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APAYAO LAND AREA: 4, 351.23 km (1,680 sq mi) Population (2007) : 103, 633 Density: 23.8/km (61.7 sq/mi) Municipalities: 7 Barangays: 133 Time Zone: PHT (UTC +8) Spoken languages: Ilocano, Isneg, Tagalog, English 2 2
Total Land Area: 4, 198.2 km (1,620.9 sq mi) Population (2007): 230,953 Density: 55/km 2 (142.5/sq mi) Municipalities: 27 Barangays: 304 Time Zone : PHT (UTC +8) Spoken Languages: Ilocano, Tinguian, Isneg, Tagalog and English 2 ABRA
is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. Its administrative capital is Luna and founding capital Kabugao . It borders Cagayan to the north and east, Abra and Ilocos Norte to the west, and Kalinga to the south. Prior to 1995, Kalinga and Apayao comprised a single province named Kalinga-Apayao , until they were split into two to better service the needs of individual native tribes in the provinces.
is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. Its capital is Bangued, and it borders Ilocos Norte and Apayao on the north, Ilocos Sur and Mountain Province on the south, Ilocos Norte and Ilocos Sur on the west, and Kalinga, and Apayao on the east.
is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. Covering a total land area of 262,820 hectares, the province of Ifugao is located in a mountainous region characterized by rugged terrain, river valleys, and massive forests. Its capital is Lagawe and borders Benguet to the west, Mountain Province to the north, Isabela to the east, and Nueva Vizcaya to the south.
is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. Its capital is Tabuk and borders Mountain Province to the south, Abra to the west, Isabela to the east, Cagayan to the northeast, and Apayao to the north. Prior to 199 5 , Kalinga and Apayao used to be a single province named Kalinga-Apayao , until they were split into two to better service the needs of individual native tribes in the provinces.
Mountain Province is located in the central part of Cordillera Administrative Region. It is bounded on the North by Kalinga and on the West by Ilocos Sur and Abra. Towards the South are Benguet and Ifugao and on the East by Isabela.
The province consist of ten (10) towns and 144 barangays with a total land area of 209,733 hectares.
is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. Its capital is La Trinidad and borders, clockwise from the south, Pangasinan, La Union, Ilocos Sur, Mountain Province, Ifugao, and Nueva Vizcaya.
Baguio, a popular tourist destination in the country, is located in the interior of the province, however, the city is independent of the province.
The province has extremely rugged terrain with mountains and hills rising along the periphery and in the enterior. It has an elevation varying from as low as five (5) meters above sea level (asl) to a little over 2,000 meters asl. The topography is generally rugged but the central portions are generally hilly to flat lying where Abra is located. Of the total land area, 160,700.0 hectares or 41.93% is below 500 meters; 152,205.0 hectares or 38.28% is 500 - 1,000 meters; 49,950.0 hectares or 12.51% (1,000-5,000 meters) and 28,700.00 hectares or 7.23% above 1,500 meters in terms of elevation. This condition accounts for the practical non-existence of extensive arable plains .
The province climate is characterized by two (2) seasons. Dry season during the month of November to April which is marked of daily blue skies and clear starry nights, while the month of July to November are marked with high/strong rainfalls with storms and typhoons. This condition belongs to wet season.
The Province has an extremely rugged terrain with mountains and hills rising along the periphery and the interior. The elevation ranges from below 500 meters above sea level (ASL) to a minimum of 200 meters above sea level.
The province falls under climatic type II. The mean annual temperature is 80°F and the mean annual rainfall 1s 164.5 mm.
Ifugao Province has an aggregate land area of 251, 778.0 has. Out of the total land area, 25,409.0 has are classified as forest lands, and 28,467 has. are classified Public Forest. The topographical features of the province is characterized by its mountainous areas being a part of a landscape of cordillera mountains. It is rich in forest products, water and wildlife resources.
Ifugao Province is generally classified as having type III climate under the Corona's system of classification. This climate type is characterized by not having pronounced seasons but relatively dry from January to April and wet during the period from May to December.
Cool temperature predominates throughout the year with the coolest month of December to early part of March.
