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    Cloud computing   (pdf) Cloud computing (pdf) Document Transcript

    • VOL 7 NO 7 2009cLOud cOmpuTINg
    • cloud computing: pinnacle of IT Infrastructure democratization cloud computing, in brief referring to the emergent concept of flexible access to resources on a tap, with pay-as-you-go model, over the all-pervasive network, SETLabs Briefings Advisory Board stirs an uncanny familiarity to the popular slogan of a leading airline out of India, Simplifly, whose model of low cost aviation is a classic case of disruptive Gaurav Rastogi innovation. The notion of simplifly lowered the bar of access to flying, thereby Associate Vice President, democratizing air travel. On a similar note, the cloud computing concept manifests Head - Learning Services itself in myriad forms like simpliStore or simpliCompute, technically also referred to George Eby Mathew storage as a service or computation as a service, or broader terms like platform as a Senior Principal, service and infrastructure as a service. Infosys Australia The democratization effect of cloud is loud and clear from the multiple Kochikar V P PhD SmEs, including startups, which have been early cloud adopters. Likewise, even Associate Vice President, large enterprises have begun looking at the low hanging fruits to exploit cloud,Education & Research Unit especially in areas like infrastructure rationalization, where the cost advantages of cloud are immediately visible. Notwithstanding these adoption trends, a few Raj Joshi Managing Director, questions need to be answered before we can begin to see the cloud as an inflexion Infosys Consulting Inc. point in IT. Is cost the only driver for cloud? Is there a mainstream enterprise play Rajiv Narvekar PhD Manager, for cloud? Is there an innovation angle to cloud? What are the showstoppers to R&D Strategy mainstream adoption of cloud? What applications are better suited for cloud? Software Engineering & In this issue, we attempt to cover the breadth and depth of issues in an Technology Labs attempt to provide the answers. On the democratization front, while one article Ranganath M discusses internal deployment of utility model via private cloud yet another Vice President & article elucidates how high performance computing, usually a costly proposition, Chief Risk Officer can be made available to masses for massive number crunching and simulations. Subu Goparaju going beyond cost, we see interesting articles on how cloud can power Vice President & Head, innovative business models like service exchanges. We also discuss the power of Software Engineering & Technology Labs cloud in offering innovative solutions for consumers needing ubiquitous access to infrastructure be it to store data for wireless sensor networks or ISVs needing ubiquitous storage and compute power. On the other side, potential new service opportunities leveraging cloud are identified like infrastructure management services for cloud. A key contribution of this issue is in the several articles that delve deeper into the several showstoppers plaguing the cloud, requiring a leap of faith on part of enterprises to go from ‘adopting low hanging fruits’ to ‘strategic adoption.’ Key showstoppers of ‘interoperability’ and ‘standardization’ are explored in depth alongside usability and security. Overall, we hope the issue helps in ‘clearing the clouds’ to cloud adoption and that the word cloud is no longer a homonym, i.e., it is cloudy to adopt cloud. Happy reading! Srinivas padmanabhuni phd guest Editor
    • SETLabs Briefings VOL 7 NO 7 2009Trend: Cloud Computing — Transforming the IT Ecosystem 3By Rahul Bakhshi and Deepak JohnCloud computing has a wide array of things to offer. Each stakeholder in the cloudcomputing space has enough reasons to smile for the goodies it brings along. The authorsopine that since it is here to stay enterprises should explore the possibilities and seek theright fitment with what cloud has to offer.Discussion: Adopting Cloud Computing: Enterprise Private Clouds 11By Shyam Kumar Doddavula and Amit Wasudeo GawandeAn agile pay-per-use business model can prove to be cost effective for small and largefirms alike and can turn a new leaf in the way business and IT usage is defined, opine theauthors.Insight: Cloud Interoperability and Standardization 19By AV Parameswaran and Asheesh ChaddhaThe authors contend that while moving the existing applications to cloud or integratingdata and application to the cloud platform, an eye on standardization will lend a congenialand effortless move to the new platform.Model: SLA Aware ‘on-boarding’ of Applications on the Cloud 27By Sumit Kumar Bose PhD, Nidhi Tiwari, Anjaneyulu Pasala PhD and Srinivas Padmanabhuni PhDWhile adopting cloud computing, SLA aware on-boarding of application onto cloudplatforms enables a streamlined exercise, transparent deadlines and better transition, statethe authors.Platform: Can We Plug Wireless Sensor Network to Cloud? 33By Adi Mallikarjuna Reddy V, Siva Prasad Katru and Kumar Padmanabh PhDVirtual communities, real time data share and analysis can add a different dimension to theexisting IT scenario. The authors suggest a holistic approach towards cloud through Web2.0 technologies to usher in a new age of business.Third Angle:Cloud – Five Minute into the First Quarter 41Amitabh Srivastava Senior VP, Windows Azure, Microsoft in an interview with JitendraPal Thethi, provides clarity on defining cloud computing and discusses the key traits andfuture prospects of exploring this new promising IT platform.Viewpoint: Cloud Computing Identity Management 45By Anu GopalakrishnanBeyond all the silver lining that cloud holds, the author draws our attention to identitymanagement, a growing concern in the dynamic world of virtual space. A seamless and risk-free identity management is the basis for the evolving scenario of virtual workspace, opinesthe author.Opinion: Service Exchange @ Cloud 55By Bhavin Raichura and Ashutosh AgarwalBusiness on cloud can mean low investment and high returns. Services exchange on cloudcan prove to be a win-win situation for all stakeholders, at either end of service offering andconsuming.Perspective: Revenue and Customer Growth for ISVs using Cloud Offerings 61By Ajit Mhaiskar and Bhavin RaichuraVirtualization is already in vogue and ISVs have to adapt themselves to suit the changingmodel to be able to attract and retain customers. The authors bring up some pertinentissues related to ISVs’ revenue growth and the evolving cloud space.Research: Power in the Clouds? 69By Sudeep Mallick PhD and Ganesan PanduranganHigh performance computing (HPC) is required for faster processing time in complex andparallel processing applications scenario. The authors focus on how the architecture ofcloud computing platform can be exploited fruitfully for HPC application execution.Spotlight: Infrastructure Management and Monitoring in the Cloud 79By Kaustubh Janmejay VaidyaCloud seems to be the most alluring IT innovation to every organization today. This paperoffers well-laid roadmaps to help in planning and organizing cloud adoption.The Last Word: Cloud Computing — A Disruptive Technology 89By Srinivas Padmanabhuni PhDIndex 93
    • “Cloud is designed to be available ever ywhere, all thetime. By using redundancy and geo-replication, cloud is so designed that services be available even duringhardware failures including full data center failures.” Amitabh Srivastava Senior Vice President Microsoft Technologies “System integrators with a close proximity to customershave to play a crucial role in taking the benefit of cloud computing to the enterprise customers.” Raghavan Subramanian AVP & Head – Cloud Computing CoE Infosys Technologies Limited
    • SETLabs Briefings VOL 7 NO 7 2009Cloud Computing — Transforming the IT Ecosystem By Rahul Bakhshi and Deepak John Cloud computing is here to stay and promises a fresh approach to the IT ecosystemC loud computing has emerged at an inflexion point in the industry and ourlives, where IT is all prevalent and is no longer With cloud computing sweeping across the IT and business world, the economics of this emerging world will be very different.the panacea for all industry ills. Jumping to the This paper looks at the prospects that cloudfront seat are buzzwords like TCO, business computing presents to all the stakeholders indrivers, regulatory compliance, real-time data the IT ecosystem during the transformation.streams, SOA, mobility, Web 2.0, etc. A quicklook around shows that any company worth THE IT ECOSYSTEMits salt claims to be a cloud company or at least To gather the changes that will come along withclaims to have a cloud strategy in place. The cloud computing and to better understand theacceptance of cloud computing as a mainstream way the IT ecosystem is projected to evolve,technology is gaining momentum rapidly we have segmented the IT ecosystem intobecause of a strong alignment between cloud horizontals and verticals.computing and the demands of an enterprise [1]. The verticals define the domain/type of It is interesting to note that we have all services/products offered:been touched by cloud computing in some wayor the other, irrespective of whether or not we are ■ Hardware: Infrastructure, network,aware of it. Every time we access emails through storage and computing solutionapplications like Gmail and Yahoo, view content providers, etc.on YouTube and Flikr, or post on Facebook, weare making use of cloud computing. ■ Software: Independent software Cloud computing is here to stay and vendors, value added resellers, etc.Gartner hype cycle identifies cloud computingas one of the key technology triggers of our ■ Service: Communication, media andtimes in the 2008 hype [2]. entertainment service providers, etc. 3
    • The horizontals describe the actors in CLOUD COMPUTING: THE RISE TOeach of these verticals. PROMINENCE Cloud computing offers a new, better and ■ Enablers: OEMs, independent software economical way of delivering services and vendors, etc. all the stakeholders will have to embrace the dramatic changes to exploit opportunities to ■ Delivery Agents: Value added avoid becoming irrelevant. resellers, communication, media and Following are some of the key trends/ entertainment service providers, last changes that we expect to see: mile access suppliers, etc. Movement across Domains and Competencies: ■ Consumer: Enterprise and retail users. Technology providers are realising that in order to leverage economies of scale, it is essential The complex relationship can be best to have competencies across hardware andrepresented if we consider that the consumer software verticals. Nokia for example, operatingutilizes services and delivery agents act in the handset and telecom infrastructureas intermediaries adding value to the raw space, has boldly ventured into the socialcapabilities offered by the enablers [Fig. 1]. networking space with Ovi. The acquisition It is important to realize that the roles for of US internetworking (an application servicethe actors are not limited and the entities may provider offering managed hosted applicationsspan across domains and roles. With renewed like PeopleSoft and SAP) in 2006 has enabledinterest in decoupling technology from services AT&T to offer enterprise-class cloud servicesand the falling price of bandwidth, the cloud labelled Synaptic Hosting.model of operating will drive visible growth Acquisitions, although the preferredand collaboration horizontally, vertically as route, need not be the only route, as with allwell as across quadrants. disruptive and emerging technologies, cloud computing will drive the creation of alliances spanning hardware, software and services, for instance, HP - Intel - Yahoo [3]. NetSuite, a leading vendor of on-demand enterprise services has announced its partnership with BT to deliver io n rat Consumer services via the SaaS model [4]. We also expect to bo olla see an increased clarity with standardization and dC Su Utility Cost interoperable open models like DTMF Incubator pp Delivery an o Agents rt ion and Open Cloud Manifesto [5, 6]. rat eg Int Enablers Loss of Differentiation and Startup Power: The utility or value delivered by a product will triumph over the product itself. HardwareFigure 1: Relationships between Consumer and Enablerthrough Delivery Agents and software commoditization will give waySource: Infosys Research to service commoditization. As George Crump 4
