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  • 1. Desarrollo de Habilidades Gerenciales AIN9716 Enero-Mayo 2012Maestro Joaquín García Jiménez
  • 2. • Introduction• Resources: Whetten-Cameron,Williams
  • 3. Higher ManagementThe true test of intelligence/highermanagement is not how much we know howto do things.But how we behave when we do not knowwhat to do.How we behave under extremecircumstances, crisis, theunexpected.
  • 4. Who is a Manager?• Is a person responsible for the work performance of a group members.• Holds formal authority to commit organizational resources, even if the approval of others is require.
  • 5. Manager and Leader• Manager is person that receives formal authority• Leader is a person that has influence over a group of people and may not have not be the official authority.
  • 6. What are management skills?• Consist of identifiable set of actions that individuals perform and that lead to certain outcomes.• How to move from A, B, C• How to move from ideas to reality, practice to actions, to concrete objects.• Examples
  • 7. • Management skills are:• The means which managers translate their own style, strategy, and favorite tools and techniques into practice.
  • 8. • To find out what are the Essential Management skills you ask the following 5 questions:1. How have you become successful in this organization?2. Who fails and who succeeds in this organization and why?
  • 9. • 3. If you had to train someone to take your place, what knowledge and what skills would you make certain that person possessed in order to perform successfully as your successor?• 4. If you could design an ideal curriculum or training program to teach you to be a better manager, what would it contain?
  • 10. • 5. Think of other effective managers you know. What skills do they demonstrate that explain their success?
  • 11. Types of managers• Functional – General Managers• Administrators• Entrepreneurs innovation• Small-business owners• Team leaders
  • 12. Five Categories of Management Skills• 1. Observed by others -Behavioral, personality attributes- high energy, self confidence, stability, integrity, flexibility, sensitivity to others.• 2. Skills that can be control- communication, organizational– Technical skillls. Hard skills• 3. Skills that can be develop through practice and feedback. Interpersonal HR soft skills.• 4. Overlapping and interrelated• 5.Contradictory and paradoxical•
  • 13. Ten Basic Skills of effective managers1. Verbal communication2. Managing time and stress3. Managing individual decisions4. Recognizing, defining, and solving problems5. Motivating and influencing others
  • 14. Skills of effective managers II• 6. Delegating• 7. Settings goals and articulating a vision• 8. Self-awareness• 9. Team building• 10. Managing conflict
  • 15. • Effective managers are require to demonstrate paradoxical skills:• Participative and hard driving• Nurturing and completive• Flexible and controlled• Stable/rational and risk taking
  • 16. Leadership and Management Skills Organized by the Competing Values Framework FlexibilityCLAN SKILLS—COLLABORATE Change ADHOCRACY SKILLS—CREATE Communicating Supportively Solving Problems Creatively Building Teams and Teamwork Leading Positive Change Empowering Fostering InnovationInternal ExternalMaintenance PositioningHIERARCHY SKILLS—CONTROL MARKET SKILLS—COMPLETE Managing Personal Stress Motivating Others Managing Time Gaining Power and Influence Maintaining Self-Awareness Managing Conflict Analytical Problem Solving Stability Control
  • 17. • Adhocracy is a type of organization that operates in opposite fashion to a bureaucracy. The term was first popularized in 1970 by Alvin Toffler.• Who is Alvin Toffler?• Example
  • 18. Andrew DuBrin 5 KeyGroupings of Managerial Skills Technical skill--proficiency in an area• Interpersonal skill--human relations• Conceptual skill-the total entity and the pieces—purpose and vision• Diagnostic skill– problem solving— asking the right questions• Political skill– power and responsibility right connections –personal influence— initiative
  • 19. PDI’s Successful Manager’s Handbook Leadership Wheel
  • 20. Andrew Du Brin 5 tasks of management• Managing self• Managing organizations• Managing context• Managing Relationships• Managing change•
  • 21. A leader is a person who:guides others toward a common goal,showing the way by example, andcreating an environment in which other team members feel actively involved in the entire process.
  • 22. A leader is not the boss of the team but,instead, the person that is committed to carrying out the mission of the venture. Below are some qualities a strong leader may possess.
  • 23. Leadership Definition key elements• Influence• Organizational Objectives• People• Change• Leaders-followers
  • 24. Difference between leader and manager• Manager is a person who has a formal title and authority• A leader is has the ability to influence others.
