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UM 11 UM 11 Presentation Transcript

  • Tonight’s Topics  Categories of org theory  Trends in public admin. theory Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya  Ethics in public management
  • Impact of Managers Using Positive vs. Negative Reinforcement Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya Ordinary “random” variation in performance can give the illusion that negativity “works” while positive reinforcement does not.
  • Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya Categorizing Org Approaches
  • Many ways to Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya categorize the many approaches to org theory
  • Classical Neoclassical Human Resource Major theory Modern Structuralism categories used in the Org Economics Classics book Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya Power & Politics Org Culture Open Systems*
  • Scientific Mgt: Taylor Classical Bureaucratic: Weber Admin. Mgt: Fayol/Gulick Natural systems: Barnard/ Selznick Neoclassical Plus critics: Merton/Simon Human Relations: Follett/Hawthorne Human Resource Human Resources: McGregor/Maslow aka Structural Functionalism: Modern Structuralism Merton & Selznick Org Economics Power & Politics Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya Organizational Culture Symbolic Management Org Culture Feminist Org Theory Quality Mgt. Approaches (e.g, TQM) Open Systems/Environment Open Systems Systems Analysis
  • Macro Human Resources: Bureaucratic: Weber McGregor Administrative mgt: Natural systems: Fayol & Gulick Barnard & Selznick Autocratic Participatory Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya Micro Human Relations: Scientific Mgt: Taylor Follett & Hawthorne
  • Rational Open External Goal Systems Model Model Means: plans, structure Means: adaptability Goals: efficiency and Goals: responsiveness productivity to environ.; growth FOCUS Control Flexibility Jonathan Tompkins, 2005 Means: cohesion, morale Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya Means: authority, rules Goals: human resource Goals: stability, output Internal development Internal Human Process Relations Model Model
  • Rational Open External Goal Systems Model Model Means: plans, structure Means: adaptability Goals: efficiency and Goals: responsiveness productivity to environ.; growth FOCUS Control Flexibility Jonathan Tompkins, 2005 Means: cohesion, morale Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya Means: authority, rules Goals: human resource Goals: stability, output Internal development Internal Human Process Relations Model Model
  • Rational Open External Goal Systems Model Model OPEN CLOSED SYSTEM FOCUS Control Flexibility SYSTEM Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya James Thompson, 2003 “Organizations in Action” Internal Internal Human Process Relations Model Model
  • Rational OPEN Open Goal Systems Model SYSTEM Model Embed in environment RATIONAL SYSTEMS NATURAL SYSTEM Logical pursuit Organic, multiple goals, interests, & coalitions of clear goals Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya Internal Scott & Davis, 2007 Process Model
  • CLASSICAL SYSTEMS PARADIGMS PARADIGMS People: Rational People: Contextual Goal: Dynamic Goal: Efficiency homeostasis Scientific Mgt: Taylor Administrative mgt: BEHAVIORAL Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya Fayol & Gulick PARADIGMS People: Emotional Bureaucratic: Weber Goal: Social needs Lemak “…mgt theory jungle”
  • Common ways to categorize Scientific Mgt: Taylor Classical org theories Bureaucratic: Weber Org Economics Administrative mgt: Power & Politics Fayol & Gulick Natural systems: Org Culture Barnard & Selznick Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya Human Relations: +Quality Mgt: Deming Follett & Hawthorne Human Resources: Open Systems McGregor Structural Functional: +Systems Analysis Merton & Selznick
  • Many ways to sort and categorize the org theory literature! Basics for this class to remember: Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya
  • Public Sector Management and Theory: Major Trends Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya
  • Major Trends in Public Admin./Mgt. ● Rejection of the famous old politics-administration dichotomy ● “Reinventing Government” aka the “New Public Management” Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya ● Privatization & Outsourcing ● The “New Public Service”
  • The old politics-administration dichotomy Voters Representatives Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya Administration
  • Rejected or amended politics- administration dichotomy Voters Representatives Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya Administration
  • Rejected or amended politics- administration dichotomy? Maybe it is still a good model, even if it is not 100% accurate in practice! Otherwise, its total rejection may be used by some Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya administrators to justify ignoring legitimate policies they do not like.
  • “Reinventing Government”: the “New Public Management” Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya
  • Public administration too focused on… rules, process, inputs It needs to focus on outputs (achieving results) by… being flexible, Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya entrepreneurial, problem-solving, empowering, and innovative.
  • Ten themes of Osborne & Gaebler’s Reinventing Government Catalytic Steering, not rowing Community-owned Empowering, not “serving” Competitive Put competition in service delivery Mission-driven Not rules-driven Results-driven Focus on outputs, not inputs Customer-driven Customer needs, not bureaucracy’s Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya Enterprising Earning, not spending Anticipatory Prevention, not cures Decentralized Teamwork, not hierarchy Market-oriented Leverage change via the market
  • “Reinventing Government” became the “New Public Management” emphasizing: Flexible Business Practices Streamline Cost budgets, Cutting procurement, personnel Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya Measuring Performance NPM Outsourcing & privatizing Entrepreneurial, Efficiency, Empowerment
  • Big influence in the US in 1990s ● “National Performance Review” aka “Government Performance & Results Act” or GPRA (“Gipra”) ● Goals: Make govt more results-oriented & customer-based; Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya cut red tape, reduce waste, reduce govt size; and empower employees. ● It did save some money & reduce fed workforce a bit.