    • from InformationWeek says “It’s very hard increasingly rich as they become more andto add a significant new capability to existing more service focused [11]. For the mass, cloudproducts [7].” As we move up the triangle in computing is all about ubiquitous access toFigure 1, hardware and software enablers and content. Thus, telecom and media companies aredelivery agents will collaborate and co-innovate reinventing themselves to become on-demandto differentiate services. solution providers, aiming to provide complete John Foley describes start-ups as having experience, as opposed to just providing servicesthe innate capacity to drive innovation and fill in silos. Citrix president Mark Templeton said,niches, while pushing down costs and driving “Optimization of the user experience will happenup performance [8]. There will be a delicate in the data centre, at the edge of the networkshift in the balance of power from traditional and in internet cloud, allowing IT to deliver anyenablers to start-ups that deliver ideas, the application to any user with the best performance,likes of 3Tera, Appirio, Coghead and Kaavo. security and cost savings possible [12].” This isThis is reflected by the fact that venture capital evident from the increased investments in serverinterest in the ‘cloud’ is high. While VC funding and storage consolidation. Cisco’s ‘medianet’has dried up in many areas in this recession, suite, for one, has been built around advancedsome 25 startups in the cloud space garnered collaboration and entertainment, targeting bothmore than $150 million in VC funding in the the business and home user.past year [9]. Security and Legal Implications: It isNew Sales and Pricing Models: Delivery important to realise that even if data andof cloud computing requires optimised applications are stored and accessed remotely,infrastructure management costs and increased the responsibility of the security and integrityoperational efficiencies. This will have of data lies with the individual. Authenticationconsiderable impact on the way the enablers and authorization on the cloud, entangled withrealize revenues. The key trend to arise will be similar requirements offline will drive the needthe acceptance of the subscription model (opex for interoperable (across services and devices)model) resulting in customers increasingly identity management. Single sign-on will betransforming ‘my problem’ into ‘your problem.’ an area of investment. Ventures in this fieldWith the subscription model, the enablers include Microsoft Active Directory (within thewill require an upfront investment. However, enterprise) and OpenID. Also, issues aroundthe breakeven will be hazy depending on the privacy and the way individuals exercisevolume of subscribers. The traditional delivery control over personal data stored remotely willmechanisms (brick and mortar, media like need to be addressed.CDs and DVDs) are on the decline and not Hardware and software services availabletransforming will mean sudden death, as is through the cloud may span geographies andevident from Blockbuster’s partnership with cloud providers may soon subcontract theirTiVo in an attempt to ward off Netflix [10]. services. All the three actors will have to understand the implications of having sensitiveData/Content Driven Innovation: The data on the cloud and regulatory compliancesapplication delivery platforms will become viz., SOX, HIPPA, etc., governing the same. 5
    • ROLE ENTITIES: CLOUD TRENDS on the PDA while on the move or on high-The following sections look at the consequences definition TVs at home. This mandates higherof the cloud for each of the roles defined in the investment in product development but doesprevious section in greater detail. not necessarily allow a longer concept-to- market cycle.The Enablers To support the increased demand andEnablers provide resources that drive and adoption of cloud computing, the enablerssupport the creation of solutions in terms of are aligning their resources to provideboth hardware and software that the consumer multi-tenanted architectures, virtualizationutilizes. Following are the buzz words in the technologies along with support to highlyenabler’s arena: scalable and elastic services. Virtualization technologies span platforms, resources andConsolidation and Integration: With the markets applications and the likes of VMware’s Mobilechanging rapidly, it is imperative for players virtualization platform are steps in that direction.to find new opportunities. Some of the recent In fact enterprises are already reaping benefitsacquisitions highlight the clear horizontal of this. Westar Aerospace & Defence Group hasexpansion across hardware and software been successful in slashing their data centre sizetowards services. For instance, with its purchase by 50% and power and cooling costs by 30% withof Sun, Oracle has become a true cloud player a server virtualization solution from Dell [14].with services now ranging from operatingsystems, programming/development platforms, Environmental Sustainability and Data Centres:ERP, CRM and other support utilities, giving Environmental awareness will further driveOracle an edge over its competitors and allowing enterprises towards cloud computing as itit to offer the entire gamut of computing services allows considerable reduction in energy costs.required by any enterprise. Gartner estimates that over the next five years, Examples of integration within the most enterprise data centres will spend asdomain include Adobe acquiring Virtual much on energy (power and cooling) as theyUbiquity - developer of online word processor; do on hardware infrastructure [15]. To quoteGoogle acquiring FeedBurner - leader in RSS VMware, “Gartner estimates that 1.2 millionservices; and AT&T acquiring Ingenio - live workloads run in VMware virtual machines,search and commerce application provider, to which represents an aggregate power savingsname a few [13]. of about 8.5 billion kWh—more electricity than is consumed annually in all of New England forUbiquity and Virtualization: The fact that the heating, ventilation and cooling [16].” Cloudconsumer would demand seamless access to enabling technologies like virtualization andcontent, impacts both the enablers as well as server consolidation can help enterprises reducethe delivery agents (providers in the software energy costs by as much as 80%.vertical, a little more than anyone else). The Data centre consolidation will be drivenchallenge being, developing applications that by cost, space and energy savings. HP, for one,are ‘portable’ and offering seamless content is replacing 85 data centres with just six locateddelivery – whether on the office laptop or in America. According to IDC, America alone 6
    • has more than 7000 data centres and predicts important for the delivery agents to weighthat the number of servers will grow to 15.8 pros and cons before investing in the platforms.million by 2010. In driving the cloud data In the retail space Microsoft and Google cancentres, Linux complemented by open source emerge as dominant players due to the inertiasolutions will be at the forefront. IDC expects keeping consumers tied to its suite of products.Linux spending to boom by 21% in 2009 [17]. Supporting them will be hardware players Cloud computing is also driving the (a near monopoly of Intel) and virtualizationusage of netbooks or laptops that are enhanced providers like Citrix and VMware. The situationfor mobility, compromised on computing is complicated in the enterprise space, drivencapacity with a reduced storage capacity. by leaders like Amazon, Oracle, IBM andTherefore, there will be an increased demand Google. Cross platform compatibility and easefor transfer processing and storage in data of migration demanded by the consumer willcenters. IDC reported that netbooks accounted require the delivery agents to understand longfor 30% of all laptop sales in Europe during the term strategies.fourth quarter of 2008, with 3.6 million netbookssold [18]. Death of the System Integrators: System integrators, as we know them today, will haveMarginalization of Fringe Players: Desktop to take a second look at their model of operation.based utilities and tools like MS Office and With the rising popularity of subscriptionNorton antivirus will see a reduction in their based applications like Siebel On-Demand andinstalled user base and will ultimately be SalesForce.com, the demand for customised on-marginalized, as the same services will be premise will decrease, taking away with it theavailable online. The traditional fringe players biggest market of the SIs. In the long term, ITwill have to re-invent themselves to align services providers will have to increase effortswith the new modes of delivery, warranted to provide end-to-end management of the ITby the cloud. Adobe is already providing an estate (or whatever little would be left of it)online version of its graphics editing program or work along with the product companies tocalled Photoshop. Appistry is one of the offer technical support to their customers. Oncemore innovative companies and has recently cloud computing technology reaches the criticallaunched the CloudIQ platform, offering mass, there will be an increased demand fromenterprises the capability to port nearly any enterprises to migrate data, applications andenterprise application to the cloud [19]. content to the cloud. In the short term, service providers need to ready their arsenal to deliverThe Delivery Agents consulting services across technology andDelivery agents are value added resellers of the human resource domain.capabilities offered by the enablers. Followingare the key changes that we foresee in this Last Mile Connectivity: When push comes todomain: shove, availability will triumph over utility. Internet service providers (ISPs) and lastCollaboration, Partner Driven Work Environments: mile access supplier will have to ramp upIndustry alliances are being forged and it is their offerings rapidly to meet the increasing 7
    • requirements of the bandwidth hungry content delivery through the cloud – a clear shiftcontent and applications, with fibre being the in perspectives [20].predominant technology for last mile access. The ConsumersNew Pricing and Delivery Models: Sales channels Consumers are the demand side of the cloudwill also have to evolve to provide ubiquitous equation and following are the trends for them:delivery models and the revenues are going tobe long-tailed as the sales model will shift to a Convergence, On-Demand: The retail customersubscription based service, which will imply will now, more than ever, come to expect on-that customer retention and loyalty becomes demand everything - be it multimedia content,all the more important. So all players will have applications, gaming or storage. AMD’s newto reinvent, be it the telecom operators who campaign ‘The Future is Fusion’ is againare shifting focus to value added services or reflective of the changing times. For the retailthe internet media houses that have to come user, it is all about bringing together convergentup with variants of their web pages that can multimedia solutions on any screen supportedbe accessed from mobile devices offering a with advanced graphics capabilities; for theconsistent user experience, along with richer enterprise user it is delivering enhanced serverinteractive applications to keep the customers and powerful virtualization capabilities [21].hooked on. Collaboration and Social Networking: CloudPiracy: With the onset of the cloud, the users based platforms like Facebook and Twitterwill no longer be required to download or will become destinations for collaboration,install applications in the traditional sense. e-commerce and marketing. Enterprises areIn the online world, controlled access implies already planning to listen to the voice of thethat piracy will become increasingly difficult, if customer using such tools.not impossible. Case in point being the online Collaboration and virtual workspacedocumentation services offered by Zoho, since solutions will see increased investments. Athere is no application that has to be installed key player in this space is WebEx, acquiredat the users’ end, there is no chance of having by Cisco in 2007 for $3.2 billion – again ana pirated version of the application. example of a hardware player moving to the Likewise with online gaming, the software cloud domain. Another promisingproblem of pirated copies of the games being technology is IBM’s Bluehouse, based on Lotusspread around, resulting in millions of dollars Notes. This enables employees among businessworth of revenue loss can be curbed. OnLive partners or within the same organization tois one of the pioneers in this field and has share documents and contacts, collaborate onsigned contracts with major video game content joint project activities, host online meetings andproviders like Warner Brothers, Electronic build social-networking communities.Arts and Epic Games. What is interesting isthat Nvidia, a provider of high end graphics Back to Core Competencies: The cloud enablesprocessors and cards, primarily in the desktop businesses to focus on their core competencysegment, has welcomed the initiative of game and cloudsource the IT estate enabling the 8
