Have students pick out similarities in question on the left.
Identify the distracters and the correct answer in this slide.
In the example, ask the students which one is more true.
TAKE A MINUTE – HOW ARE YOU FEELING RIGHT NOW? ANY QUESTIONS SO FAR.
Identify the answer.
Bring up greek and latin root word prefixes – take out compare difficult/confusing terms -
Tia or Yvonne
Tia or Yvonne
Tia or Yvonne
*University of Maine; using tests from business administration courses; identified erasure marks on multiple-choice tests with a high illumination light. Found that students picked up approximately three points by changing their answers for every one point they lost.
Test taking strategies 2009 workshop-revised11-17-09
Sound Advice…Strategies alonewill not help you •InstructorsSuccess areas all •Study skills: note-taking, text-book reading, concentration add up: •Time management •Motivation •NOT punishment or negative reinforcementPositive thinking: •See it as: a tool for feedback , and how well your learning strategies are working! •A chance to show off “Skill” and “Will”
EssentialsSkim over entire test first before answeringWrite your name on every test pageCheck essays for spelling and grammarAnswer the questions you know for sure firstAnticipate and watch your timeIgnore your classmates’ paceAnswer all questionsWrite clearlyAsk professor about the test beforehand
Questions to Ask about the Test What type of questions will be on the test? What does the test cover? Is there a study sheet? Will there be a review session? Will there be any special instructions? • How long is the test?
Test Types• Objective Types: • Subjective Tests: – Multiple choice – Short Answers – True/False – Essays – Matching – Process-orientated – Complete the – Critical Thinking sentence/fill-in-the- – Field experience blank• Only one possible answer • Less “wrong” answers, yet “better” answers.• Only one best answer• All test your ability to recall • Test your ability for information recognition
Three (3) Parts of a Test Question • Brief scenario providing necessary info for answering the questionThe Background • May provide framework for stem statement • Contains the specific problem or intent of the item The Stem • Possible answers • Correct answers are the keyed responses and the others are distracters; which can be correct, incorrect, or less correctList of options answers provided to try to confuse the test taker
The Stem (examples)• Five forms of a stem in questions – Background statement stems • A young woman arrived to the hospital in early labor. – Question Form stems • Which of the following signs is the best indicator of early labor? – Incomplete sentence (fill-in-blank) stems • The best indicator that labor is early and progressing is _______.
The Stem (examples) cont.– Multiple multiple stems • Which of the following is the best indicator that labor is early and progressing….a), b), c), d) or e)?– Negatives or Exception stems • All of the following behaviors are typical of a woman in early labor except: – The word except directs you to behaviors not typical • Which of the following is NOT true about diffusion? – The word not directs you to a process not affiliated with diffusion
Multiple Choice: Distracters …and the distractersGreater the similarity (incorrect answers), thebetween the correct answer.. greater the difficulty• What is the capital of • What is the capital of Michigan? Michigan? – A. Grand Rapids – A. California – B. Detroit – B. Iowa – C. Lansing – C. Lansing – D. Ann Arbor – D. Montana
Multiple Choice • Which of the following is– Distracters: NOT a form of potentialDon’t choose "All of the energy?above" if any distracter isfalse – A) sugar and carbohydrates – B) fat compounds – C) a solute gradient – D) a muscle contracting – E) all of the previous are potential energy
Multiple Choice • If phagocytosis can be– Distracters: compared to cellularDon’t choose "None eating, then pinocytosisof the above" if anydistracter is true can be compared to – A) cellular elimination – B) cellular drinking – C) cellular dehydration – D) none of the previous
Multiple Choice • The Following items are– Distracters: part of culture:Two or more – A) an automobiledistracters correctchoose “All of the – B) normsabove” – C) language – D) all of the above
The cell:Multiple Choice a) is the fundamental unit of all living things– Distracters: b) is very susceptible to disease whenA positive choice drinking alcoholmore likely to be true c) is not visible to the human eyethan a negative one d) is the building block only for DNA
• During cellular respiration, electrons moveMultiple Choice through a series of electron-carrier– Distracters: molecules. Which of the following is a true statement about this process?•Correct answer / – A) The electrons move from carriers that have more affinity for them to carriers that have lesschoice with the most affinity for them.information – B) The electrons release large amounts of energy each time they are transferred – C) Molecular oxygen is eventually oxidized by the electrons to form water – D) The carrier molecules are found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells – E) None of the statements are true.
Sequential Multiple Choice• The following people were the founders of sociology; the author of Society in America ignored due to her genders; the person who coined the term “ survival of the fittest” and thought helping the poor was wrong; the sociologist who studied social integration and suicide, and the sociologist who studied the relationship between religion and capitalism. – A) Comte, Martineau, Durkheim, Marx, Martineau – B) Weber, Marx, Durkheim, Dubois, Weber – C) Comte, Martineau, Spencer, Durkheim, Weber – D) Comte, Spencer, Marx, Durkheim, Weber – E) Comte, Addams, Durkheim, Weber, Martineau• Answers are presented within the sentence and separated by semicolons (;)• Tip: Number the sequenced sentences in the question, and match them with the answers.