  • 25. Exhibit 1-1 ManagerialLevels and Sample Job Titles Chairman of the board, CEO, president, vice president,Many job titles can be Top-Level COO (chief operating officer), CFO (Chief financial found at each level Managers officer), CIO (Chief Information officer) of management. Director, branch manager, department Middle-Level chairperson, chief of surgery, team leader Managers First-Level Supervisor, office manager, crew chief Managers Tool-and-die maker, Individual Contributors cook, word-processing technician, assembler (Operatives and Specialists) Note: Some individual contributors, such as financial analysts and administrative assistants, report directly to top-level managers or middle managers.
  • 26. • The Process of Management
  • 27. The Seventeen Managerial Roles Planning Leading Integrating 1. Strategic planner 8. Figurehead 2. Operational 9. Spokesperson planner 10. Negotiator 11. Motivator and coach Organizing and 12. Team builder Staffing 13. Team player 3. Organizer 14. Technical problem solver 4. Liaison 15. Entrepreneur 5. Staffing coordinator Controlling 6. Resource allocator 16. Monitor 7. Task delegator 17. Disturbance handler
  • 28. Skills of effective managers1. Verbal communication2. Managing time and stress3. Managing individual decisions4. Recognizing, defining, and solving problems•5. Motivating and influencing others
  • 29. Skills of effective managers II• 6. Delegating• 7. Settings goals and articulating a vision• 8. Self-awareness• 9. Team building• 10. Managing conflict
  • 30. • Top ten Mistakes Managers Make• 1. Insensitive to others: abrasive, intimidating, bullying style• 2. Cold, Aloof, Arrogant• 3. Betrays trust• 4. Overly ambitious: thinking of next job, playing politics• 5. Specific performance problems with the business
  • 31. • 6. Over managing: unable to delegate or build a team• 7. Unable to staff effectively• 8. Unable to think strategically• 9. Unable to adapt to boss with different style• 10. Over dependent on advocate or mentor• Examples
  • 32. Six challenges of any manager:1. Competitive Advantage-Staying ahead of rivals• responsive to costumers• Innovation• Quality• Efficiency
  • 33. • 2. Managing for diversity- The Future won’t resemble the past• 3. Globalization-expanding management universe• 4. Information technology• 5. Managing for ethical standards• 6. Managing for your own happiness and life goals.
  • 34. • What managers do?• The 4 principal functions:• Planning – You set the goals and decide how to achieve them.• Organizing/staffing – you arrange tasks, people, and other resources to accomplish the work• Leading– Motivate, direct, and influence people to work hard to achieve the organization goals• Controlling—Monitoring—standards
  • 35. • What is an organization?• AN ORGANIZATION IS A SYSTEM OF CONSCIOUSLY COORDINATED ACTIVITES OR FORCES FO TWO OR MORE PEOPLE.
  • 36. Organization Chart• Whatever the size, it can be represented in an organization chart:• Vertically, who reports to whom• Horizontal, who specializes in what work.
  • 37. <Name> <Title><Name> <Name> <Name> <Name> <Name><Title> <Title> <Title> <Title> <Title> [ ] <Name> <Name> <Name> <Name> <Name> <Title> <Title> <Title> <Title> <Title> <Name> <Name> <Name> <Name> <Name> <Title> <Title> <Title> <Title> <Title> <Name> <Name> <Name> <Name> <Title> <Title> <Title> <Title> <Name> <Name> <Title> <Title> <Name> <Title> <year> Sales Plan
  • 38. Common Elements of Organizations: four proposed Egar Schein• 1. Common purpose: Means for unifying members• 2. Coordinating effort: Working together for common purpose• 3. Division of Labor: work specializing for greater efficiency• 4. Hierarchy of Authority: The chain of command <year> Sales Plan
  • 39. Three more that most authorities agree on• 5. Span of Control: Narrow and tall versus wide and flat• 6. Authority-accountability, Responsibility , and Delegation.• 7.Centralization versus Authority
  • 40. What is ethics?Ethics are standards of right andwrong That influence behaviorRight behavior is consider ethical,Wrong behavior is considerunethical
  • 41. • How personality traits, attitudes, Moral development and the situation affect Ethical Behavior
  • 42. • Personality traits and attitudes• Relates to individual needs• Personality• Personalities with surgency/dominance have two choices:• Power for personal benefit• Or socialized power.
  • 43. • Personality traits and attitudes, moral development and the situation affect ethical behavior
  • 44. Moral Development and Ethical Behavior • To use power for personal benefit • or • To use power for the benefit of other to use socialize power.