    • consumers to transfer risk. ‘My problem’ now REFERENCESbecomes A look at an IDC study makes it clear 1. Frank Gens, What User Want from IT:that businesses want the cloud because of the Speed, Relevance, Information andcost benefit [22]. Innovation, IDC exchange, March 2008. Available at http://blogs.idc.com/Decentralization of Management: The traditional ie/?p=141view of management and governance of IT 2. Gartner Highlights 27 Technologiesresources through standards and frameworks in the 2008 Hype Cycle for Emerginglike ITIL, Sarbanes Oxley, HIPPA, etc., will Technologies, Gartner, 2009change. As much as the technological impacts, 3. h t t p : / / w w w . h p . c o m / h p i n f o /the challenges for enterprises will also be to newsroom/press/2008/080729xa.htmlmanage employee expectations working in a 4. http://www.netsuite.com/portal/decentralised and distributed manner. Many press/releases/nlpr04-22-08b.shtmllegacy IT system integrations will break and 5. http://www.dmtf.org/about/cloud-enterprises need to clearly understand and incubatorestimate the risks of losing visibility and control 6. h t t p : / / b l o g s . z d n e t . c o m /over critical data. Hinchcliffe/?p=303 7. http://www.informationweek.com/CONCLUSION news/software/hosted/showArticle.Cloud computing promises different things to jhtml?articleID=210602537different players in the IT ecosystem. It offers 8. http://www.informationweek.com/a radical way of collaborating, delivering news/software/hosted/showArticle.applications and content. More importantly it is jhtml?articleID=210602537here to stay. So it is easy to see why the enablers 9. http://www.ciozone.com/index.php/are paving the way for massive adoption of Cloud-Computing/Unraveling-the-the cloud and why are the delivery agents Cloud-Ecosystem.htmlleveraging their positions to catch the cloud 10. http://www.informationweek.com/demand. As for the enterprise, it reduces the cloud-computing/article/showArticle.TCO of the IT infrastructure while increasing jhtml?articleID=216300432agility. 11. h t t p : / / c o m m u n i t y . z d n e t . c o . u k / It is important to realise that the complete blog/0,1000000567,10008269o-shift to the cloud is not imminent, but enterprises 2000458459b,00.htmwill be better off with a long term vision for 12. h t t p : / / c o m m u n i t y . z d n e t . c o . u k /technology, people, information, legality and blog/0,1000000567,10008269o-security to leverage capabilities offered by 2000458459b,00.htmcloud computing. The delivery agents, more 13. h t t p : / / s t a r t u p . p a r t n e r u p .than any other players, need to reassess their com/2008/01/02/2007-acquisitions-role in enabling and delivering cloud computing web-internet-technology/to consumer for lack of innovation and not 14. http://whitepapers.techrepublic.com.keeping pace with the growth will result in com/abstract.aspx?docid=360865marginalization. 15. Rakesh Kumar, Eight Critical Forces 9
    • Shape Enterprise Data Center Strategies. 19. h t t p : / / g i g a o m . c o m / 2 0 0 9 / 0 3 / 0 9 / Available on www.gartner.com appistry-opens-the-cloud-to-almost-16. http://www.vmware.com/solutions/ all-apps/ consolidation/green/ 20. http://www.edge-online.com/news/17. h t t p : / / w w w . e c o n o m i s t . c o m / nvidia-onlive-a-net-positive-us b usiness/displaySt ory .cfm?st ory_ 21. http://news.softpedia.com/news/ id=11413148 AMD-Launches-039-The-Future-is-18. N e t b o o k T r e n d s a n d S o l i d - S t a t e Fusion-039-Campaign-93711.shtml. Technology Forecast, Consumer 22. Frank Gens, IT Cloud Services User Behavior Report. Available at https:// Survey, pt.3: What Users Want from mr.pricegrabber.com/Netbook_ Cloud Services Providers, October Trends_and_SolidState_Technology_ 2008. Available at http://blogs.idc. January_2009_CBR.pdf com/ie/?p=213 10
    • SETLabs Briefings VOL 7 NO 7 2009 Adopting Cloud Computing: Enterprise Private Clouds By Shyam Kumar Doddavula and Amit Wasudeo Gawande Cost efficiency riding on the agility of cloud computing appeals enterprises the mostC loud computing delivers IT capabilities as services-on-demand. This scalable andelastic model provides advantages like faster requirements of the internet era [Fig. 1]. In this system centric model, once the need for a business application is identified, itstime-to-market, no capex and pay-per-use infrastructure needs are identified and abusiness model. While there are several such request for infrastructure is placed with thebenefits, there are challenges in adopting public IT infrastructure team that procures andclouds because of dependency on infrastructure provisions the infrastructure. The applicationthat is not completely controlled internally is then developed, tested and deployed on thatand rather shared with outsiders. Several infrastructure.enterprises, especially large ones that have Some of the challenges with this modelalready invested in their own infrastructure include —over the years are looking at setting up privateclouds within their organizational boundaries ■ Need for Large Capex: Large investmentsto reap the benefits of cloud computing need to be made in procuring thetechnologies leveraging such investments. This infrastructure for a business application.paper describes the different options available, This increases the barrier for innovationhighlighting the key advantages and challenges as it is hard to experiment with aposed by each and the approach enterprises business idea without large investments.should be taking in adopting cloud computingwith minimal risk. ■ Poor Utilization of Resources: Application usage is not going toWHY CLOUD COMPUTING? be constant yet the infrastructure isTraditional infrastructure provisioning provisioned for peak demand, to be ablemodel is inefficient and does not meet the to guarantee application SLAs. So, the 11
    • Business Business Business Provision Solution 1 Solution 2 Solution n Business Resolve Required Requirements Plan Infrastructure Solution Infrastructure HP IBM SUN Business Provide Solution Architect Assign Team Servers Servers Servers Fulfilling Requested Requirements Resource Infrastructure RepositoryFigure 1: Infrastructure Provisioning: Traditional Model Source: Infosys Research infrastructure remains under-utilized ranging from infrastructure to platforms and for a major part of the time. applications. This is commonly referred as infrastructure-as-a-service, platform-as-a- ■ Slow Time-to-Market: This model of service and software-as-a-service. procuring and provisioning infrastructure This cloud computing model offers usually requires significant time and several appealing benefits for enterprises reduces the agility of an organization in including — creating new business solutions. ■ Faster Time-to-Market: Enterprises can Figure 2 below provides an overview avoid the step of initial infrastructureof the service centric provisioning model with procurement and setup, thus allowingcloud computing. the business solutions to be taken to In the cloud computing model, IT- market faster.related capabilities are made available asservices that can be provisioned on demand. ■ On-Demand Elastic Infrastructure:There are several offerings from various Sudden spikes due to business growth,vendors that enable provisioning different functionality additions or promotionalIT components as services, components offers can be addressed easily with Service Service Procurement Request Service Management Cloud Service Infrastructure Portal Provisioning Assign Workflow Consumer Requested Service Platform Templates Cloud Management Repository and BillingFigure 2: Infrastructure Provisioning: Cloud Computing Source: Infosys ResearchModel 12
    • infrastructure that can be requested on control of the IT organizations makes demand. it dangerous for some mission critical applications. ■ Pay-as-Use: Organizations can leverage the pay-as-use model of cloud computing ■ Vendor Lock-in: Cloud computing to ensure optimum utilization of services offered by different vendors available resources. are not governed by any standards as of today. Depending on the vendor, thePUBLIC CLOUDS AND CHALLENGES applications have to undergo changes toPublic clouds like Amazon AWS, Microsoft adapt to the service.Azure, Google AppEngine offer infrastructureand platforms as services over the internet. In ■ Leveraging Existing Investment: Mostpublic clouds, resources and costs are shared large organizations that have alreadyby users who use them over the internet on pay invested in their own data centers wouldper use model. see a need to leverage those investments This model appeals especially to startups as an important criterion in adoptingand small organizations that have not invested cloud computing.in hardware resources and are looking for waysto avoid the large capex involved in procuring ■ Corporate Governance and Auditing:infrastructure upfront. Even though there are Performing governance and auditingseveral benefits like cost savings, faster time to activities with the corporate datamarket, etc., from this model, there are a few abstracted in the public cloud poseschallenges listed below that are preventing wide challenges, that are yet to be addressed.scale adoption of public clouds. ■ Maturity of the Solutions: Some of ■ Security: The biggest roadblock is the the PaaS offering like AppEngine offer potential security issues due to multi- limited capabilities like only a subset of tenant nature of public clouds. There JDO API. are security and privacy concerns with sharing same physical hardware with ENTERPRISE PRIVATE CLOUDS unknown parties that need to addressed. In order to overcome these challenges, organizations are looking at enterprise ■ Reliability and Performance: private cloud offerings. Enterprise private Performance and availability of the cloud solutions help organizations leverage applications are important criteria the existing IT environment and create a defining the success of an enterprise’s cloud computing platform in the private business. However, the fact that internal network. This model overcomes organizations lose control over IT several challenges faced in public cloud environment and important success adoption. Enterprise private clouds are metrics like performance and reliability, seen as a natural progression of initiatives and are dependent on factors outside the like virtualization already taken up by 13
    • several organizations. Enterprise private Automationcloud solutions add capabilities like self- The private cloud solution should have certainservice, automation and charge back over the traits -virtualized infrastructure. Figure 3 provides the recommended ■ A provisioning engine that automateslogical architecture for an enterprise private the provisioning of the infrastructurecloud. ■ Workflow driven with built-in approval mechanisms enabling governanceSelf Service ■ Enable user management and integrationThe private cloud solution should have a with enterprise authentication andself service portal that enables users request authorization mechanismsinfrastructure and platforms as a service. ■ Enable enforcing enterprise policies onIt should contain a service catalog that lists resource allocation through a rules enginethe categories and the services available, the ■ Enable capturing the commonassociated SLAs and costs. deployment patterns using templates. The service portal should enablereserving as well as requesting the services on Self-service and automation helps reducedemand. the time-to-market so that users can request Service Portal Service Monitoring and Management SLA Trouble Self Service Catalogue Reports Management Ticketing User Approval Deployment Patch Metering Management Pattern Library Management Charge Back Alerts/Events Workflows Monitoring and Management Provisioning Policies Scheduling and Inventory Provisioning Engine and Rules Engine Load Balancing Virtual Network Management Service Templates Virtual Storage Management Virtual Machine Management Storage Virtualization Compute Virtualization Virtualization Layer Virtual Machines Virtualization Layer NAS SAN Physical InfrastructureFigure 3: Enterprise Private Cloud Architecture Source: Infosys Research 14