  • GPRA steps (similar to TQM) Define mission & Measure Use the new priority results performance information Engage Create good out- Identify gaps stakeholders come measures Assess Collect reliable Target areas that Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya environment data need attention Align objectives Plus, make Publish the report & resources management reforms
  • Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya Privatizing & Out-sourcing
  • Why privatization or contracting out? Governments do not need to do everything in-house! May be more efficient and less expensive to contract out. Does an agency need to run its own print shop, travel agency, cafeteria? Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya Even privatize basic govt. functions! MoW privatized highway maintenance and monitors the performance.
  • Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya
  • When possible, instead of traditional in-house Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya government operations, make intelligent use of competition and commercial enterprises (deregulation, privatization, out-sourcing) or “virtual markets” (internal competition, bench- marking, competitive tendering).
  • Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya “The New Public Service”
  • “The New Public Service” Reaction against the “New Public Mgt.” Rallying cry: “Citizens not customers!” and “serving not steering!” Claims the mantel of “public service” (as if NPM folks did not want to do that) Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya Vague desire to “build coalitions,” “negotiate & broker interests” and dialogue to “create shared values” (a kind of social mediator role).
  • Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya Management Ethics & Public
  • Ethics: The set of moral principles or values that defines right and wrong for a person or group. Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya Pages that follow draw heavily, with amendments, from the PowerPoint prepared by Deborah Baker of TCU based on 4th chapter of Management (4th ed.) by Chuck Williams.
  • Some Bases for Ethical Decision Making Public Trust Personal virtue Religious injunctions Government requirements Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya Utilitarian benefits Individual rights Distributive justice
  • Principle of public trust As a public servant, never take any any action to exploit your position rather than working for the citizens you are entrusted to serve. Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya
  • Principle of Personal Pride and Virtue Never do anything embarrassing that you would not be proud to see reported in the newspapers or on TV. Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya
  • Principle of Religious Injunctions Never take any action that violates your religious values. Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya
  • Principle of Government Requirements Never take any action that violates the law, for the law represents the minimal moral standard. Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya
  • Principle of Utilitarian Benefit Never take any action that does not result in a greater good for society. Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya
  • Principle of Individual Rights Never take any action that infringes on the agreed-upon rights of others. Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya
  • Principle of Distributive Justice Never take any action that harms the disadvantaged: the poor, the uneducated, the unemployed. Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya
  • Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya Source: Republished with permission of Academy of Management, Box 3020, Briar Cliff Manor, NY, “A Typology of Deviant Workplace Behaviors,” S. L. Robinson & R.J. Bennett. Academy of Management Journal, 1995, Vol. 38. Reproduced by permission of publisher via Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. Introduction to Management. ● Contracts to cronies
  • Partial list drawn from “World Effects of Corruption Ethics & Transparency Forum,” February 2007, Kuala Lumpur Reduces investment (foreign & domestic) Reduces govt legitimacy & social cohesion Increases inequality; theft from the poor Allocation to cronies, not based on merit Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya Lowers value of infrastructure development Reduces effectiveness of regs & standards Increases costs of goods due to bribes
  • Excerpts drawn from “World Asian Development Bank Rpt: Corruption Ethics & Transparency Forum,” February 2007, Kuala Lumpur Scarce resources squandered on bad projects Public safety endangered by poor construction True entrepreneurship is hindered/suppressed Productive energy wasted on illicit activities Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya Capital redirected to more transparent places Damages credibility of the whole public sector Acts as a brake slowing development process
  • How can managers encourage ethical behavior? • Set an example of integrity. • Model hard work, ethics, fairness. • Enforce standards consistently Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya & discipline unethical behavior. • Establish clear & known standards.
  • Other ideas ethics compliance… Select and hire ethical employees! Establish a Code of Ethics. Train employees on ethical standards & the Code. Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya Delegate decisions to ethical employees. Encourage employees to report violations.
  • All the best to you personally ― and in your future careers as successful administrators who will be ethical, participatory, and inspiring leaders who can achieve org goals and serve the public! Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya Thank you for a great semester that I’ll never forget! Onward, Bill
  • Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya
  • FINAL UM has set our final exam for Monday, April 19, from 10:00 am until noon in FEA Hall. For essays, be sure to demonstrate: Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya ● your breadth & depth of knowledge ● using course terms and concepts ● and citing landmark authors.
  • FINAL Study priorities: 1. Study guide 2. PowerPoints 3. All your class notes Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya 4. Your article summaries 5. [Should not need to reread articles.]
  • NEXT MONDAY: 12 APRIL 2010 Optional session: 1. No agenda / no new material 2. No quiz secrets revealed Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya 3. No lecture / Q&A only 4. Absence will not count against you; no class participation credits gained.
  • Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya