The Perspective University


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I hope you will work with me as we travel along the perspective highway to a greater understanding of this amazing yet simple skill that all, I repeat, all artist should know, perspective drawing.

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The Perspective University

  1. 1. Written, Designed and Illustrated by Author - Val Barclay ©The Perspective University Want to Learn Perspective? The Perspective University :
  2. 2. Legal Notice/Disclaimer:The purchaser or reader of this publication assumes responsibility for the use of these materialsand information. Adherence to all applicable laws and regulations, both federal, state, and local,governing professional licensing, business practices, advertising and any other aspects of doingbusiness in the US or any other jurisdiction is the sole responsibility of the purchaser or reader.The author and publisher of this publication assumes no responsibility or liability whatsoever onbehalf of any purchaser or reader of these materials. Any perceived slights of specific people ororganizations is unintentional.Information in this report is provided solely for the user’s information and, while thought to beaccurate, is provided strictly “as is” and without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied.We will not be liable to you for any damages, direct or indirect, or lost profits or data arising outof your use of information provided in this report.Every effort has been made to accurately represent our product and its potential. Pleaseremember that each individuals success depends on his or her background, dedication, desire andmotivation. Want to Learn Perspective? The Perspective University :
  3. 3. Contents Give your work more depth... Get through that and perspective becomes clear... Lets look at Image 6 and Image 7, Stage 1... Lets go to Stage 2.... The importance of constructing your image... What does each Line mean? Adobe Illustrator CS5 3 Point Perspective The importance of using perspective... Learn 2 Draw Want to Learn Perspective? The Perspective University :
  4. 4. Dedicated to Carina Want to Learn Perspective?The Perspective University :
  5. 5. The PerspectiveUniversityIf I said to you while we are standing at the edge of a beach, how far do youthink the horizon line is away from us, could you answer that question? What if Isaid to you that it’s a easy calculation once you know your own height, wouldn’tthat give you a better understanding of the world around you, I am sure itwould. And if you were an artist, would you not find that a great help for yourlandscapes!That is what Perspective is about, the best help you can have as an artists,without hesitation. Sometimes we know what is the right thing to do yet wecannot find ourselves doing it, because it’s not necessary, in our mind. They don’tknow so why should I be concerned!Often over the years I have looked at great artwork and the reason it’s greatartwork for me is the fact that I know the artist knows perspective, they respectperspective and also bring into play perspective. We all use perspective in oureveryday life, almost from the day we were born and yet unless we are artist,that includes Architect’s, Illustrators or a Fine Art artist, we fail to use it.Perspective is not about complications, technical ability, it’s about real life andeverything around us and we all know perspective really well, it’s just that wehave accepted it as a way of life. If you produce any kind of artwork, and I knowmany people do, then you should learn perspective.Give your work more depth...As a newborn baby we are amazed at everything around us, yet we have noperception of perspective. As we approach 8 months or so and we are often onthe floor, the once giant figures of our parents start to make more sense. Theycan judge them by the size of the surrounding which by now the child has a fargreater understanding of dimensions, depth, height and width.This is perspective, being able to take an object depth, height and width and view Want to Learn Perspective? The Perspective University :
  6. 6. it in whatever position or distant it’s placed, and still understands that object.Perspective is one of those words that even looks and sound complex, but it’snot. It’s easy! And when you start to learn perspective as an artist you will neverunderstand how you managed without it.So OK, lets start to understand perspective and if by the time I get to the end ofthis 25 page report and you still do not understand why YOU should learn per-spective as an artist then I have failed and cannot help you, but if you can see thepoint I am making then by all means come and join me at The Perspective Uni-versity and learn more.LETS START HERE!You will often see these images whenever you hear of perspective; have a look atimage 1 and image 2. Vanishing Point Centre of Vision Horizon Line Line of Vision Ground Line Station Point Image 1 Image 2The ‘perspective set-up’ and the ‘railway track’ images are possible the mostused way of showing perspective. Take image 1, these are the components. • Ground Line • Horizon Line • Line of Sight • Vanishing Lines • Vanishing Points • Station Point Want to Learn Perspective? The Perspective University :