    • for infrastructure as a service and can get it holds true. Not just the infrastructure, evenprovisioned on demand. the internal clouds are to be built and managed by the IT team. Moreover, as the underlyingManagement and Monitoring infrastructure is limited, it is likely to be lessThe private cloud solution should also have scalable as compared to the immensely robustan integrated monitoring and management and scalable infrastructure of cloud providers.platform that should have the following The model also does not benefit from the lowercomponents — upfront capital costs and less management overheads that are otherwise possible withMonitoring and Management: Track various public clouds.metrics at the software and infrastructure level So, the recommended approach is to adopt a hybrid one where both public andMetering & Chargeback: Track the usage of the private clouds are used for different categories ofvarious services and allow to charge back applications. With this approach, organizationsmechanisms to be plugged in can reap the benefits of both public and private cloud models. This approach allows enterprisesSLA Management: Enable, define and monitor to adopt the public clouds partially, deployingSLAs for the services only those services that are suitable for public clouds. The private cloud helps apply the cloudPatch Management: Enable patches to be rolled computing model internally as well. Thus theout to the various software components used hybrid approach brings together the best in both worlds of public and private clouds.Reports: Generate reports on usage, SLA As technology matures, there will beadherence, etc. better options for creating such an enterprise cloud. There are already solutions availableIncident Management: Generate alerts when there that provide abstractions over infrastructureare issues and provide ticketing mechanism to available internally through virtualizationtrack and resolve incidents. software like vmware ESXi, Xen, HyperV and public clouds like AWS. Also there areVirtualization VPN solutions available that can help create aThe private cloud solution should have secure network spanning infrastructure acrossvirtualization layer that virtualize the key enterprise data centers and public clouds.infrastructure components including compute, There are still challenges to be addressed likestorage and network. latency, automated routing and load balancing, end-to-end SLA management, etc., before suchENTERPRISE CLOUD: HYBRID APPROACH solutions become enterprise ready.Private clouds help overcome some of thechallenges associated with public clouds but TYPICAL USE CASES FOR PRIVATEthey are not as cost effective as public clouds CLOUDSsince the traditional model of owning, i.e., Scenarios where there are only intermittentbuying and managing the infrastructure, still usages of infrastructure are ideal for cloud 15
    • computing. Also, scenarios that involve operating system but also the software stack,sensitive data and processes, or mission thus enabling creation of virtual appliances thatcritical applications are better suited for can be provisioned on-demand.enterprise private clouds. Some of the typicaluse cases where enterprise private clouds can Cloud Burst: With a computing stack thatbe leveraged include - provides abstraction over the underlying cloud infrastructure and enables applications and dataDevelopment and Test Platforms as Services: There to reside together on both private and publicare studies that indicate that around 30% of clouds, when there is sudden spike in usagethe infrastructure at large enterprise is used and the in-house private cloud environmentfor development and testing. These resources is not able to support the requests, additionalare not always utilized as development and infrastructure can be provisioned from a publictesting are activities that happen occasionally. cloud without affecting the service quality.These resources can be provisioned through anenterprise private cloud so that the resources High Performance Grid: Enterprise private cloudscan be shared and utilized better and also the can also be used to create grid environments sotime to provision can be reduced. that the infrastructure that would otherwise have got dedicated only for specialized gridPublic Cloud Emulation Environments: Private applications can be utilized better.clouds can be used to emulate a public cloudenvironment and can be used as a development TYPICAL USE CASES FOR PUBLIC CLOUDSand test platform while developing the Some of the initial services that can be movedapplications to be deployed on the particular into public cloud are those that are not businesspublic cloud. The design, architecture and or mission critical or do not deal with thethe actual code can be validated using the sensitive data. Some of the typical use casesprivate cloud environment. Further, the where public clouds can be leveraged include.same environment can also be used to testthe developed applications for functionality BPOs: Business productivity online (BPO) suiteas well as validations before it moves to the applications are one of the first applications ofproduction at a public cloud. An example of public clouds in enterprises. There are severalthis is usage of the open source Eucalyptus vendor offerings like exchange online and Googleframework to emulate some of the Amazon Apps that offer messaging and collaborationAWS functionality. It can be used to create software as services on subscription modelthe development and test environment that that can reduce the overheads associated withemulates AWS EC2 and S3 environments. maintaining such application on premise.Virtual Appliances: Private clouds can be used Data Backup and Archival: Cloud storageto create virtual appliances that leverage is cheaper and offer storage on demand. So,commodity hardware to create specialized enterprises are looking at public cloud storagedevices like load-balancers, storage devices, etc. solutions for their data back up and archivalA machine image is created with not only the needs. 16
    • Cloud Application Layer CRM SaaS Financial Service Health Care Community Application Application Service Application Portal Cloud Tools Admin Tools Cloud Platform Layer Cloud Application Frameworks Social Service Development Multi-tenant Batch Frame Analytics Commerce Composition Tools Web Framework Work Framework Framework Framework Cloud Management and Infrastructure Layer Migration Tools Cloud Infrastructure Services Messaging Service Storage Service Compute Service Data Service Testing Tools Cloud Management Services SLA Emulators Metering Billing Administration Security Management Cloud Adapter Framework Public Cloud Enterprise Cloud (Private Cloud) AWS AZURE App EngineFigure 4: Enterprise Cloud Computing Stack Source: Infosys ResearchInternet Content Management: Content that Cloud Infrastructure Layerneeds to be accessible from the internet like The cloud infrastructure layer provides the coreproduct literature, etc., can be stored in public middleware capabilities like compute, storage,cloud storage solutions. Amazon Offers S3 data stores, messaging, etc., as on-demandfor storage and cloud front for CDN that services. These use the infrastructure from publicincreases the efficiency of delivering such and private clouds and provide abstractions forcontent. the platform and application services. Organizations should build a cloudcomputing stack that helps them adopt this Cloud Platform Layerhybrid approach efficiently. The recommended The cloud platform layer provides thecloud computing stack is shown in Figure 4 with specialized frameworks like a multi-tenantthe various layers and the various components web framework for developing web basedneeded for managing the cloud, developing applications, analytics and batch frameworksand deploying enterprise applications and based on MapReduce algorithms, cloud basedmaintaining the applications using the cloud social commerce framework, etc.computing environment. The cloud computing stack consists of Cloud Application Layerthe following layers - The cloud application layer consists of SaaS 17
    • applications developed using the cloud Startups You Should Know, Informationplatform services. Week, September 2008. Available at http://www.informationweek.com/CONCLUSION news/software/hosted/showArticle.In the current economic climate where the jhtml?articleID=210602537expectations of efficiencies and cost savings 3. Private Cloud Computing for Enterprises:are growing from IT organizations, enterprise Meet the Demands of High Utilizationprivate clouds provide a good opportunity to and Rapid Change. Available at http://get started with cloud computing and reap www.cisco.com/en/US/solutions/the associated benefits of agility, cost savings collateral/ns340/ns517/ns224/ns836/and on-demand services while meeting the ns976/white_paper_c11-543729.htmlstringent enterprise security, performance and 4. Daniel Nurmi, Rich Wolski, Chrisreliability requirements. Grzegorczyk Graziano Obertelli, Sunil Soman, Lamia Youseff and DmitriiREFERENCES Zagorodnov, The Eucalyptus Open- 1. James Staten, Deliver Cloud Benefits source Cloud-computing System, Inside Your Walls, Forrester, April University of California, Santa 2009. Available at http://www. Barbara. Available at http://open. forrester.com/Research/Document/ eucalyptus.com/documents/nurmi_ Excerpt/0,7211,54035,00.html et_al-eucalyptus_open_source_cloud_ 2. J o h n F o l e y , 2 0 C l o u d C o m p u t i n g computing_system-cca_2008.pdf. 18
    • SETLabs Briefings VOL 7 NO 7 2009 Cloud Interoperability and Standardization By A V Parameswaran and Asheesh Chaddha Adoption of cloud rests largely on interoperabilty and standardization as they define the new age IT industryC loud computing can be defined as accessing third party software and services on weband paying as per usage. It facilitates scalability by limiting cloud choice because of vendor lock- in, portability, ability to use the cloud services provided by multiple vendors including theand virtualized resources over internet as a ability to use an organization’s own existingservice providing cost effective and scalable data center resources seamlessly. Businesssolution to customers. Cloud computing has applications and data remain in cloud silos.evolved as a disruptive technology and picked There is a need for complex developed businessup speed in 2008 and 2009 with the presence of applications on the clouds to be interoperable.many vendors in cloud computing space. Cloud adoption will be hampered if there is not With the presence of numerous vendors, a good way of integrating data and applicationsthe need is emerging for interoperability across clouds.between clouds so that a complex and developedbusiness application on clouds is interoperable. CLOUD COMPUTING STANDARDS ANDIn this paper we provide cloud computing INTEROPERABILITY VIEWstandards and interoperability view, examine To start with, we provide a cloud computingsome high level approaches for interoperability standards and interoperability view to showand look at important interoperability factors. some aspects/areas of interoperability and standardization in the cloud computingNEED FOR INTEROPERABILITY landscape [Fig. 1 overleaf]. When we lookEvery new cloud service provider have their across the broad range of things that peopleown way on how a user or cloud application consider in cloud computing, potentiallyinteracts with their cloud leading to cloud API hundreds of standards will be involved. Thepropagation [1]. This kills the cloud ecosystem good news is that many of these standards 19