The eastern portion within the coverage of the Kalinga, particularly the municipality of Rizal and Tabuk has a topography of rolling to moderately steep while the Western portion ranges from steep to very steep terrain. The elevation ranges from 50 meters above sea level to a maximum of 2,456 meters ASL.
The province has a total land area of 307,100 has. which accounts for 16.8% of the total land area of CAR. Pinukpuk has the biggest land area of 69,200 has. and Lubuagan occupies the least with only 14,800 has.
Kalinga has about 100,619.6 has. forest of various types, mossy, pine and dipterocarp. 173,656.91 hectares is under extensive land uses while 32,823.33 has. is under intensive land uses based on NAMRIA consolidated data of 1990.
The western municipalities under Kalinga falls under climatic type I, while the other municipalities fall under climatic type III. the mean annual temperature is 80°F and the mean annual rainfall is 164.5 mm.
The Province is frequently visited by typhoons due to its location latitude 16 to 17 degrees. About 32% of tropical cyclones entering the country pass through the province characterize the area. One is generally rough terrain characterized by steep slopes and deep ravines and the other is generally
moderate to steep undulating foothills. Eight (8) municipalities located at the western and central part of the province fall under the first topographical feature while two eastern municipalities, namely Natonin and Paracelis are covered by the second type of topographical feature.
Mountain Province has two (2) distinct type of climate. The western portion of the province falls under the first climatic type. It is wet from April to September while the rest of the year is dry. The other type of climate falls under third climatic type which is characterized by uneven distribution of rains throughout the year and this covers the eastern part of the province.
The average annual rainfall is about 2,000 mm. Rain is heaviest in July while December is virtually dry.
Benguet Province is a plateau, a mass of elevated land characterized by steep slopes, deep ravines and waterways that drain into the China Sea. It comprises the Amburayan, Bued River and Agno Rivers. Hot springs are also found in almost every municipality of the Province.
Slopes are estimated to be 25% more or less level, 60% moderate steep slopes and 85% very steep slop e.
Benguet experiences a pleasantly cool climate, it falls under the first climatic type distinguished by two seasons the wet and dry of which the latter commences on the second half of November to the first half of May and wet during the rest of the year.
Apayao was among the earliest areas penetrated by the Spaniards in the Cordilleras, the region, inhabited by the Isneg tribe, remained largely outside Spanish control until late in the 19th century. As early as 1610, the Dominican friars established a mission in what is now the town of Pudtol. In 1684, the friars again made vain attempts to convert the people and established a church in what is now Kabugao . The ruins of the early churches in Pudtol and Kabugao still stand as mute testimony to the failed attempts to occupy Apayao.
The Spanish authorities were then able to establish the comandancia s of Apayao and Cabugaoan in 1891, which covered the western and eastern portions of what is now Apayao. The comandancia s, however, failed to bring total control and the Spanish government only maintained a loose hold over the area.
The Americans established the Mountain Province on August 13, 1908, with the enactment of Act No. 1876. Apayao, along with Amburayan, Benguet, Bontoc, I fugao, Kalinga, and Lepanto, became sub-provinces of this new province. Before this, Apayao had been a part of Cagayan province.
In 1942, Japanese Imperial forces entered Apayao, starting a three-year occupation of the province during the Second World War . Local Filipino troops of the 1st, 2nd, 12th, 15th and 16th Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army and the military forces of the USAFIP-NL 11th and 66th Infantry Regiment, supported by the Cordilleran guerrillas, drove out the Japanese in 1945.
After almost 60 years, on June 18, 1966, the huge Mountain Province was split into four provinces with the enactment of Republic Act No. 4695. The four provinces were Benguet, Bontoc (renamed Mountain Province), Kalinga-Apayao and Ifugao. Kalinga-Apayao, along with Ifugao, became one of the provinces of the Cagayan Valley region in 1972.
On July 15, 1987, the Cordillera Administrative Region was established and Kalinga-Apayao was made one of its provinces. Finally, on February 14, 1995, Kalinga-Apayao was split into two distinct provinces with the passage of Republic Act No. 7878.
The merged outlines of Apayao and Kalinga resemble a bust of a man akin to former President Ferdinand Marcos (looking toward his home province, Ilocos Norte ) whom the media called as the "Great Profile" during the Marcos Era.
