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EMPROR HAILE SELASSIEThe short notes of TefariMokonnin
Tefari was born in 24th July 1892. From hisfather Ras Mokonnin Woldie Michael and hismother Yeshimebet Ali in Ajarsa Goro 30 kmapart from the Islamic holly land Harar .Tefari train in French language till hebecame Addis Ababa in his 10th year in1902. he got the tittle ‘DEJ AZMACH ‘ inNov 18 1906 since he appointed as thegovernor of ‘Gora Malate ‘. His father wasdied when he was 14th in March 21st 1906.
Tefari was appointed as thegovernor in 1907 inBosso/Begemdr, 1908 in sidamoafter two years he became theruler of Hararge.In July 1911 he married the granddaughter of king Michael. When hewas 19 his wife Menen bornTenagneWork for him.
During the appointment ofempress Zewuditu, DejazmachTefari got the tittle ‘RAS’ from theempress. Until 1923 he was thefather of ASFAWOSSON,ZENEBWORK, TSEHAY, MEKONNIN &SAHLE SELASSIE.
Emperor Haile Selassie & hisparliamentary system
After he become the 225th king ofsolomonic dynasty he decided tomodernize the over all parts ofEthiopia via a good governance &democratic system. As he was thefirst leader that who declaredconstitution for Ethiopia in 19thJuly 1931 he thought that :-
“Constitution is the only choice tosurvive peacefully. Respects &benefits of citizen a rise from theacceptable law of the country .’’
The draft of constitution wassigned by 24 the highestauthorized leaders including theemperor, patriarchs, knights,princess & ministers. Theconstitution was respects rights ofpeople, land lords & tenantsthrough fair equality.
Even if the constitution shows thebrightness of the emperor somescholars oppose some articles from thesupreme law of the country.For instant :-article 2 :- tells about the people, theland & the laws are belong to the king.Article 3:- the power of thegovernment must in the hands ofsolomonic dynasty.
Article 5:-since the king has thedivine power no one accuse him.These the above & the other wassome of criticized articles of 1931constitution. After many years theauthor of the first constitution ofEthiopia Bejrond Tekle Hawaryatsay’s
‘During that time our interest wasnot emphasizing the parliamentbut we were interested imposingthe rule and regulation of thegovernment. We believe that eachethnic society was representedthrough there leaders, land lords,knights and so on.’
The members of the upper & lowerchamber were not only rulers butalso scholars & others. Forinstance Betiweded WeldieTsadikGoshu & Blaten Geta Sahlu Tsedaluwere president & vice president ofupper chamber respectively.
In Nov 1st 1932 the new parliamentwas opened. The parliament hadseven committee such as lawmakers, foreign affairs, military,budget, public service & thecommittee that select thecommittee members
For the sake of accountability theparliament member was elected asthere income & property until1955. In 1955 rewrittenconstitution declared that eachperson has the right to elect & tobe elected when he or she was 18& 21 respectively
Until 1974 the emperor waselected 5 time since 1958. theelection was took over 4 years.Relatively he built the democraticsystem for Africa & Ethiopia.
Over the next four decades, HaileSelassie presided over a countryand government that was anexpression of his personalauthority. His reforms greatlystrengthened schools and thepolice, and he instituted a newconstitution and centralized hisown power.
In 1936 he was forced into exile afterItaly invaded Ethiopia. Haile Selassiebecame the face of the resistance ashe went before the League of Nationsin Geneva for assistance, andeventually secured the help of theBritish in reclaiming his country andreinstituting his powers as emperor in1941.
Haile Selassie again moved to try tomodernize his country. In the face of awave of anti-colonialism sweepingacross Africa, he granted a newconstitution in 1955, one that outlinedequal rights for his citizens under thelaw, but conversely did nothing todiminish Haile Selassies own powers.
