Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
  • Like
Digitisation Infrastructure - June 2007
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.


Now you can save presentations on your phone or tablet

Available for both IPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Digitisation Infrastructure - June 2007


The presentation looks at some of the key capabilities that are required, whether at a campus-wide, regional or national level to make sure that digitisation happens effectively, as rapidly as …

The presentation looks at some of the key capabilities that are required, whether at a campus-wide, regional or national level to make sure that digitisation happens effectively, as rapidly as possible and offers value for money in the medium and long term.

Published in Education , Technology
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads


Total Views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds



Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

    No notes for slide


  • 1. Publishing Cultural Heritage Alastair Dunning Digitisation Programme Manager JISC (Joint Information Systems Committee), 0203 006 6065 UCL Presentation, 19 th June
  • 2. JISC Digitisation Programme
    • Manager for 8 projects, part of 16 project programme to digitise UK cultural heritage. For example
      • British Newspapers 1620-1900
      • Pre-Raphaelite Art
      • Images from Scott Polar Research Institute
      • Nineteenth-Century Pamphlets
      • 20 th -century Government Cabinet Papers
    • Started April 2007, finishing March 2009
  • 3. Digitisation is easy
  • 4. Growth of Digitisation
    • Possibilities of Internet inspired rapid data capture of precious objects all over the world
    • But maybe this started out as a reactive cottage industry?
      • Museums, Libraries and Archives rushing to digitise material and dump it on the web
    • How long does this material last on the Internet? Is it good quality? Can people locate it? Can they use it?
    • Quantity of material and issue of long-term digitisation effects published material. Added pressure supplied by Google digitisation programme
    • … . Digitisation is difficult
  • 5. Need for an infrastructure
    • To address the issues raised in previous slide
      • How long does this material last on the Internet? Is it good quality? Can users locate it? Can they use it?
    • Illustrations from the British model; other country’s models may be different
    • Demonstration that mass digitisation is complex, involving multiple players and technologies
    • Good infrastructure allows publication of cultural heritage to happen quickly; to show value for money; to be usable; to be easily accessible by educational communities and general public
  • 6. Data capture
    • To convert the physical to digital
      • Flat scanners, robotic scanners, 3D scanners, direct capture via digital camera, remote controlled camera, conversion via medium (e.g. microfilm), reel-to-digital, millions of typists
    • To cope with all kinds of material (newspapers, stained glass, banners, posters, maps, census, reports, grey literature, artefacts, film, audio … )
    • Need to have keen idea of priorities for digitisation
    • Ensure competition but not redundancy (Keep machines working; keep staff in place)
    • Requires research on success of methodologies, dialogue with other subject areas (i.e. sciences)
  • 7. If you don’t have a range of options for data capture – cultural heritage won’t get digitised University of Southampton Robotic Scanner – Details at
  • 8. Standards and Formats
    • What file formats to ensure high-quality, long-term use
      • Images - TIFF, but also JPEG2000, PNG
      • Text – XML (and flavours thereof), but also RTF, Word
      • Sound – WAV, AIFF, MP3, Ogg (formats and wrappers)
      • Film – MJPEG, MPEG4, AVI, Quicktime, Flash (ditto)
    • Normally developed internationally, but local variations occur
    • Co-ordination, certification, co-operation, involvement and decisiveness at national and international levels
    • As with all parts of infrastructure, research and innovation
    • If you don’t have this – see current mess over video!
  • 9. Metadata
    • Requires sophisticated of experts who know the digital objects (e.g. newspapers, sound recordings, census reports)
    • As with before, international c o-ordination, certification, co-operation to develop international schema and vocabularies
    • These are required at subject level, format level, technical levels, preservation levels. For example
      • Dublin Core, MODS – generic resource description
      • VRA4 – digital image description, including technical details
      • METS – wraps together different information on a digital object
      • PREMIS – preservation metadata over long term
    • If you don’t have this – trust and authenticity, interoperability, resource discovery are severely hindered
  • 10. Data Delivery
    • I.e. the people that build websites
    • Complex engagement between commercial (Google, ProQuest, Thomson Gale, JSTOR) and non-commercial suppliers (universities, museums etc.)
    • Huge range of potential business models
      • Institutional subscription, Personal subscription
      • Pay-per-view, Google Ads
      • Open Access
      • Mixed model
    • But no definitive answers about the more successful
  • 11. Data Delivery – What is required
    • Ability to regularly serve up websites and data
    • Systems to deliver a range of digital content (e.g. newspapers, audio, posters, artifacts)
    • Low overheads and year on year costs
    • Good understanding of end-users
    • Working in partnership with other content providers
    • Commitment to innovation and good practice
    • If you don’t have this – wheel will be constantly reinvented, users will be driven away, material will be siloed
  • 12. Preservation Facilities
    • Digital objects become obsolete with time. Experts are required to ensure this does not happen
      • Expertise in handling digital assets (content and all metadata) in long term, and preferably also the hardware and media that hold such content
      • Must be trusted and reliable
      • Good relationship with data delivery providers
      • Continual research – why, what and how to preserve?
    • Without this, digital data will be lost, endangering the entire investment made in digitisation
  • 13. Preservation Facilities – Case Study
    • A good example from the late 1990s
    • Orphaned archaeological data rescued from obsolescence
    • CDs, floppy discs, PCs, databases, word files, CAD files all left
    • But lack of metadata meant not all data could be retrieved
  • 14. Digitisation Infrastructure
    • Network capabilities
    • Authentication
    • Tools Development
    • Usability testing
    • Copyright clearing houses
    • Consultants
    • Trained expert staff
    • Suitable courses
    • Data capture
    • Standards, Formats
    • Metadata
    • Data Delivery
    • Preservation
    • And of course Money
    • Skill is in making sure these pieces fit together