  • 45. • Moral Development• 3. Post conventional-- I do not lie to customers because it is wrong• 2. Conventional– I lie to customers because the other sales reps do it too.• 1. Pre-conventional—I lie to customers to sell more and get higher commission.
  • 46. • Simple guides to ethical behavior :• 1.Golden Rule• 2. For way test from the Rotary Club: 1. Is it the truth? 2. Is it fair to all concern? 3. Will it build good will?• 3.Stakeholder Approach: win- win approach Am I proud to tell relevant stakeholders my decision?
  • 47. How do you want to be treated?• 1. I want to be valued• 2. I want to be appreciated• 3. I want to be trusted• 4. I want to be respected• 5. I want to be understood• 6. I do not want others to• take advantage of me
  • 48. The Gold Rule• Question: How would like to be treated in this situation?• The golden rule as the compass for our actions.
  • 49. The Evolution of Management• 1.Classical– a.) scientific b.) Administrative and Bureaucratic: ways to manage work more efficiency.• Ignores differences in people and situations. o 2. Behavioral – completion or cooperation importance of understanding human behavior, motivating, and encouraging workers. 3. Quantitative –applies quantitatetechniques.
  • 50. The Classic viewpoint of management• Scientific Management – 1900’s Frederick Taylor .• 4 principles:• 1. develop a science of each element of work – replaces the rule of thumb method
  • 51. • 2. Selection of train, teach, and develop workers— in the past chose own work and develop and trained the best you could.• 3. Training and incentive methods• 4. Equal division of work and responsibility between management and workers.• Chandler,s Colgate-Palmolive Co structure
  • 52. Scientific Management Motion studies Frank and Lillian Gilberth Motion study• Time study• Henry Gantt Chart scheduled the progress of projects for management• Andrew DuBrin
  • 53. Bureaucratic Management Max Weber• 1.Hired in basis if technical training or ed background• 2. Merit based promotion• 3. Chain of command• 4. Division of labor• 5. Impartial rules and procedures• 6. Recorded in writing• 7. Managers separated by owners
  • 54. Administrative Management Henri Fayol• 1. Division of work• 2. Authority and responsibility• 3. Discipline• 4. Unity of command• 5. Unity of direction• 6. Subordination of individual interests to general interest
  • 55. • 7. Remuneration• 8. Centralization• 9. Chain of command• 10. Oder• 11. Equity• 12. Stability of tenure of personnel• 13 Initiative• 14. Esprit of corps --unity
  • 56. Contemporary management• 1. Systems- Input-people, money, information equipment, materials.• Interrelated parts that operate together to achieve. 2. Contingency- Approach varyaccording individual and situation. 3.Quality management – quality control,quality assurance and total quality– zeroerrors zero defects
  • 57. Best practices• Managers today include elements of the six major developments in management
  • 58. Example• 1. Classic- Scientific time and motion• 2 Behavioral• Hawthorne; Theory X, Y, Z; Maslow• 3. Quantitative forecasts - scien• 4. Systems approach• Entropy-----Synergy• 5. Contingency• 6. information technology••
  • 59. Leadership Theories: situational, transactional, transformational• Situational Leadership– adapt to the situation whether a group faces a crisis , sift, decisive action is call.• It matches or responds to the needs of the situation.• Supporting—listening, giving recognition, communicating, encouraging
  • 60. Transformational Leadership• Serves to change the status quo by articulating to followers the problem in the current system and a compelling vision of what a new organization could be.
  • 61. • Key elements:• See themselves as change agents• Are visionaries who have high level of trust for their intuition.• Are risk takers, but not reckless.• Are capable od articulating a set of core values• Believe in people and show sensitivity to their needs
  • 62. Behavioral Components• Creation and articulation of a vision• Role modeling by example• Fostering a ―buy in‖ of team goals• Personalized leader-member exchange.• Empowerment• Charisma and transformation
  • 63. Transformational and Transactional• Transformational: influential, inspirational, charismatic• Transactional: task and reward oriented, structured, and passive.
  • 64. Transactional Leadership• Seeks to maintain stability within an organizational through regular economic and social exchanges that achieve specific goals.• Maintenance, strengthen existing structures, strategies, transitional.
  • 65. Transformation process• 1. Make a compelling case for change• 2. Inspire a shared vision• 3. Lead the transition• 4. Implement the change
  • 66. • Factors that influence the organizational decision making