The first inhabitants of Abra were the ancestors of the Bontocs and the Ifugaos. These inhabitants eventually left to settle in the old Mountain Province. Other early inhabitants were the Tingguians, or Itnegs, as they are also known. The Ilocos came to trade with the tinguians but eventually they saw the province to be very good so they invaded and the tinguians were forced to go to the mountains.
In 1598 a Spanish garrison was established in Bangued to protect the Ilocanos who converted to Christianity from Tingguian raids. During the British Occupation of the Philippines, Gabriela Silang and her army fled to Abra from Ilocos and continued the revolt begun by her slain husband, Diego Silang. She was captured and hung by the Spanish in 1763.
In 1818 the Ilocos region, including Abra, was divided into Ilocos Norte and Ilocos Sur. In 1846 Abra was created as a political-military province with Lepanto as a sub-province. It remained so until the arrival of the Americans in 1899.
In 1908 the Philippine Commission once again in annexed Abra to Ilocos Sur in an attempt to resolve Abra's financial difficulties. But on March 9, 1917, the Philippine Assembly re-established Abra as a province.
In 1942, the Japanese forces occupied the Philippines and entered Abra.
In 1945, the liberation in Abra in Northern Luzon by the Philippine Commonwealth forces and the local Cordilleran guerrillas against the Japanese during the Battle of Abra at the end the Second World War.
The revolutionary Marxist priest, Conrado Balweg, who fought for the rights of the Cordillera tribes, began his crusade in Abra. After successfully negotiating a peace accord with Balweg's group in 1987, the Philippine government created the Cordillera Administrative Region, which includes Abra.
The People of Ifugao are not called igorots but are called IFUGAOS . Ifugaos are different from any other tribe in the cordilleras ranging from culture, tradition, language, and idealism. There have been no Ifugao beggar recorded in history and shall never have no beggars. Some neighboring tribes of the Ifugaos tries to annex or connects themselves with Ifugao so as to share fame the ifugao people are experiencing. Ifugaos also prefer to use the English language rather than the Filipino language because they are more sophisticated to English.
Ifugao culture revolves around the rice, which is considered a prestige crop. There is an elaborate and complex array of rice culture feasts inextricably linked with taboos and intricate agricultural rites, from rice cultivation to rice consumption. Harvest season calls for grandiose thanksgiving feasts, while the concluding harvest rites "tungo" or "tungul" (the day of rest) entail a strict taboo of any agricultural work. Partaking of the rice wine (bayah), rice cakes, and moma (mixture of several herbs, powdered snail shell and betel nut/ arecoline: and acts as a chewing gum to the ifugaos) is an indelible practice during the festivities and ritual activities.
There are many sub tribes in the province. The strong sense of tribal membership and filial loyalty results in frequent tribal unrest and occasional outright war. Due to the mountainous terrain and warrior-culture of the people, the Kalingas were able to maintain their culture despite the attempted occupation of the Spaniards, Japanese, and Americans. Unknown to many, the last stand of President Emilio Aguinaldo (First President of the Philippines) was in this province, in Lubuagan, which he proclaimed the national capital, and where the Aguinaldo museum commemorates him and those events.
The people of Kalinga are the most extensive rice farmers of the Cordillera peoples, having been blessed with some of the most suitable land for both wet and dry rice farming. Like the Ifugaos, the Kalingas are one of the extensive terrace builders in the country. The Kalingas are also skilled potters with pot making concentrated in the lower Chico River Valley. They are also excellent in basket and loom weaving and metal works.
This old province was established by the Americans in 1908 and was later split in 1966 into Mountain Province, Benguet, Kalinga, Apayao and Ifugao. Mountain province is known for its Mummy caves which contain naturally mummified bodies which probably became so due to the humid atmosphere. The hanging Coffins are also found in the province, these are literally coffins hanging on to the branches of trees, many tourists claim there is no foul odor, the bodies were probably mummified by the atmos phere according to theory.
Mountain Province is sometimes incorrectly named Mountain in some foreign references. The name is also incorrectly shortened by locals to Mt. Province , which in turn is read by native Anglophones as "Mount Province". The province was named so for being in the Cordillera Central mountain range found in the upper realms of Luzon island.
Mountain Province was also the name of the historical province that included most of the current Cordillera provinces.
