Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya




                and Society
               Organizations
Rosabeth Moss Kanter:
                                            Power & Powerlessness

                                 ...
Rosabeth Moss Kanter:
                                        Power & Powerlessness




                                  ...
[Acker]   “Gendering Organizational Theory”


                                          “Gendered Processes” :

          ...
[Acker]   “Gendering Organizational Theory”




                                           Jobs are designed for an “abstr...
[Cox]   “Managing Diversity”

                                          Better
                                         Pr...
But exactly how to
                                        manage diversity?




                                         ...
But exactly how to
                                        manage diversity?


                                           ...
But exactly how to
                                        manage diversity?


                                           ...
Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya




                Organizations
               & Environments
General Systems Theory: Basic Model        [Katz & Kahn]



                                                   Dynamic    ...
Open Systems       Closed Systems

                                          Embedded in &
                               ...
[Thompson]   “Closed System Model”



                                           Says rational models = closed systems
   ...
[Thompson]   “Open System Model”




                                        Natural system models = open systems
        ...
[Thompson]   Limits of Each Model




                                                                  Closed system mode...
[Thompson]   “New [Merged] Model”




                                         Drawing on Simon (plus Cyert & March)…

   ...
Institutionalized & Protected Specialization   [Meyer & Rowan]




                                                       ...
Resource Dependence                        Pfeffer & Salancik




                                        ▮ “Political pla...
Org “Demography”


                                        Environmental      Exogenous (external)
                       ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

UM 10 Org Environment

435 views
356 views

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
435
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
54
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
38
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

UM 10 Org Environment

  1. 1. Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya and Society Organizations
  2. 2. Rosabeth Moss Kanter: Power & Powerlessness Feel powerless when: ● Little freedom (bound by rules and routine, little flexibility, little discretion) Especially ● Little attention vulnerable: (Peripheral activity, limited ☆ Front-line supervisors Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya contact with sr. officials and others; no publicity) ☆ Staff professionals ● Little opportunity (Few advancement opportuni- ☆ Sometimes top executives ties for self or subordinates)
  3. 3. Rosabeth Moss Kanter: Power & Powerlessness Result… The reputation as Especially vulnerable: “too controlling, rules-minded, ☆ Front-line supervisors Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya and petty.” ☆ Staff professionals ☆ Sometimes top executives
  4. 4. [Acker] “Gendering Organizational Theory” “Gendered Processes” : ● Orgs set up with gender divisions. “Managers made conscious decisions to create these patterns.” [!] ● Masculine symbols and imagery. Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya ● Interaction between individuals that reinforce dominance/submission. ● Internalized patterns within us.
  5. 5. [Acker] “Gendering Organizational Theory” Jobs are designed for an “abstract, disembodied worker” who is really a man focused on work, work, work ― not having kids, raising a family, Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya managing a house, caring for aged.
  6. 6. [Cox] “Managing Diversity” Better Problem Greater Solving* Flexibility *If trained! More Better Creativity/ Marketing Innovation Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya A challenge due to: ● the need to go beyond recruiting; ● established org culture may not accommodate true diversity; and ● the learning curve is slow and flat.
  7. 7. But exactly how to manage diversity? After recruitment… ● besides quotas/counting; ● besides “sensitivity” and Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya “diversity” seminars…
  8. 8. But exactly how to manage diversity? Tips in one book (MGMT): ● enforce the law; ● find common ground; ● set high but realistic goals; ● treat people as individuals! Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya Also suggested . . . ● mentor “diversity pairing” ● join an organization where you are in the minority!
  9. 9. But exactly how to manage diversity? Another book praised several organizations that conducted regular “cultural audits” of… ● language in org documents; ● symbols in public areas; Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya ● types of food in cafeteria; ● holiday policies; and ● types of social activities!
  10. 10. Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya Organizations & Environments
  11. 11. General Systems Theory: Basic Model [Katz & Kahn] Dynamic Negative Homeostasis Entropy Through- INPUT OUTPUT put Environment Feedback (neg. & pos. Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya to allow adjustments) Energy for renewal of the cycle
  12. 12. Open Systems Closed Systems Embedded in & Viewed in isolation dependent on from the environ. wider environ. Get material, financial, & human Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya resources Obtain social support & legitimacy
  13. 13. [Thompson] “Closed System Model” Says rational models = closed systems They all focus on efficiency & performance. Scientific mgt = known goals, tasks repetitive, resources stable Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya Administrative mgt = focus on structural relationships; specialization, etc.; Bureaucracy = staffing, rules, hierarchy
  14. 14. [Thompson] “Open System Model” Natural system models = open systems Following Barnard/Selznick’s organic view. Focuses on elements not under the complete control of the organization. Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya Emphasizing inevitable org. uncertainties. But this approach tends to treat “purposes and achievements as peripheral matters”!
  15. 15. [Thompson] Limits of Each Model Closed system model “ignores uncertainty to see rationality” Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya Open system model “ignores rational action to see spontaneous processes.”
  16. 16. [Thompson] “New [Merged] Model” Drawing on Simon (plus Cyert & March)… Organizations as problem-solving entities that must search, learn, and decide, BUT are limited by bounded rationality and Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya thus must satisfice, not maximize. Parts focus more on external environment but other parts (tech) are more closed!
  17. 17. Institutionalized & Protected Specialization [Meyer & Rowan] Rationalized Formal Societal elements & organizational modernization complex structures networks Training, Provides org. Impulse to certification, protection, create Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya even govt. validation, credentialing licensing legitimacy systems Rituals & Myths
  18. 18. Resource Dependence Pfeffer & Salancik ▮ “Political platforms are affected by context.” ▮ “Because organizations import resources from their environments, they depend on their environments.” ▮ “Managers serve as symbols.” Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya ▮ “Managers are the people to fire when things go poorly.” ▮ “Organizations survive to the extent they are effective.” ▮ Efficiency is “relatively value free” (i.e., more objective). ▮ Effectiveness is a “sociopolitical” issue (more subjective).
  19. 19. Org “Demography” Environmental Exogenous (external) environment of laws, “imprinting” at politics, resources, its creation can technology, & people be a long-term influence on an organization – both external Endogenous Bill Adams, FEA, University of Malaya (internal) (exogenous) environment and internal (endogenous) the founder’s initial model.

×