiation between knowledge that the learner holds and new knowledge .” </li></ul>
  15. 15. Cooperative Learning <ul><li>What is cooperative learning? </li></ul>Cooperative learning, also called collaborative learning, occurs whenever students interact in pairs or groups to share knowledge and experiences. All activities in which students work together towards a common goal, from interacting with daily partners to completing long term projects with learning communities, are cooperative learning activities.
  16. 16. Cooperative Learning <ul><li>How does cooperative learning fit in with other elements of an effective classroom? </li></ul>Student-Centered: Cooperative activities pair students together or place them within groups, allowing each individual student more time and opportunities to participate in the classroom discourse
  17. 17. Cooperative Learning <ul><li>How does cooperative learning fit in with other elements of an effective classroom? </li></ul>Thematic Instruction: Students’ interests are addressed through thematic planning, especially if they have a voice in deciding the theme, and further participate in the design of cooperative activities around the theme that allow them to co-construct knowledge in a social environment.
  18. 18. Cooperative Learning <ul><li>How does cooperative learning fit in with other elements of an effective classroom? </li></ul>Active Learning: Cooperative activities naturally get students up and interacting with their environment. Cognitive Apprenticeship: Paired and group activities offer excellent opportunities for teachers to model specific methods or behaviors for their students.
  19. 19. Cooperative Learning <ul><li>How does cooperative learning fit in with other elements of an effective classroom? </li></ul>Authentic Learning: Students who engage in cooperative learning practice social skills that will help them to succeed in real-life situations that require group collaboration.
  20. 20. Cooperative Learning <ul><li>What are the benefits of cooperative learning? </li></ul>Students who have mastered some aspect of cooperative learning and are comfortable working with their peers experience the following benefits: <ul><ul><li>Higher retention and achievement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of interpersonal skills and responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heightened self-esteem and creativity </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Cooperative Learning <ul><li>What are the benefits of cooperative learning? </li></ul>Furthermore, cooperative activities place students in roles where they must learn effective communication strategies to succeed as a group. Such roles include: <ul><ul><li>Gatekeeper / Monitor - Cheerleader / Encourager - Taskmaster / Supervisor - Secretary / Recorder - Checker / Explainer - Quiet Captain / Group Control </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Cooperative Learning <ul><li>What are the benefits of cooperative learning? </li></ul>Students in cooperative learning groups acquire the skills necessary to interact successfully with peers in an environment that rewards respectful collaboration among students of all ability levels.
  23. 23. Cooperative Learning <ul><li>How are cooperative activities designed? </li></ul>Teachers should be address the following issues when designing an activity: <ul><li>What is the source (materials, objectives) of the cooperative activity? </li></ul>2. What elements of the target language will be needed to complete the activity? 3.How will students be guided towards obtaining these elements?
  24. 24. Cooperative Learning <ul><li>How are cooperative activities designed? </li></ul>Teachers should be address the following issues when designing an activity: 4. How will the students know how to take turns? 5. How will students self-monitor the activity? ` 6. How will the teacher follow up on the activity in a communicative way?
  25. 25. Cooperative Learning <ul><li>What are some examples of cooperative learning activities? </li></ul>A. Peer tutoring : Students quickly learn and teach each other simple concepts 1. Think-pair-share : The teacher poses a question • Students take time to think of a response • Students share responses with a peer • Students share responses as a whole group
  26. 26. Cooperative Learning <ul><li>What are some examples of cooperative learning activities? </li></ul>A. Peer tutoring : Students quickly learn and teach each other simple concepts 2. Jigsaw : Separate groups of students learn various concepts, and then groups are reassembled so each new member is an &quot;expert&quot; of a different concept
  27. 27. Cooperative Learning <ul><li>What are some examples of cooperative learning activities? </li></ul>A. Peer tutoring : Students quickly learn and teach each other simple concepts 3. Information-gap activities : One student has information the other does not but needs - they swap what they know
  28. 28. Cooperative Learning <ul><li>What are some examples of cooperative learning activities? </li></ul>B. Problem solving : Group members share knowledge to solve a problem C. Storytelling : Students retell a familiar story or create a new one Cooperative projects : Students are free to decide and design a group project — excellent opportunity for creative students
  29. 29. Cooperative Learning <ul><li>What are some examples of cooperative learning activities? </li></ul>D. Movement activities : Students mingle with each other to obtain information E. Paired interviews : Students interview each other and share with the class F. Conversation cards : Students interact according to the cues on their cards
  30. 30. Cooperative Learning <ul><li>What are some examples of cooperative learning activities? </li></ul>G. Role-plays : Students act out situations (spontaneously or pre-planned) H. Open-ended free conversations : Students discuss topics of interest Sharing opinions, debating, narrating, describing, and explaining : As students become more comfortable with cooperative activities and grow in their ability to use the target language, they will gradually transition into a social atmosphere where everyday conversations in the target language are common!