  7. 7. A few other lines are added to image 1 to make a full picture, but these are of-ten not shown. It could be that it starts to get too technical.Often you see in an article written by someone you assume knows a littleperspective and he may say ‘Perspective is just an Illusion’, they are wrong!Perspective is not an illusion, it’s real, it’s around you at all times, how can it bean illusion.Each day we wake in the morning we start to put perspective to work,dimensions, depth, height and width all around us. It becomes so natural. Weour instinct tells us how far the floor is away from the bed, so you roll out ofbed.You look across to the wardrobe and the doorway to the bathroom, youinstinctively know the distant you are going to travel, your eyes and brain tellsyou so. This is not an illusion it’s real!Now, put that on paper, on a 2 dimensional plane and Wow, how did I do that?That is the beginning of perspective and image 1 has most of the details you willneed to create perspective.The problem here is, as an artist who feel ‘I draw what I see’ OK, I understandthat, but what do you really see?Get through that and perspective becomes clear...Image 1 is showing you the Horizon Line, your new line of sight, your eye level.That level tells you how far you are from the ground, the Ground Line.You arenow working with perspective, or should I say a ‘piece of paper’, you have tothink that way if you wish to learn perspective.You are dealing with distant in 2dimensions. The subject matter again becomes technical for some, but you haveto go through the stages, that is perspective!Before I go any further I want you to look at the images on the next 2 pages, 3different format and styles yet look at the perspective used, all from the sameartist Denis Peterson. Every part of his artwork calls for perspective, without itthese images would not look as ral as they do. Look at the girl in the cafe havingher meal, above is the reflection of the building accross the street, just to remindyou that this is perspective at it’s best. Want to Learn Perspective? The Perspective University :
  8. 8. Image 3 Image 4 Want to Learn Perspective? The Perspective University :
  9. 9. Image 5Check out Denis Peterson artwork GO HERE and see the skill you can acquirewith those simple lines in image 1.So yes, you have to get through the learning curve, but inside us all we have it,we just need to use it as artists. In all his work above you can see perspective atit’s best; you just have to know how to use it. But you can also see if you lookclosely, all the elements of image 1.Try to find the elements of Image 1 yourself in images 3, 4, and 5, see just howmuch you know about perspective. Want to Learn Perspective? The Perspective University :
  10. 10. Lets look at Image 6 and Image 7, Stage 1... Cone of Vision Vanishing Point Centre of Vision Horizon Line Line of Vision Ground Line Station PointImage 6 Cone of Vision Vanishing Point Centre of Vision Horizon Line Line of Vision Ground Line Station PointImage 7 Want to Learn Perspective? The Perspective University :
  11. 11. You will see that image 6 now has some more lines and the text added, this iswhat you are going to work with, how simple is that! Each of the elements ofimage 6 is all you have to know for now. The study of these basic lines is all youneed to study perspective and when you learn perspective you don’t even needthe lines, you can see them clearly. How, because you have learned perspective!Lets go to Stage 2.Look at image 8, can you tell me the size of the drawn image? No, you have noreference to size, yet you have a good feel of size and depth. If this was the areaof a person’s head lying down on the ground that you are about to draw you cansee a dramatic image about to form! If you know a little about perspective youwill know how easy that was to produce. Cone of Vision Vanishing Point Centre of Vision Horizon Line Ground Line Station PointImage 8 Image 9 Image 10 Want to Learn Perspective? The Perspective University :
  12. 12. The importance of constructing your imageThe construction of the images using the lines from image 7 was all that wasneeded. Using the lines and learning about each line must now be looked atseriously, for you to understand perspective.That is the part that puts most people off, the construction, but I repeat, onceyou know it you won’t even need to do any construction, yet your artwork willalways look more real.Now construct your own image based on the construction lines in image 7 andsee what you can do. Try to stack a few of the images or put them beside eachother. Be careful of the green circle, which is your Cone of Vision. Outside of thecircle and the image becomes distorted, just as in real life, and we refer to it asbeing out of focus yet the brain puts it right. More on distortation later!On a piece of paper you need to get it right! The brain and eye is already doingits job by seeing all around you so keep all your concentration on the paper. Trytaking your image above the Horizon Line, like image 11 below. Cone of Vision Vanishing Point Horizon Line Ground Line Station PointImage 11 Want to Learn Perspective? The Perspective University :
  13. 13. Image 12 Image 13The construction lines in image 11 shows the vanishing lines going above theHorizon Line for the first time, and has changed the size of the figure even moreradical yet we can see the size of the object, just as we would in real life andalso know the object stands above us. We don’t need the Horizon Line to tell ushow tall the object is, we can have a good guess, this is perspective. If you have aprinter, print image 7 and construct your own image.For many of you looking at this and think you do not have any knowledge of per-spective think again, I hope you can create and appreciate what has been done inimage 11. If so welcome to Perspective!What does each Line mean?I will explain each line in image 7. I hope the explanation below will help you tolearn and understand the lines a little better as these are the tools you will needto create perspective. Learn to understand these simple tools and you will go farin perspective.Cone of VisionWhen the eye looks intently in one direction, there is a limit to what can beseen. The boundary of vision is conical and for perspective purpose the angleof the Cone is 60 degrees (60º), or less, and has its apex at the eye, or StationPoint.Station PointThis is the position taken up by the eye of the observer. Want to Learn Perspective? The Perspective University :