    • Stora behind an open and standardized cloud n APIs Security ge ng utatio Brokeri Com p Billing ePayment interface. Thus a key driver of the unified Transactions Provisioning Management Lifecycle Management cloud interface (UCI) is to create an API of VMs Regulatory Compliance Replication Deployment on about other APIs. Network unicati Platform QoS Comm Logging ice Service Registries / ic Serv Monitoring Dynam reements Level A g Modeling Ontologies ■ It is a singular abstraction/programmatic ccess Accounting Job Scheduling Migration of Vms Data A point of contact that encompasses the ent Distributed anagem Programming Load M Cloud Services (SOA) Query Processin g entire infrastructure stack as well as Policies Notification Workflow mic Sc aling Pr Business ocess Modelin emerging cloud centric technologies Autono g IaaS Caching / Distributed Caching SaaS PaaS Coordination through a unified interface.Figure 1: Cloud Computing Interoperability ViewSource: Infosys Research ■ The purpose of cloud broker is to serve as a common interface for the interaction between remote platforms, networks,probably already exist. Reuse of good standards systems, applications, services, identityshould therefore be a primary strategy. Creating and data.a big picture view of the cloud computinglandscape is therefore necessary to understand ■ Having a common set of cloud definitionsthe what, where and why of standards. Once the is an important factor that would enableoverall view is understood, a gap analysis on vendors to exchange managementthe standards can then be done to see what information between distant cloudstandards we have and the standards we need. providers.INTEROPERABILITY APPROACHES ■ The important parts of unified cloudWe discuss some of the emerging approaches interface (UCI) or cloud broker are afor interoperability at a high level. specification and a schema. The actual model descriptions are provided by theApproach 1: Unified Cloud Interface/Cloud schema and the details for integrationBroker with other management models areCloud computing vendors have formed defined by the specification.a common platform — cloud computinginteroperability forum (CCIF) — to address ■ The unified cloud model will addressthe problem of cloud interoperability and both the platforms as service offeringsstandardization [2]. The purpose of CCIF is as well as infrastructure cloud platforms.to discuss and come up with a common cloud It will enable a hybrid cloud computingcomputing interface. CCIF is planning to come environment that is decentralized,up with a unified cloud interface (a.k.a. cloud extensible and secure.broker) whose features are as follows: Figure 2 shows a bird’s eye view about ■ Unified cloud computing is trying to the vision of the UCI project of CCIF [3, 4]. The unify various cloud APIs and abstract it primary goal is to come up with an abstraction 20
    • layer that is agnostic to any cloud API, platform all allocated resources and running VMs. Aor infrastructure. The architecture comprises component on the left side of Figure 2 is usedof layers and components with a use case to depict this. [6].described at the UCI project requirement page[5]. The architecture abstracts the usage of any Approach 2: Enterprise Cloud Orchestrationcloud API and unifies them in one layer. This is Platform /Orchestration layerdone with the help of semantic web and OWL According to IDC, in virtually every industry,which has a pool of resources semantically thousands of companies are trying to simplifyunderstood and described. This enables the the speed and adoption of their products anduser to use these resources irrespective of services by transforming them into cloudwhether these resources are being allocated services. We see that the race to the cloud isfrom provider Amazon EC2 or Enomaly accelerating [7]. The scenario that is unfoldingplatform, etc. Having a unified interface with is that there will not be just one cloud butcommon definitions of these resources helps numerous types -- private clouds and publicto do operations like allocation, de-allocation, ones. These will further get divided into general-provisioning of virtual machines or managing purpose and specialized ones. Similar to thethem through the UCI layer using the agent way that internet is a network of networks,component. Assuming that the interface to InterCloud means a federation of all kindsUCI is provided to the user via a web browser of clouds. All these clouds will be full ofor UCI cloud client, the UCI should provide applications and services. It will not be possiblea kind of a dashboard that shows the state of to use these without some type of orchestration. External Cloud ECP Amazon Ec2 Google App Engine Any Provider UCI Agent Messaging Local Server DB Semantic and OWL Engine Internal Cloud Infrastructure XML RDF Query Engine VMS Provision Layer Management and Control Layer Unified Cloud Interface (UCI)Figure 2: UCI Architecture Source: www.code.google.com [8] 21
    • The initiatives of some of the early adopters Eli Lilly and the various cloud servicestowards Cloud Orchestration are discussed it subscribes to. This layer should bebelow. provided by another vendor and not Eli Lilly itself and should comprise ■ Vendors like Cordys advocate the of various algorithms that determine need for a layer in the cloud that the best cloud service for a particular provides assembly and orchestration job based on factors like highest for enterprises, which helps to deliver performance, lowest cost or other useful business advantages [9, 10]. requirement. This approach will help Cordys delivers an enterprise cloud Eli Lilly and other users to write to a orchestration platform that helps single API rather than many and help to enterprises to quickly adopt new ways optimize service usage. Eli Lilly also sees of running their business and reaching the potential of using cloud computing their customers. for external collaboration. It is already doing some of this, but foresees that ■ Rightscale is another vendor that going forward, the cloud will become provides an orchestration layer/ a point of integration between Eli Lilly cloud management platform. A single and outside researchers. They have work management platform is provided to going on at present that starts to fit into conveniently manage multiple clouds this collaborative scheme. This gives an that facilitates businesses to migrate example of how standardization needs deployments [11]. It helps businesses to are driven both by vendors as well as manage and scale cloud deployments as end users. well as facilitate application migration and management across multiple clouds. ■ CSC has recently announced cloud Similarly organizations like Suntec are orchestration services for cloud services looking at building an orchestration integration. This provides clients with layer for billing infrastructure. features like service level management, data transparency, remote monitoring, ■ Eli Lilly, a pharmaceuticals company auditing and reporting [13]. These uses Amazon web services and other services also provide automated cloud services to provide high- arrangement, management, federation, performance computing to hundreds coordination, security and operation of its scientists based on need. In future, of public, private and hybrid cloud it foresees the possibility of using cloud computing environments, supporting services from many different vendors industry-specific compliance, etc. and wants to avoid a scenario where Eli Lilly has to configure and manage Figure 3 illustrates how a client can each of those separately [12]. Eli Lilly consume the services offered by more than describes the need for an intermediate one cloud service provider (CSP) via an orchestration layer that is in-between orchestration layer. 22
    • ■ Note that the client uses only one single Cloud 1 Cloud 2 Cloud 3 API offered by the orchestration layer 5. Execute 7. Execute Service 3 3. Register and thus is insulated from the different Service 1 Service 3 6. Execute 2. Register APIs offered by different CSPs. Service 2 Service 2 Orchestration ■ Figure 3 shows an example of how a 1. Register Layer client request for executing a business Service 1 4. Execute Business process (or workflow) is satisfied by Process the orchestration layer by invoking a Client sequence of three different services provided by three different CSPs.Figure 3: Cloud OrchestrationSource: Infosys Research The challenges with such an approach are discussed below. T h e f e a t u r e s o f t h e a p p r o a c h a re ■ Service Level Management: Sinceexplained below. the orchestration layer provides functionality to dynamically select ■ Different cloud service providers can and bind to services based on criteria/ register the cloud services that they offer algorithms that determine the best with the orchestration layer. This is similar cloud service for a particular job based to vendors who offer web services on highest performance, lowest cost or publishing their web services with the other requirement as specified by the Universal Description, Discovery and client, such an approach will involve Integration (UDDI). The orchestration performance overhead due to runtime layer can then dynamically select and binding delays. bind to services based on criteria/ The orchestration layer also algorithms that determine the best cloud needs to interpret client API calls service for a particular job based on and translate them suitably to invoke factors like highest performance, lowest services provided by different CSPs. This cost or other requirement as specified by will involve latency as well. the client. ■ Data Volumes: Depending on the ■ Note that since the orchestration layer provided service, the data volumes interacts with the cloud services offered required to be transported across cloud by different vendors via different APIs, services is another important factor to be it can use user-computer interface (UCI) considered. For certain types of services, for interacting with different CSPs or this could be a limiting factor due to the have similar functionality built-in to be overhead involved. able to understand and interact with different CSPs via different APIs. ■ Platform Support: Depending on the 23
    • service, the platform support required by to use brokers/adapters for interoperability. the service could also be a limiting factor. New users however will be able to natively use the standard API. There will also be ■ Others: Apart from the above, vendors developing orchestration layers to there could be other challenges like build business processes/workflows using the security, regulatory compliance, data cloud services provided by different vendors. transparency, etc. With some of the major vendors like Microsoft and Amazon rejecting the CCIF agenda andIMPORTANT INTEROPERABILITY pursuing their own interoperability agenda,FACTORS this makes standardization and consensusThis section discusses the emerging scenario more difficult and could lead to multipleand other important interoperability factors standards. This could lead to a scenario in thefrom different viewpoints. long run where multiple standards co-exist We see that there are multiple initiatives and customers using brokers/adapters forby stakeholders from industry, academia and interoperability for using services from multipleusers. This does help the problem or parts of the cloud service providers.problem being addressed by multiple standard It is also important to look at standardsbodies/forums/consortiums in parallel and also required from the perspective of differentprovide diverse view points. But it is important industry verticals. For example, HIPAAfor the standard bodies, vendors and users to sit compliance could be important for healthcaretogether, discuss and arrive at a consensus on services, SOX compliance could be importantthe standards and APIs in different areas and for financial services, etc. This requires activeshare information. This is all the more essential participation from different vendors and usersdue to the duplication and overlaps among the from these verticals in standard bodies. It willvarious groups involved. The flip side of the also be good if different vertical specific groupsstory is that this could lead to the possibility of are setup in order to focus and discuss theseveral standards emerging and possible lack vertical specific requirements and come up withof consensus. It is important for the standard standards that are vertical specific.bodies/forums/consortiums to have balanced Another challenge is that since there arerepresentation of interests in order to avoid bias many models of cloud computing (SaaS, PaaS,towards certain stakeholders’ agenda. IaaS), standards are required for particular Though initiatives like OGF’s OCCI models and not just one set. There is a needare trying to come up with standards in a to prioritize and concentrate on core set ofquick timeframe, it takes time for standards standards to start with and then expand toto mature and for reference implementations other areas. It is important to note that overto become available. Till then the users will specification inhibits innovation. Patents anduse APIs/platforms from cloud computing intellectual property could be a hurdle forvendors, whichever they feel is most suitable standardization process. Unlike Sun’s openfor their requirements. When standards cloud platform APIs, it will be interesting toemerge and these vendors want to use the see if other vendors give their cloud APIs andservices of other vendors, then they will need protocols to the community. 24