  31. 31. Factors to be considered in cooperative learning approach: <ul><li>Brain research </li></ul>Brain research has led to an exploration of learning style preference. Teachers need to plan activities that stimulate both the left and right brain processes.
  32. 32. Factors to be considered in cooperative learning approach: <ul><li>Brain research </li></ul>Left hemisphere Right hemisphere verbal, linguistic intonation, inflection ideation (abstractions) pictorial & pattern sense conceptual similarities visual similarities sense of time location in space controls right side of body controls left side of body numerics, quantities melodic perception logic poetic processing outlook insight geometric configurations
  33. 33. Factors to be considered in cooperative learning approach: <ul><li>Brain research </li></ul>It should be noted that both hemispheres share in mental activities. Teachers can increase learning and the use of brain capacity by determining what the dominant learning modality of each student is and supplying activities to stimulate that modality.
  34. 34. Factors to be considered in cooperative learning approach: <ul><li>Cultural differences </li></ul>Understanding the students' home culture is vital for understanding basic aspects of their behavior both in and out of the classroom, including language related behaviors. Different cultures have varying standards of what is and is not acceptable or respectful behavior.
  35. 35. Factors to be considered in cooperative learning approach: <ul><li>Cultural differences </li></ul>Silence versus talking, touching, smiling, eye contact, competition versus cooperation, leadership roles, and expectations of the teacher's role can all differ depending on standards of a culture. Differences between a teacher's culture and that of students' can create conflicts and misunderstandings.
  36. 36. Factors to be considered in cooperative learning approach: <ul><li>Cultural differences </li></ul>Teachers in classrooms have several ways to structure academic lessons so that students learning styles are taken into consideration and they can best achieve. A teacher may have them 1) in a win-lose struggle to see who is best; 2) learning individually on their own without interacting with classmates; or 3) learning in pairs or small groups, helping each other master the assigned material.
  37. 37. Content-Based Second Language Instruction: What is it? <ul><li>CBI is &quot;...the integration of particular content with language teaching aims...the concurrent teaching of academic subject matter and second language skills&quot; (Brinton et al., 1989, p. 2). </li></ul><ul><li>CBI approaches &quot;...view the target language largely as the vehicle through which subject matter content is learned rather than as the immediate object of study&quot; (Brinton et al., 1989, p. 5). </li></ul>
  38. 38. Content-Based Second Language Instruction: What is it? <ul><li>CBI is aimed at 'the development of use-oriented second and foreign language skills' and is 'distinguished by the concurrent learning of a specific content and related language use skills' (Wesche, 1993). </li></ul><ul><li>CBI is &quot;...an approach to language instruction that integrates the presentation of topics or tasks from subject matter classes (e.g., math, social studies) within the context of teaching a second or foreign language&quot; (Crandall & Tucker, 1990, p. 187). </li></ul>
  39. 39. What qualifies as 'content' in CBI? <ul><li>Genesee (1994) suggests that content '...need not be academic; it can include any topic, theme, or non-language issue of interest or importance to the learners' (p. 3). </li></ul><ul><li>Met (1991) proposes that &quot;... 'content' in content-based programs represents material that is cognitively engaging and demanding for the learner, and is material that extends beyond the target language or target culture&quot; (p. 150). </li></ul>
  40. 40. Support from SLA research: <ul><li>Natural language acquisition occurs in context; natural language is never learned divorced from meaning, and content-based instruction provides a context for meaningful communication to occur (Curtain, 1995; Met, 1991); second language acquisition increases with content-based language instruction, because students learn language best when there is an emphasis on relevant, meaningful content rather than on the language itself; &quot;People do not learn languages and then use them, but learn languages by using them. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Support from SLA research: <ul><li>CBI promotes negotiation of meaning, which is known to enhance language acquisition (students should negotiate both form and content) (Lightbrown & Spada, 1993). </li></ul><ul><li>Language learning becomes more concrete rather than abstract (as in traditional language instruction where the focus is on the language itself) (Genesee, 1994). </li></ul>