In such an era, words like "pan-Africanism" and "civilrights" were little more than esoteric philosophicalnotions entertained by an enlightened few. That a countryas backward as Italy, whose widespread poverty promptedthe emigration of millions, would seek to devour a nationlike Ethiopia, was an irony too subtle to raise eyebrowsoutside the most sophisticated intellectual circles. WithBritish backing, Haile Selassie returned to defeat theItalian army which, in the event, the Allies never viewedas much more than a nuisance. The British themselvesconsidered the Ethiopian campaign in its strategic context--as a way to free the Red Sea from possible Axis control--as much as the liberation of a sovereign nation. To theEthiopians, it was as much a moral victory as a militaryone.
The infamous Walwal incident provided thepretext Mussolini needed. Walwal was anoasis in the Ogaden dessert, along theboarder between Ethiopia and ItalianSomaliland. The Italians contrived aboarder dispute and occupied Walwal in1930. After a boarder clash in 1934,Mussolini claimed that Italy had beenwronged and demanded satisfaction.Ethiopia appealed to the League forarbitration. But the Leagues response wassluggish at best.
It was then when Emperor Haile Selassie,complained to the League of Nations, calling onthe League to invoke its doctrine of collectivesecurity. An attack on one member of the Leaguewas supposed to be regarded as an attack on allmembers. Indeed, it was this protection that hadinspired him to join the League in the first placeagainst the wishes of the hostile nobility whowanted no part of a "foreigners" League. Still, likemany after the bloodletting of The Great War,Selassie put his faith in the League to stop futurewars.
What was not foreseen however, wasHitlers rapid rise to power in Germany. Bythis time, Britain and France had stillhoped to contain Hitler. It was thoughtthat Mussolinis Italy could still serve as abulwark against German ambitions inAustria, and thus did not want alienateMussolini over what they considered anunimportant African state. French andBritish attempts to ease the dispute wereoften made at the expense of Ethiopianinterests.
On 29 September 1935, Emperor Selassieannounced that he had no choice but to mobilizeEthiopias large, but poorly equippedarmy. Mussolini launched a full scale invasion on3 October. The League responded by condemningthe invasion and imposing economic sanctions onItaly. However the sanctions we not only weak,but were not taken seriously by all members,especially France and the United Kingdom. Theweakness of the League thus exposed, Ethiopiawas left alone. The invasion is regarded as one ofthe most one-sided and brutal of the 20thcentury. By early May Emperor Selassieevacuated the capital city of Addis Ababa. OnMay 7th, Italy officially annexed Ethiopia.
Haile Selassie addressed the League on 20 June1936, the same time that the League officiallycondemned the Italian invasion andannexation. During his address he asked, "Whatanswer shall I take back to my people?" warningfurther that, "It is us today, it will be youtomorrow." The Emperor was toasted and hailedaround the world by anti-fascists, and Timemagazine named him "Man of the Year". Today hisprophetic words to the League of Nations areoften cited as a foreshadowing the Second WorldWar to the ill-prepared nations of the world.
Haile Selassiewas the firststate visitor ofUSA from Africa
In 1954, as the invitation of presidentDwight D. Eisenhower, the emperor ofEthiopia Haile Selassie ‘king of kingsconquering lion of the tribe of Judahelect of God’ made his first officialstate visit to USA, a two month ago.7000 miles tour of best knowninternational celebrities at the time,remembered for his eloquent appealfor collective security to the league ofNations in 1936 when Mussolini’s -
Fascists invaded our for his sendingEthiopian troops to join UN forces inthe Korean war in 1950-53rd. Ethiopiaenjoyed especial cachet in the unitedstate for having been. ‘First to befreed ’from Axis occupation. Forpromptly signing the declaration ofthe UN founding conference at SanFrancisco in 1945.
Quotes"Throughout history, it has been theinaction of those who could haveacted; the indifference of those whoshould have known better; the silenceof the voice of justice when itmattered most; that has made itpossible for evil to triumph." Haile Selassie I