    • When applications are migrated from the way towards realizing the true potential/one cloud to another, apart from functionality, benefits of cloud computing.it is also important to ensure that non-functionalrequirements (NFRs) are satisfied as well in REFERENCESthe new migrated environment. This requires 1. Cloud API Propagation and the Race tostandards for defining and exchanging meta Zero (Cloud Interoperability), Januaryinformation regarding the application between 2009. Available at http://www.the cloud service providers to check for elasticvapor.com/2009/01/cloud-API-compliance of NFRs before actual migration of propagation-and-race-to-zero.htmlthe application via VM migration. The scenario 2. The Cloud Computing Interoperabilitycould be complex considering the fact that there Forum. Available at http://www.could be several NFRs pertaining to security, cloudforum.org/availability, reliability, performance, scalability, 3. Unified Cloud Interface Project (UCI).etc., that requires compliance. Available at http://groups.google.com/ group/unifiedcloud?hl=enCONCLUSION 4. UCI Architecture. Available at http://Interoperability and standardization have code.google.com/p/unifiedcloud/huge impact on the cloud adoption and usage wiki/UCI_Architectureand thus the industry is witnessing high 5. U n i f i e d C l o u d I n t e r f a c e ( U C I )amount of energy and thrust towards these Requirements. Available at http://code.from different stakeholders viz., users, vendors google.com/p/unifiedcloud/wiki/and standard bodies. Standardization will UCI_Requirementsincrease and accelerate the adoption of cloud 6. CCIF’s Unified Cloud Interface Project.computing as users will have a wider range Available at http://code.google.com/p/of choices in cloud without vendor lock-in, unifiedcloud/portability and ability to use the cloud services 7. F o r e c a s t f o r C o m p u t i n g : C l o u d y ,provided by multiple vendors. This will also iStockAnalyst, December 2008.include the ability to use an organization’s Available at http://www.istockanalyst.own existing data center resources seamlessly. com/article/viewiStockNews/Standardization further promises to help articleid/2904589#towards complexly developed business 8. Unified Cloud. Available at http://code.applications on the cloud to be interoperable google.com/p/unifiedcloud/wiki/and ensure data and application integration UCI_Architectureacross clouds. It also provides business 9. C O R D Y S , T h e I n t e l l i g e n t C l o u dopportunities to users to choose and use Platform. Available at http://partners.services provided by many different cloud cordys.com/cordysportalpartners_com/vendors based on various criteria. On the other cloud_solutions.phphand it helps vendors to provide additional 10. C O R D Y S - E n t e r p r i s e C l o u dhigher level services like orchestration, apart Orchestration. Available at http://from normal cloud services that are needed www.cordys.com/cordyscms_com/by the users. Standardization will thus pave enterprise_cloud_orchestration.php 25
    • 11. Cloudonomics: Article RightScale Adds whats_next_in_t.html;jsessionid=35MV Amazon EC2 Europe to List of Supported LYFIRJL2GQSNDLRSKHSCJUNN2JV Clouds. Available at http://apache.sys- N?catid=cloud-computing con.com/node/841086 13. CSC Announces New Family Of Cloud12. Eli Lilly On What’s Next in Cloud Services. Available at http://www.csc. Computing. Available at http:// com/banking/press_releases/27609- www.informationweek.com/cloud- csc_announces_new_family_of_cloud_ computing/blog/archives/2009/01/ services. 26
    • SETLabs Briefings VOL 7 NO 7 2009 SLA Aware ‘on-boarding’ of Applications on the CloudBy Sumit Kumar Bose PhD, Nidhi Tiwari, Anjaneyulu Pasala PhD and Srinivas Padmanabhuni PhD Performance being the prime concern in the adoption of cloud, SLA aware ‘on-boarding’ of application can be of great helpC loud computing is fast emerging as the next generation service delivery platform.Recent advancements in commodity server and Typically the key performance measures are average response time and throughput. These measures are a part of the service level agreementsvirtualization technologies are key enablers (SLA) that are legally binding agreementsfor the interest in these platforms [1]. Cloud between service providers and consumers. Therecomputing platforms hold promise for both is a need, therefore, to understand the impactservice providers and service consumers. For on an application’s SLA due to its co-locationservice providers it is a way to minimize capacity with multiple other applications on the sameredundancy and improve server utilization physical host and the effect of the overheadsthrough multiplexing system resources amongst introduced by the virtualization technologies. Itmultiple customers. To service consumers, the is important to understand the extent to whichplatforms help realize the ultimate dream of the existing performance models can prove tocapacity-on demand and pay-as-you-go concepts. be useful in addressing these issues arising outTo scale IT infrastructure vis-à-vis the demand of the adoption of cloud technologies [2]. It isfor business growth is known as capacity-on- also required to comprehend the drawbacks ofdemand. Further, the consumers are not required the existing models to overcome the limitationsto invest in expensive IT resources upfront as they introduced by the current utility computingare required to pay only for the amount of system paradigms.resources they consume, known as pay-as-you-go. These are the motivating factors for the recent MOTIVATION FOR SLA AWARE ‘ON-interest in cloud computing as a service platform. BOARDING’ However, performance is one of the Virtualization is the core technology behindkey concerns in the possible adoption of cloud. popularity of cloud computing platforms. 27
    • Though virtualization techniques provide as premium, gold and silver. This classificationsecurity and isolation guarantees, virtualization is based on the amount of business generatedoverheads and interference effects adversely from the respective customers. This often meansaffect the QoS parameters such as response that high net worth customers are classifiedtime and throughput agreed upon in SLAs of into premium category. This necessitatesapplications co-hosted on the same physical box that the service providers guarantee higher[3, 4]. However, not much research has been quality of service to the customers belongingdone to identify and understand the impact of to premium segment. Additionally, the servicethe virtualization overheads and interference providers must have an understanding of theeffects on these QoS parameters. resource consumption pattern of different To benefit from cloud computing, types of requests generated from such premiumenterprises are also migrating their applications customers. For example, browsing interactionsfrom existing dedicated on-premise hosts to may not be as resource demanding as theprivate/public cloud computing platforms. payment interaction. These factors furtherThis migration activity is known as on- increase the complexity in fulfilling the SLAs.boarding. Currently, this activity is a very To make the above on-boarding activityspecialized process executed by the SMEs. This more effective and efficient, it is importantspecialized process helps in identifying the to design algorithms that can translate thesystem requirements of an application, based application’s QoS and SLA requirements toon workload experienced by the application system level specifications. Further, there isand the client’s QoS. The understanding of the a need to investigate new set of mathematicalsystem requirements helps to frame appropriate models that can accurately predict responsepolicies specific to the application and enter times and throughputs even when they areinto service level agreements with clients. This co-located with other applications on the samein turn helps the service provider to manage physical box. These models should also addressthe entire utility data-center autonomically the virtualization overheads and consider the(i.e., autonomic data-centers) without manual interference effects. We make an attempt tointervention. In this process, there is no define a framework to address these challenges.comprehensive understanding of the systemrequirements of the application without PERFORMANCE ENGINEERING MODELSprecisely understanding how assured QoS of As shown in Figure 1, the existing performanceone application is affected by the co-location engineering models are categorized into fourof another application on the same host. classes. These are:Service providers not only face the risk of over-provisioning during low demands but they Single Host Operating System Models: Thesealso run the risk of under-provisioning during models deal with issues related to allocationpeak loads. Also, if the interference effects are of computing resources to multiple competingoverlooked, they face the risk of overpromising applications executing on the same server.on the QoS promised in the SLA. Typically, the CPU (if the server has only one Further, the service providers often CPU) is apportioned amongst these applicationsclassify their customers into different classes such on a time sharing basis. 28
    • Performance Engineering Models (QoS and SLA Optimization) QoS Models for Shared Single Host Single Server QoS Models for Hosting Non-Virtualized QoS Models QoS Models Clusters and Farms Environments Static Dynamic Partitioned Shared Single Tier Multi TierFigure 1: Taxonomy of the Existing Performance Source: Infosys ResearchEngineering ModelsSingle Server Performance Models: These ■ the database tier for handling databasemodels deal with QoS/SLA issues related access requests involving lookup forto servicing multiple client requests for a non-cached data.web-application, for instance, an e-commerceapplication hosted on a single server. In general, Performance Models for Non-virtualizedan overwhelming majority of models deal with Shared Hosting Environments: These modelsissues related to web-servers. deal with resource allocation and QoS/SLA issues for scenarios where multiple applicationsPerformance Models for Clusters and Farms: run on single host that is a non-virtualizedThese models deal with resource allocation system.and QoS/SLA issues for scenarios where a The above performance models attemptparticular tier of an application is replicated to address questions related to capacityacross multiple physical machines. For instance, planning and load balancing. The models helpthe architecture of an e-commerce application in understanding the trade-offs of differenttypically consists of three tiers: architectural choices and aid in identifying potential bottlenecks that may degrade system ■ the front-end tier for handling static performance. These models also provide web requests composed of simple HTTP performance estimates by predicting key (HTTPS) requests; performance metrics such as response time and throughput. However, the models assume that ■ the application tier for handling sufficient amount of computational resources, complex dynamic requests involving as needed to service requests, are available execution of java servlets, scripts and at all times. These premises do not hold classes; and true when an application is hosted on cloud 29