  14. 14. Visual RayThe Visual ray is a ray of light or sight line (Line of Vision) travelling from a givenpoint on the subject to the Station Point.Picture PlaneThis is a Window or Transparent Plane placed between the Station Point and theSubject upon which the image or picture is drawn. The Picture Plane is at rightangles to the ground line in 2 Point Perspective. In 3 Point Perspective it’s at anangle, more on 3 point Perspective in our training course.Image 14 below shows the Picture Plane Plan View Picture Plane Ground Line Side View Station Point Picture Plane 60º Image Subject Ground Line Image 14 Want to Learn Perspective? The Perspective University :
  15. 15. SubjectThe object drew, i.e. the subject of the picture or image to be produced on thePicture Plane.Center of Vision or Point of SightThis is the nearest point on the Picture Plane to the Station Point i.e. the pointdirectly opposite the Station Point.Vanishing PointThe Vanishing Point is a point on the Picture Plane to which a set of parallel linesappears to converge. To find the Vanishing Point of a line, a line should be drawnparallel to it through the Station Point until it intersects the Picture Plane. Thepoint of the intersection is the Vanishing Point. See Image 14.Horizon LineThe Horizon Line drawn on the Picture Plan in which the Vanishing Points of allhorizontal lines will appear. It is found by drawing a line through the Station Pointparallel to the Ground Plane, i.e. the level of the eye, until it intersects the Pic-ture Plane.Ground LineThis is the line at the intersection of the Picture Plane and the Ground Plane.Ground PlaneThe Ground Plane is the horizontal surface on which the Subject generally rests.It is also the base from which the level of the Station Point and other heights aremeasured. This are is also one of the more important part of the perspective set-up as this is the plane that all major measurements are taken.The ImageThe image is the perspective picture or Illustration drawn as it were on the Pic-ture Plane or sheet of paper, etc.The first of the above, the Cone of VisionThe importance of the Cone of Vision in creating any form of illustration mustnot be taken lightly. Without good understanding of this matter you are open to Want to Learn Perspective? The Perspective University :
  16. 16. problems in your drawing and this is the point I have with Adobe Illustrator CS5and wish to let as many people know of these problems, you can still put it right.It is not in the scope of this report to give you a lesson in thisarea but I will do my very best to show you the problems.The reason for the Cone of Vision (in real life) is for the human eye to seeeverything within the correct focus, outside that and the brain takes over tocorrect the problem, enabling us to see correctly. But when you put perspectiveinto the equation you are now working with 2 dimension and the Cone of Visionhas to be used. You will see from Image 15 below that we have a huge problemwith this drawing; a drawing produced by Adobe and is used in promotionalarticles. Image 15 Want to Learn Perspective? The Perspective University :
  17. 17. A vast area of this illustration is out of focus or outside the Cone of Vision.Can you see it? If you know perspective it’s a easy matter to see the problem,distortion. Outside the Cone of Vision distortion is always caused and this is abig problem with people drawing landscapes, building and even closer imagessuch as a portrait or a bowl of fruits.Let me make this a little clearer, for this is one of the reason I am creating aMembership Site to teach perspective to the masses.Adobe Illustrator CS5Image 16 was taken from the top of the foremost tower, this is where thedistortion is more notable and from a company like Adobe this is insane. Adobecould show some more respect for their clients,such as thousands of you out there. You aredrawing the wrong images. See image 16, theellipse is the major problem.Ellipses are a major part of perspective and youcannot fail to understand the construction of anellipse, also known as a Circle in Perspective.Now look at Image 17 and how I havecorrected the distortion in Image 16...This should not be allowed especially from sucha renowned company as Adobe. Image 16To explain this I have produced a drawing image17 to show just what can happen when you havethe Cone of Vision ‘out of position’, this is whenyou have not position yourself in the right placeto start your perspective drawing.Get to know perspective and you can correctthese things and make your image have a morerealistic look and not the image created inimage 15. Image 17 Want to Learn Perspective? The Perspective University :
  18. 18. Cone of Vision Picture Plane A 60º SP Cone of Vision B 60º SP A BImage 18 Want to Learn Perspective? The Perspective University :