  42. 42. Support from SLA research: <ul><li>The integration of language and content in instruction respects the specificity of functional language use (it recognizes that meaning changes depending upon context) (Genesee, 1994). </li></ul><ul><li>More sophisticated, complex language is best taught within a framework that focuses on complex and authentic content. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Research on Instructional Strategies that Support CBI and SLA <ul><li>CBI lends itself to cooperative learning, which has been shown to result in improved learning (Slavin, 1995; Crandall, 1993). </li></ul><ul><li>CBI approaches, which promote the importance of learning strategies, provide the curricular resources for development of the strategic language and content learner (O'Malley & Chamot, 1990). </li></ul>
  44. 44. Research on Instructional Strategies that Support CBI and SLA <ul><li>CBI lends itself to the incorporation of a variety of thinking skills, and learning strategies which lead to rich language development, e.g., information gathering skills—absorbing, questioning; organizing skills—categorizing, comparing, representing; analyzing skills—identifying main ideas, identifying attributes and components, identifying relationships, patterns; generating skills—inferring, predicting, estimating (ASCD, Dimensions of Thinking ) (Curtain, 1995; Met, 1991). </li></ul>
  45. 45. Support for CBI from Educational and Cognitive Psychology <ul><li>Anderson (1990; 1993) has proposed a cognitive learning theory for instruction that integrates attention to content and language. In this theory skills (including language) and knowledge follow a general sequence of states of learning from the cognitive stage (students notice and attend to information in working memory; they engage in solving basic problems with the language and concepts they're acquiring) to the associative stage (errors are corrected and connections to related knowledge are strengthened; knowledge and skills become proceduralized) to the autonomous stage (performance becomes automatic, requiring little attentional effort; in this stage cognitive resources are feed up for the next cycle of problem solving, concept learning). </li></ul>
  46. 46. Support for CBI from Educational and Cognitive Psychology <ul><li>Facts and skills taught in isolation need much more practice and rehearsal before they can be internalized or put into long term memory; coherently presented information (thematically organized) is easier to remember and leads to improved learning </li></ul>
  47. 47. Support for CBI from Educational and Cognitive Psychology <ul><li>Content-based instruction develops a wider range of discourse skills than does traditional language instruction (because of the incorporation of higher cognitive skills); Byrnes (2000) notes the increasing demands for high levels of literacy in languages other than English. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Support for CBI from Educational and Cognitive Psychology <ul><li>When planned thoughtfully, content-based activities have the possibility of leading to &quot;flow experiences,&quot; i.e., optimal experiences the emerge when personal skills are matched by high challenge. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Support for CBI from Educational and Cognitive Psychology <ul><li>Content-based instruction provides for cognitive engagement; tasks that are intrinsically interesting and cognitively engaging will lead to more and better opportunities for second language acquisition; this is particularly important when one considers the inherent complexity of adult learning (Byrnes, 2000). </li></ul>
  50. 50. Support for CBI from Educational and Cognitive Psychology <ul><li>Content-based instruction emphasizes a connection to real life, real world skills (Curtain, 1995); in content-based classes, students have more opportunities to use the content knowledge and expertise they bring to class (they activate their prior knowledge, which leads to increased learning of language and content material). </li></ul>
  51. 51. Support for CBI from Educational and Cognitive Psychology
  52. 52. Comparison to other approaches <ul><li>The CBI approach is comparable to English for Specific Purposes (ESP), which usually is for vocational or occupational needs, or English for Academic Purposes (EAP). The goal of CBI is to prepare students to acquire the languages while using the context of any subject matter so that students learn the language by using it within the specific context. Rather than learning a language out of context, it is learned within the context of a specific academic subject. </li></ul>
  53. 53. Motivating students <ul><li>Keeping students motivated and interested are two important factors underlying content-based instruction. Motivation and interest are crucial in supporting student success with challenging, informative activities that support success and which help the student learn complex skills (Grabe & Stoller, 1997).. </li></ul>
  54. 54. Active Student Involvement <ul><li>Because it falls under the more general rubric of communicative language teaching (CLT), the CBI classroom is learner rather than teacher centered (Littlewood, 1981). Central to CBI is the belief that learning occurs not only through exposure to the teacher's input, but also through peer input and interactions. </li></ul>
  55. 55. Active Student Involvement <ul><li>Accordingly, students assume active, social roles in the classroom that involve interactive learning, negotiation , information gathering and the co-construction of meaning (Lee and VanPatten, 1995). </li></ul>