    • platform. The very premise of a cloud platform involves building component profiles atis to make capacity available to applications different workloads and for different user andon demand. The performance may degrade request category. This requires subjecting thein times when sufficient computing resources application to synthetic workloads for differentare not made available to an application categories. The component profiles are thenwhenever the workload on the application suitably adjusted to reflect the overheadsincreases. The increase/decrease in computing of the virtualization technologies beingresource allocations to an application should used in the cloud platforms. The resourcesbe proportional to the increase/decrease in allocated to different components are variedworkload experienced by the application. This and detailed performance characteristics forin essence, requires an intricate understanding each component are collected. The profilingof the computational resource requirements of technique is repeated for each category.the different components and of the various Statistical techniques are then used to derivetiers of a typical three-tier application at analytical relationship between performancedifferent workloads. It is interesting to note at metrics of a component as a function ofthis point that the workload and the resource resource allocations (CPU, memory, Networkrequirements are not just functions of the I/O, etc.). The statistical equations are suitablynumber of requests but also of the nature/ modified to account for the virtualizationtype of requests. It is therefore pertinent to overheads depending on the type of technologyadditionally gain a fine grained understanding used and a random variable denoting theof the resource consumption patterns of interference effect.different types and classes of requests. SLA Once the relationship between theaware on-boarding of applications should resource requirements and the workloadtake into account the above mentioned factors. is established, it is important to predict theAutomating the SLA aware on-boarding of response time and throughput of an applicationapplications is a two step process that involves: in the presence of other applications on the same host. Consider an application A that 1. Translation of high level service level is co-located with other applications B and objectives into system level thresholds called SLA decomposition [5, 6] 2. P r e d i c t i o n o f r e s p o n s e t i m e a n d Type of Virtualization throughput at different workload mixes, Technology Used Virtualization accounting the virtualization overheads Overhead Effects and interference effects. CPU/ Memory/ Computational Network Requirements I/O at The modeling of the SLA decomposition Workload Analysis Workload l Requestsrequires capturing the relationship between the Categorization (Request/high level performance goals mentioned in the Service)SLAs and the system goals for each application Figure 2: SLA Decomposition Techniquecomponent as shown in Figure 2. The approach Source: Infosys Research 30
    • 3. Using the SLA decomposition techniques Virtualization Overhead to identify the resource requirements Effects of different components at different Requests Workload Performance Predicted Response workloads for each request category. Categorization Engineering Time and Request Models Throughput Service 4. Establishing an analytical relationship Interference between the resource requirements of Effects the component and the workload.Figure 3: Performance Prediction in the Presence ofInterference Effects and Virtualization Overheads 5. Dividing the time horizon into multipleSource: Infosys Research epochs. During each epoch, predict the workload and the resource requirements of the application in the next epoch. RepeatC on the same physical host. The resource the steps from 1 to 5 or all applications thatrequirements and the response time of requests are co-located with this application.and throughput of application A will beimpacted by the resource consumption pattern 6. Predicting the response time andof applications B and C co-located with it. The throughput of an application when itperformance engineering model should be is co-located with other applications ontweaked to be able to capture this interaction. the same box. This in essence helps toOverview of the performance prediction in the account for the interference effects.presence of virtualization overheads and theinterference effects is shown in Figure 3. The proposed approach to SLA awareon-boarding of application onto cloud platforms Requestshas the following main steps: Computational Requirements Analysis Virtualization 1. Identifying different user and request Overhead Effects categories of an application. It is possible Performance Modeling to use white-box strategies where the Analysis Allocate source code is available. Black-box additional resources strategies can be employed for situations to co-hosted applications where no source code is available. Yes Is SLA Interference Effect Affected ? 2. Subjecting the application to synthetic workloads of different categories and Allocate measuring the resource utilization of resources identified to different components of the application. the application In essence, we build component profiles Figure 4: Interaction between the SLA Decomposition at different workload for each request Approach and the Performance Engineering Models category. Source: Infosys Research 31
    • 7. Using the results of the performance elimination of the manual work further reduces testing in step 5 to revise the resource the cost of operation for the service providers. requirements of the application in step 3. REFERENCES The overall interaction between the SLA 1. Gartner Data Center Summit 2009, 5 – 6decomposition technique and the performance October 2009, Royal Lancaster Hotel,models for identifying and quantifying the London, UK, europe.gartner.com/interference effect is shown in Figure 4. The datacenterapproach presented helps in accounting for the 2. S Balasamo et al., Model-based Performanceinterference effects while deciding the resource Prediction in Software Development: Arequirements of the applications. Survey, IEEE, Transactions on Software Engineering, 2004CONCLUSION 3. P Barham et al., Xen and the Art ofSLA aware on-boarding of application is very Virtualization, ACM SIGOPS Operationcritical for the successful adoption of cloud Systems Review, 2003platforms. The need for new performance 4. Y Koh et al., An Analysis of Performancemodeling techniques in this context has been Interference Effects in Virtualexplained in detail. A broad approach based Environments, IEEE Internationalon component profiling has been proposed Symposium on Performance Analysis,to address the challenges associated with 2007satisfactory performance of application on 5. Y Chen et al., SLA Decompositioncloud platforms. The proposed approach can Translating Service Level Objectivessignificantly improve the understanding of to System Level Thresholds, 4ththe application characteristics once deployed International Conference on Automaticon cloud platforms. Additionally, it helps the Computing, 2007service providers to provide more aggressive 6. G Jungy et al., Generating Adaptationand practical deadlines for migrating the Policies for Multi-tier Applications inapplications from the enterprise owned data Consolidated Server Environments, 5thcenters to managed service provider’s (MSP) International Conference on Autonomicdata centers. The shorter schedules and Computing, 2008. 32
    • SETLabs Briefings VOL 7 NO 7 2009 Can We Plug Wireless Sensor Network to Cloud? By Adi Mallikarjuna Reddy V, Siva Prasad Katru and Kumar Padmanabh PhD Cloud promises a remarkable transformation in the way people share and analyze real-time sensor dataC loud computing is a holistic approach towards providing applications, platformsand infrastructure as an on-demand service over collection of sensor-derived data to various web-based virtual communities, we can have a remarkable transformation in thethe internet through Web 2.0 technologies [1, 2, way we see ourselves and our planet. Some3]. On the other hand, a wireless sensor network of the examples are — a virtual community(WSN) consists of a number of tiny wireless of doctors monitoring patient healthcare forsensor devices that have communication, virus infection, portal for sharing real-timecomputation, sensing and storage capabilities. traffic information, real-time environmentalThese sensor nodes communicate with each data monitoring and analyzing, etc. To enableother in an ad hoc fashion forming a WSN. this exploration, sensor data of all types willThey have been evolved in the past few years to drive a need for an increasing capability toenable solutions in the areas such as industrial do analysis and mining on-the-fly. However,automation, asset management, environmental the computational tools needed to launchmonitoring, transportation business, healthcare, this exploration can be more appropriatelyetc. [4]. built from the cloud computing model Bringing various WSNs deployed for rather than traditional distributed or griddifferent applications under one roof and approaches. Cloud computing models arelooking it as a single virtual WSN entity through designed to provide on-demand capacity forcloud computing infrastructure is novel. the application providers that involves three Data generated from a vast sea of parties — the data center, the applicationsensor applications such as environmental provider and the application user vis-à-vismonitoring, transportation business, traditional approaches that operate on twohealthcare, etc., is enormous. If we add this party contracts. 33
    • Sometimes sensor data might not be of Weather Monitoring and Forecasting Systeminterest or sufficient to the consumers. The Weather monitoring and forecasting systemevent of interests can be more important than typically includes the following steps –raw sensor data. An event can be a simple or acomposite event. Events such as temperature 1. Data collection> 50 or humidity < 80 come under simple 2. Data assimilationevents. Events like fire or explosion detection 3. Numerical weather predictionwhich is a combination of two or more simple 4. Forecast presentation [5].events come under composite event. Theseevents are detected by considering readings Typically each weather station isfrom multiple sensors. equipped with sensors to sense the following To summarize, integrating WSNs with parameters — wind speed/direction, relativecloud makes it easy to share and analyze real humidity, temperature (air, water and soil),time sensor data on-the-fly. It also gives an barometric pressure, precipitation, soiladded advantage of providing sensor data moisture, ambient light (visibility), sky coveror sensor event as a service over the internet. and solar radiation.The terms Sensing as a Service (SaaS) and The data collected from these sensors isSensor Event as a Service (SEaaS) are coined huge in size and is difficult to maintain usingto describe the process of making the sensor the traditional database approaches. Afterdata and event of interests available to collecting the data, assimilation process is done.the consumers respectively over the cloud The complicated equations that govern howinfrastructure. the state of the atmosphere changes (weather We propose, a content-based publish/ forecast) with time require supercomputers tosubscribe platform to utilize the ever expanding solve them.sensor data for various next generationcommunity-centric sensing applications. Intelligent Transport Monitoring SystemThis platform masks and virtualizes different Traffic congestion has been increasing as aWSNs and allows seamless integration of result of increased automobiles, urbanization,WSNs with the conventional cloud. This will population growth and density. Congestionshift the paradigm from the conventional reduces efficiency of transport infrastructure,sensor networks model to SEaaS sensor and increases travel time, air pollution and fuelnetworks model. In this architecture - sensor, consumption. Intelligent transport monitoringpeople and software are treated as individual system provides basic management systemsobjects that can be used to build community- like navigation systems, traffic signal controlcentric sensing applications where people systems, automatic number plate recognitioncan share and analyze real time sensor data and complex management systems likeon-the-fly. surveillance systems, systems that integrate data from other sources such as parking lot,APPLICATION SCENARIOS weather, etc. [6].We consider WSNs deployed for two different Different sensors involved in thisapplications. system are — inductive loops, Magneto meters, 34