Apayao is devoted to agricultural production, particularly food and industrial crops such as palay, corn, coffee, root crops and vegetables. Main fruits produce are lanzones, citrus, bananas and pineapples. Rice production totals 42,602 metric tons annually, as food crops totals 96,542 metric tons.
Economic activity is also based on livestock and poultry breeding such as swine, carabao, cattle, goat and sheep. Other additional investment includes manufacturing, food processing, furniture, crafts and house wares making.
Apayao has a great volume of timber resources. These timber resources are either dipterocarp, molave and other species.
Minor forest products are still abundant in the province, which includes rattan, bamboo, erect palm, ferns, orchids, vines and other species that thrive in association with the forest trees.
Apayao has been extensively prospected for gold, copper, sulfur, and other non-metallic minerals. The current mining in the province is a small scale mining which is concentrated at the Municipality of Conner.
Abra's economy is agriculture-based. Its major crops are rice, corn, and root crops; and commercial produce are coffee, tobacco, and coconut. Extensive grassland and pasture areas are used for livestock production.
Abra possesses rich mineral reserves, mostly non-metallic minerals such as clay, guano and rock phosphate. It has also the richest limestone deposit in the Cordillera amounting to 211 million metric tons and has the potential for the production of gold with its untapped gold ore deposits.
About 89.91 percent of the total land area of the province has been classified as forest lands. Of this, 87.4 percent is a classified forest lands and 12.6 percent is an unclassified forest. While 10.09 percent of the total land area is classified as alienable and disposable lands.
There are four (4) major types of forest of the province, namely: Dipterocarp forest, pine forest, mossy/sub-marginal and brushland types. These forest types are the source of lumber, fuelwood, medicines, wildife, and other tangible aesthetic value essential to the community.
Mineral resources deposits both metallic and non-metallic are known to be available in Ifugao. Some areas in the province are said to have some of the metallic mineral deposits, such as copper, gold and silver. In as much as there are no effort made to extract or tap those minerals, its quantities are still undetermined.
Ifugao has three (3) major rivers. The waters of the Ibulao and Alimit Rivers flows ceaselessly to the Magat River providing water to the Magat River Integrated Irrigation System Dam and at the same time irrigating the vast ricelands of Isabela and Quirino. Fish and other aquatic animals are available in these bodies of waters. They are also vital sources of sand and gravel needed for the development of the province. Aside from these rivers, the province is endowed with springs that are tapped as potable water supply of the growing population.
Kalinga has timber and non-timber resources. Timber resources are either dipterocarp, pine, molave type and other species while non-timber resources includes rattan, bamboo, erect palm, ferns, orchids, vines and other species that thrive in association with the forest trees.
Non-metallic deposits are composed mostly of sand and gravel deposited along the Chico River.
Kalinga is rich in mineral resources, particularly in the municipalities of Pasil and Balbalan as exemplified by the existence of small scale mining operations. Metallic deposits are gold, ore, copper and other metallic minerals.
Forest resources and products available in the province include Benguet Pine, dipterocarp species, rattan, bamboos, sticks and other varieties of forest products and trees that can be converted into fine products.
Abundant mineral resources can be mined in the province. These mineral resources include gold ores, copper, gypsum, limestone, white clay, sand and gravel. However, the quantity if these resources is unknown because no actual drillings were conducted. Based on the Bureau of Mines estimates, about 18% of the country's gold ore reserve is found in the province.
The presence of many springs and surface water resources acount for the abundance of water in the province.
Other water resources of the province aside from springs, brooks and streams include about 10 rivers but the principal ones are Chico, Siffu, Mallig and Tanudan Rivers. The two largest rivers based on drainage area of 18,458 hectares with 74.8 km. in length and gradient of 1,551 percent. On the other hand, Siffu river has 56,201 has. drainage area with 72.15 km. in length and 1.60 gradient.
Benguet province and Baguio City is predominated by Benguet Pine or pine type of forest. However, these resources comprises established forest/watershed reservations, national parks, military reservation and timber licensed areas.
Dubbed as the mineral center of the Cordillera, Benguet Province has the richest respository of primary gold and copper, pyrite and limestone. However, there are also areas set for the exploration and extraction of such.