  19. 19. Without the correct position of the Cone ofVision this is the result see Image 18This is the problem with the new Illustrator CS5, the cone of vision is totallyout, why, I guess only Adobe can answer that one. Was Illustrator CS5created without the Cone of Vision? One of the most important componentsin perspective drawing! That would be hard to believe. You always have toremember that we are creating perspective on a piece of paper, a 2 dimensionalplane, which means if we are to take the 3 dimension of real life, we must be ableto create it accurately.The Cone of Vision should always be 60º or less, especially for buildings. If theangle is greater, then a distorted image will result. Image 18 shows a subjectdrawn with a correct, B and incorrect, A, Cone of Vision. The practical problemsconcerning illustrations are dealt with in the course and how to correct them.Perspective, the most important part of any artist toolsOften when carrying out theoretical exercises such as draft sketches, it is notnecessary to concern yourself with the problem of the Cone of Vision, but whenattempting an illustration, your artwork whatever it may be, it is vital to do so.As you can see from the above illustrations perspective is a subject that startsoff with a technical understanding. Weather you are creating a picture in water-colour, oils, pen and ink or a technical illustration, perspective must be looked atin all these cases. I am not going to tell you it’s a simple matter, but I will tell youit is the most important part of any artist tools.As with any artist preparation is of utmost important. Looking at your subjectand choosing the correct view and position within your canvas must be takenwith care. If you create landscape you must allow the viewers of your artworkto position themselves in the same position, as you were when you started yourdrawing. They must be able to have a line of sight and horizon line. You must beable to show them everything you see in your artwork and the best and mostaccurate way to do so is by using perspective.3 Point PerspectiveI have not touched on 3 Point Perspective for a good reason. As artist we areusually creating an image that is almost always accepted with 2 Point Perspective.The reason for that is the scale at witch we draw. Even a tall tree is perceived Want to Learn Perspective? The Perspective University :
  20. 20. as vertical lines parallel to each other, which is true for 2 Point Perspective. Thebrain knows it to be parallel so we draw it that way.Image 19But that is not the case for an architect; the scale of his work image 19 is adifferent matter and this is where 3 Point Perspective is often found. To be ableto give a more realistic view they often have to use the third point that is belowor above the Station Point. Image 20Here I have created a book shelve and I am viewing it from above. An unusualview but never the less I created this image in 3 Point Perspective to show thevast different 3 Point Perspective can make. Being in the right position is of greatimportance here as you can make the subject look totally out of scale if you arenot careful. Want to Learn Perspective? The Perspective University :
  21. 21. VP1 Horizon Line or Eye Level VP2 VP3Image 21 Image 21 shows the construction and you can see the 3 Vanishing Points in position to the viewer or Station Point. Again the Cone of Vision is bought into place to keep the image as real as possible otherwise it could be a disaster and that is not the point of perspective. Want to Learn Perspective? The Perspective University :
  22. 22. I hope I have given you an insight into perspective and I do hope you will enrolin our classes to have a better knowledge of perspective and its important use inyour artwork. And please do not get put off with the technical learning of per-spective, it’s a necessary action to learn as you get to grips with the whole ideaof perspective.Once you start to use perspective in your drawing you will come to appreciateit a whole lot more and start to have fun with your artwork.The importance of using perspective...I hope you have a better understanding of perspective from this report and willcontinue to do so. I have seen books and articles on the Internet that makes thelearning of perspective confusing by adding unnecessary lines and curves to whatis a very simple operation.My main aim is to show you what you can achieve with perspective and theimportance of using perspective in your drawing to create a real view for all tosee. As I have said before, perspective is not an illusion it’s real!Can you answer any of these questions? • Are you willing to take time out and learn? • Do you need perspective in your place of work? • Are you an artist, do you create illustration of any kind? • Do you use Illustrator CS5 perspective?If your answer is yes to any of the above question then join us at The PerspectiveUniversity and start to use perspective correctly in your work. You will find thelink to the website below and the doors will be opened for you in January 2011.The Perspective UniversityLearn Internet Marketing - it’s FREE Want to Learn Perspective? The Perspective University :
  23. 23. Do you struggle with figure drawing? Learn in 3 simple steps to easily do pencil drawings of the human figure, whether beginner or advanced. Go here for InformationI look forward to hearing from you about your many art successes and how you can develope yourtechniques in drawing with Perspective. Thanks again for taking the time to look at my report.Sincerely,Val Barclay Please contact us at with any questions. Want to Learn Perspective? The Perspective University :