  56. 56. Whole Language <ul><li>&quot;A whole-language approach represents a philosophy about reading rather than anyone instructional method. According to this philosophy, language is a natural phenomenon and literacy is promoted through natural, purposeful language function. </li></ul>
  57. 57. Whole Language <ul><li>It has as its foundation current knowledge about language development as a constructive, meaning-oriented process in which language is viewed as an authentic, natural, real-world experience, and language learning is perceived as taking place through functional reading and writing situations. </li></ul>
  58. 58. Whole Language <ul><li>Basic Elements Whole language doesn't just include the specific content being thought about, it also includes how a student &quot;demonstrates&quot; a particular task, as well as what he or she expects from a language learning situation. </li></ul>
  59. 59. Whole Language <ul><li>To a learner, reading and writing are crucial to forming an understanding of the world. Therefore, whole language practitioners support their students' efforts--even those that aren't entirely accurate--rather than directing their thinking and language use. </li></ul>
  60. 60. Whole Language <ul><li>Each language encounter, whether oral or written, builds more knowledge about the world, the function of symbols, and communication strategies . A whole language curriculum immerses students in situations requiring open-ended, complex language use. </li></ul>
  61. 61. Whole Language <ul><li>Language learning is a social activity; it requires negotiating meaning and taking in feedback from partners. Whole language practitioners work to provoke, elicit, and show interest in communication exchanges--both learner-learner and learner-teacher. </li></ul>
  62. 62. Whole Language <ul><ul><li>1. The teacher and the students work collaboratively. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Authentic texts or real children’s literature are used for reading lessons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. The teachers provide a lot of group interaction through a variety of strategies: speech choir, reader’s theater etc. </li></ul></ul>Characteristics:
  63. 63. Whole Language <ul><ul><li>3. comprehensions is supported by active interpretation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. comprehension is enhanced by activating prior knowledge using advance organizers and prediction technique. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. listening and speaking activities pave the way for setting the purpose, surveying the text, predicting outcomes and considering literary elements. </li></ul></ul>Characteristics:
  64. 64. Whole Language vs. Phonics <ul><li>Whole language reading instruction (also known as &quot;look-say&quot; or &quot;sight&quot; reading) is the most widely used method of teaching reading in the U.S. and many other countries. Its development dates back to early in this century. </li></ul>
  65. 65. Whole Language vs. Phonics <ul><li>First , researchers learned that experienced readers grasp the meaning of entire words at a time. Further, when children talk they use complete words without conscious attention to the individual sounds that make up those words. Why, therefore, should children be taught to read — as was the norm at the time — by teaching them the component sounds of words. </li></ul>
  66. 66. Whole Language vs. Phonics <ul><li>Whole language &quot;founders&quot; believed that children should, then, be taught from the beginning to read whole words. We must deconstruct written words into their component sounds before we reconstruct the way the complete word sounds ! Moreover, although children often are not aware of the individual sounds of words, they spent several years imitating and practicing sounds around them before they were able to speak whole words. </li></ul>
  67. 67. Whole Language vs. Phonics <ul><li>Second, whole language is said to be &quot;literature-based&quot; because students are expected to learn these words by &quot;reading&quot; them as teachers read stories aloud. After they have thus &quot;read&quot; them enough times they will recognize them and be able to read themselves. This sounds much more compassionate than the drill and repetition necessary to intensive phonics instruction. </li></ul>
  68. 68. Whole Language vs. Phonics <ul><li>Drill and repetition, after all is boring and would inhibit proper emotional growth of children. Furthermore, learning to read while being exposed to more interesting stories will give young students a greater appreciation for great literature. And, two, while drills and repetition can be boring for adults (especially including the teacher!) children like repetition. </li></ul>
  69. 69. Whole Language vs. Phonics <ul><li>Teaching using phonics requires memorization necessary to learn phonetic rules for English which is so repetitive and boring. Then, that whole language is nothing more than rote memorization of every word in the English language . </li></ul>The simplest explanation I have come up with is this: You be the judge of which method is more compassionate.