Qualifiers• DISTRACTERS Change the choices and context found • LIMITERS Change the choice in most answers and context found in most questions
Multiple Choice & • True of False? – Time can always be controlledTrue/False Limiters – Everyone has the same amountAbsolute limiters are words that of timeturn sentences into extremes orpresent inflexible circumstances – Prioritizing is a technique thatAbsolute limiters are rarely identifies what is mostcorrect, especially in soft importantsciences, and usually beeliminated as an answer choiceNegations: “NOT” “NEVER”Absolutes: “ONLY” “ALL” “EVERY” “ALWAYS”Choices/Degrees: “BEST, MOST” “WORST” “EITHER/OR”
True/False • Pale, cool, and clammy skin suggests whichQuestion Limiters: of the following?Likelihood – A) a stable patientSome limiters are words that are – B) airway obstructionmeant to increase the likelihood thatthe statement is true – C) liver disease “MOST LIKELY” – D) Shock “BEST” • If any part of the statement is false, then “SUGGESTS, SUGGESTING, SUGGESTIVE” the entire statement is considered false: “SHOULD” – T/F: The sky is never blueSome limiters ask for a degree ofpossibility – T/F: The sky is blue everyday – T/F: The sky is blue at _____ o’ clock “MOST COMMON” “…OF CHOICE” – T/F: The sky is blue probably due to “LEAST/MOST RELIABLE” oxygen “MIGHT EXPLAIN” “COULD HAPPEN” “PROBABLY DUE TO: ”
(T/F likelihood cont.)• T / F: You have checked your patient’s skin temperature and have determined that his/her forehead feels very cool. You should now check the skin temperature in a more central location such as the torso.• Where is the limiter?• When in doubt, choose “True”!
Matching•Essentially are lots ofmultiple choice questionsrolled together•Correct answer for oneconcept serves as adistracter for all the others•Strategies: •Mixed flash cards with similar definitions •Diagramming old and new information together •Discuss similarities and differences of concepts
Matching Question Steps• First, read through each column Question or Answer or• Match the easiest items first• Lightly cross out or check off an Word Definition of item as it is matched Word• Determine multiple possible answers 1). Listening A)Open-• Use the process of elimination to minded match difficult or unknown 2). Objective B) Prejudging information• Leave no questions blank if there is no penalty for guessing 3). Obstacle C) Automatic
Process-Orientated Questions• Are designed to: – describe a total step-by-step sequence of events – identify the next best step possible within a sequence – Test your knowledge for application in the real world• What is the protocol for receiving an HBV vaccination? – (Answer should start like) It’s a 3 step process…the first step is…• Name 2 extra steps used in blood culture specimen collection that are not part of regular venipuncture procedures? – (Answer should start like) Two extra steps directly following would be…1)…• Anticipate questions, and study past the answer.
Process-Orientated Questions (cont.)• The LPN/LVN delivers external cardiac compressions to a client while performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Which of the following actions by the LPN/LVN is BEST? – A) Maintain a position close to the client’s side with the nurse’s knees apart – B) Maintain vertical pressure on the client’s chest through the heel of the nurse’s hand. – C) Re-check the nurse’s hand position after every 10 chest compressions – D) Check for a return of the client’s pulse after every 8 breaths by the nurse.• Look for key words – First, primarily, initial, early, most important, except, next,• The very next sentence answer should describe the very next step in the process, - period. – Place a period at the end of the test question – Think of the very next step if you were to conduct this process in real life
Process-Orientated Strategies Study prefixes, suffixes, and root words: Ex: A way to remember the difference between catabolism and anabolism is…CATAstrophe is when everything starts to break apart, and a body-builder on ANAbolic steriods builds up more muscle. Study Greek and Latin roots of words When drawing a blood culture with the Winged Infusion set (butterfly) always: draw the aerobic (AERO – air, mist, wind) first and draw the anaerobic bottle second (ANA – build up, back again, throughout, against). When drawing a blood culture with a syringe always: draw the anaerobic bottle first Draw the aerobic bottle second.
Test-Taking Strategies 2009FILL IN THE BLANK & SHORT/LONGANSWER (ESSAY)
Fill in the Blank vs. Short/Long AnswerFill in the Blank Short/Long Answer (Essay)• Background Sentences • Sentences may/may not provide memory cues for provide memory cues for answers answers• Requires recognition w/o • Requires recognition w/o keywords present keywords present (sometimes) (sometimes)• Definitional FTB: require • Require to define, use, and you to define the term, or explain concepts using provide a definition in a sentences that belong sentence together
Short Answer QuestionsPoints to consider Strategies If you cannot answer, move • (Studying) Define the word, on to the next one. then reword the definition’s Look for questions with sentence into the form of a concepts and answers that question are similar for clues to other questions • Study for relationships of Another question might concepts, not just definitions trigger the answer • (Test-taking) Read the If you dont know--come question and try to answer it back & make educated before reading the choices guess if you must • If you are given choices to No blanks—guess and go for write on, read them all before partial credit selecting
Short Answer/FTB Essentials• (FTB) Generate your own questions from your notes, and challenge yourself providing multiple answers• Flash cards: Cornell style (your own words & book definition)• Never assume that the length of the blank has anything to do with the length of the answer• Look for key words in the sentence that may trigger a response – “According to…(scientist/practitioner/book author)” – “(Company/individual/researcher/etc.) has decided to….”• According to Henslin, sociology developed: – A) in classical Greece and grew in Ancient Rome – B) in ancient Rome – C) during the social upheaval of the 19th century – D) during the mid-20th century
Essay Questions: Keyword StrategiesKey Word(s) Strategy • Identify concept,, review• 1) Apply >>>>>>>>>>>>>>> case studies & scenarios• 2) Integrate, relate, explain • Explore relationships, relationships, etc. >>>>>>>> similarities/differences, & use mind maps.• 3) Analyze, compare/contrast, defend, • Critical analysis of all of the describe, etc. >>>>>>>>>>> above! Rehearse and/or Explain to someone for clarity!
Long Answer (Essay) Strategies• Plan your time• Read through the entire question• Pay attention to key words: – Describe; differentiate; explain, give an example; compare and contrast• Develop an outline so you know what to include in the answer: – Write down keywords in the margins as you think of them – Your opening statement summarizes your essay – Summarize and conclude your thoughts again in your final paragraph – Take time at the end to reread your answer!!
Nursing Study Outline Strategy1) Outline your notes to each disease a) With info from lecture and book 2) Study Nursing Learning Objectives 3) Pathophysiology of disease/system4) Assessment of Signs and symptoms (including tabs) a) Subjective Data & Objective Data b) Highlight special S & S i. Such as RLQ pain for appy5) Nursing Diagnosis6) Goals: a) Intervention, prevention, alleviate symptoms b) Promote physical and emotional rest c) Health teaching7) Specific Implementation Plans8) Evaluation/outcome criteria (normalness)
Test-taking Strategies cont.• Reword the Question:Ex: Which of the following is a complication that occurs during theFirst 24 hours after a percutaneous liver biopsy? a) Nausea and vomiting b) Constipation c) Hemorrhage d) Pain at the biopsy site• The question restated is “What is a common complication of aLiver biopsy?”• The question restated at a higher level (application) is “Which isBest indicator of hemorrhage?”
Learning Style Strategies• Linguistic/Verbal/Intrapersonal Learners: – TRY TO ANSWER QUESTION(S) YOURSELF OUT LOUD – Turn the chapter/lecture objectives into questions – Make a sample question for each key word written or described in the lecture – Use word associations:• If you rank 51 tests and get the 26th highest score, that’s the ______. If you take the most common score or scores, that’s the ______. If you add all of the scores and divide by the number of tests, that’s the ________. – A) mean, median, mode mode (most), – B) median, mode, mean median (middle, just above middle) – C) median, mean, mode >>>>>>>>>>>>>>> mean (‘average’..”you’re mean if you call – D) mode, mean, median me average!”)
Learning Style Strategies• Visual Learners: – Utilize Youtube, CD- Roms with textbook, DVDs, labs, & your textbook’s websites – Draw or use pictures and diagrams – Visualize test questions, and visualize the answer being applied
Learning Style Strategies• Interpersonal/Kinetic/Visual Learners: – Walk and talk to yourself while reading the book – Find a serious study partner to discuss Q & A. – Use a study room with a dry erase board – Try to teach yourself and your study partner using the dry erase board – Utilize any open lab time and find manipulative, (models), or hands-on parts to work with
Study Strategies (cont.)• Visualize the test question, then picture yourself applying theprocedure or going through each action given in each answer• Use practice exam workbooks with answers• Form sample test questions for each bolded term in the book,and for each keyword said by the instructor• Take sample tests over and over until we get perfect scores• Use all resources (DVD, CD-Rom, online crosswords, flip cards,Note cards, posters/pictures, etc.
Commonly misunderstood Strategies Dont change your answer* – You more often remember the times when changing your answer cost you points, and less often remember the times when changing it gained you points – Geiger’s (1991)* study showed… – Go with what you believe is correct – first choice or if you go back• Sound Advice