    • CCTV, GPS, etc. These sensors are mounted on Client 1 Client 2 Client mvehicles, roads and buildings. Data available ...from sensors is acquired and transmittedfor central fusion and processing. Predictivetechniques can be developed in order to allowadvanced modeling and comparison with WSN – Cloud Computinghistorical baseline data. This data can be used Platformin a wide variety of applications. Some ofthe applications are — vehicle classification,parking guidance and information system, WSN 1 WSN 2 ... WSN Ncollision avoidance systems, electronic tollgates and automatic road enforcement. Figure 1: System Model In the above scenarios, both the Source: Infosys Researchapplications require storage of data andhuge computational cycles. They also requireanalysis and mining of data to generate events. Cloud provides on-demandAccess to this data is limited in both the cases. computational and storage resources to theIntegrating these WSN applications with the consumers. It provides access to these resourcescloud computing infrastructure will ease the through internet and comes in handy whenmanagement of storage and computational there is a sudden requirement of resources orresources required. It will also provide an situations where it is not easy to assess the needadded advantage of providing access to the in advance.application data over the internet through web. A WSN CLOUD COMPUTING PLATFORMSYSTEM MODEL We propose content-based publish/subscribeThe system model depicted in Figure 1 consists platform, where the publishers are differentof WSNs deployed for different applications, WSNs deployed across geographical locationscloud infrastructure and the consumers. and subscribers are those who consume theConsumers are those who seek services from information published. Publish/subscribethe system. WSN consists of physical wireless model gives an added advantage of publisherssensor nodes to sense different modalities. being loosely-coupled with subscribers andEach sensor node is programmed with the is scalable. The proposed platform consistsrequired application. Apart from the application of WSN virtualization manager (WSNVM),program, sensor node also consists of operating computation and storage manager (CSM),system components and network management subscription registry manager (SRM), servicecomponents. On each sensor node, application provider (SP), metering and accountingprogram senses the modalities and sends back to manager (MAM) and SaaS/SEaaS applicationgateway (in the cloud) directly or in multi-hop interfaces.through other nodes. Routing protocol plays a WSNVM masks the lower level details ofvital role in managing the network topology and each WSN cloud in terms of different platforms,to accommodate the network dynamics. sensors being used, data being generated, etc. 35
    • It also provides a unified view of different SaaS / SEaaS Application InterfaceWSNs. CSM provides required computational Subscription Registry Managercycles internally to process the data emanated Computation Metering andfrom the sensors. It also maintains the historical and Storage Service Accounting Manager Provider Managersensor data of different WSNs. SRM managesthe users’ subscriptions and credentials. SP Command Interpreter Data Processormatches consumer interests with the sensor data Adaptor Abstractionand offers different disseminating mechanisms. WSN Virtualization ManagerPricing for the offered services is calculatedthrough MAM. SaaS/SEaS application interfaces Figure 2: WSN Cloud Computing Platform Source: Infosys Researchare built using Web 2.0 technologies to accessthe WSN cloud platform services by clients.Figure 2 gives an overview of the componentsthat constitute the WSN cloud platform. Command Interpretation and Processing: This provides reverse communication channel fromWSN Virtualization Manager the gateway to the WSN. This component isThis component is divided into three sub- responsible for processing and interpretingcomponents. They are — adapter abstraction, various commands issued from differentdata processing and interpretation, and applications and generates the code that iscommand interpretation and processing. understood by the sensor nodes. Reprogramming a node is also done through this component.Adapter Abstraction: This provides an abstractionto connect WSN with the gateway (gateway acts Computation and Storage Manageras a bridge between WSN and the server) in This is same as general cloud computingdifferent ways (serial, USB and Ethernet). This infrastructure. This may not be directly relatedabstraction is used for both communications i.e., to the consumer, since he does not directly usefrom sensor network to gateway and vice versa. the computation cycles or storage capacity.Gateway receives the raw byte stream from the But, internally this module is responsible forcommunication ports and forms a raw packet processing and archiving the sensor data.out of it. This packet is queued up in a buffer Computation cycles are utilized internally tofor further processing. process the data that emanates from the sensors. Storing the sensor data will help to analyzeData Processing and Interpretation: When there is the patterns in the data collected over a perioda packet available in the buffer, this component of time. For example, weather forecastingprocesses the packet according to the type requires solving enormous number of numericalof the packet. The packet type depends on equations over the historic data stored. Processedthe application being run on the platform. data records are stored in XML format.Processing of the packet involves extractingeach field from the packet, interpreting, Subscription Registry Managercalibrating and applying engineering It maintains the credentials of different consumers’conversion formulas. applications register to publisher/subscriber 36
    • system for various sensor data required. For Metering and Accounting Managereach application, registry component stores user This module operates on a base assumption thatsubscriptions, sensor data and sensor event types all the services of the WSN cloud are contractedthe application is interested in. Each application to the consumer via SLA mentioned above.is associated with a unique application ID along Consumer uses signed web service requests towith the service level agreement (SLA). SLA access the data.provides basis for metering and accounting of Figure 3 depicts the UML sequenceservices to be used, by covering all the attributes diagram that describes the role of MAM moduleof the service customs. This agreement provides in the WSN cloud platform.details concerning: ■ Request from the consumer to consumer ■ The type of contract — limited time, long web service term, unlimited time, ad hoc, etc. ■ Subscription registry manager checks the ■ The time model to be used — everyday, credentials of the service request using monday to friday, etc. the supplied signature and gives a fault ■ The amount model that defines limits to response (2.1) in case of unauthorized the amounts of service to be provided request ■ Security — signatures and certificates for ■ Service request is sent to the MAM encryption and authentication module, requesting it to start counting ■ Start dates and expiration dates of the (3.1) the web service access contract. ■ The requested service is executed on the WSN cloudService Provider ■ Service execution is completedThe service provider module is divided into ■ Request message is sent to the MAMtwo sub components — analyzer component module, requesting it to stop countingand disseminator component. the web service accessAnalyzer Component: This component analyzesthe incoming sensor data or event to match Registry Service Metering Consumerwith user subscriptions in the SRM. If the Manager Provider Accountingsensor data or event matches with the interest 1of the subscriber, the same is handed over to 2the disseminator component to deliver to the 2.1appropriate users. Since the data and queries are 3 3.1in XML format, we use an algorithm similar tomatch the subscriptions of the users [7]. 4 5Disseminator Component: It receives the data or 6event of interest from the analyzer componentand delivers the data through SaaS/SEaaS Figure 3: Sequence Diagraminterface to the subscribed applications. Source: Infosys Research 37
    • ■ Message sent to the consumer indicating relay the data to the gateway to which they that the service is completed, returns are connected. Once the data is available to the the result. WSN cloud platform, it takes care of the rest, right from processing to dissemination of theSaaS/SEaaS Application Interface data (or event).The interfaces built with Web 2.0 technologies Once this system is in place, the consumersgives access to the WSN cloud platform web might be interested in the following services —services. Consumers can consume the servicesthrough web services that are often referred to ■ Temperature of particular location/cityas internet application programming interface periodically (e.g., one hour or one day)(IAPI). This allows the users to access the ■ Weather forecast of particular location/remotely hosted services over network, such city periodically (e.g., one hour or oneas internet. Consumers can build their custom day)applications by weaving the required services ■ Notify me when the rainfall in a particularfrom the WSN cloud platform. location is above some threshold (e.g., The services are delivered to the >2cm)consumers in the following ways. They are: ■ Notify me if some vehicle jumps over traffic signalContinuous: As and when the requested data ■ Notify me if there is any fire event inis available, it is sent to the consumers. The the forestbest example for this is fleet tracking with GPS ■ Notify me when particular bus reachessensor system. The vehicle position information particular bus stop.is sent to the consumers continuously. PLUGGING WSN INTO LEGACY CLOUDPeriodic: The data is delivered to consumers at COMPUTING PLATFORMSregular periodic intervals. A good example is The proposed WSN cloud computing platformto send across the temperature in the city at is a software platform that can be used on anyregular intervals of time to news agencies. of the legacy cloud computing infrastructure. Two cases in this scenario are depictedEvent-based: The data is delivered when in Figure 4. In case 1, WSN can be integratedsome event of interest occurs. This is often with the legacy cloud infrastructure and theinformation deduced from the raw data such proposed software platform co-exists with theas detecting fire from temperature, humidity cloud management software platform such asand light in the forest. load balancing algorithm, metering algorithms, etc. In the second case, proposed softwareQuery-based: Consumers can query for a specific platform co-exists with any other applicationsdata from the WSN cloud platform. running on the cloud infrastructure as well as with the cloud management software.The two application scenarios described earlier Since most of the existing cloudin the paper are evaluated with the proposed computing platforms (hardware and software)WSN cloud platform. Deployed WSNs will in the market provide web services to access 38
    • Journal, January 2008. Available at WSN Cloud Software http://cloudcomputing.sys-con.com/ Platform node/612375 Cloud WSN 2. L M Vaquero, L Rodero-Merino, J Case 1 Caceres and M Lindner, A Break in the Clouds: Towards a Cloud Definition, ACM SIGCOMM Computer Cloud WSN Communication Review, Vol 39 No 1, 2009. Available at http://delivery. WSN Cloud Software Other acm.org/10.1145/1500000/1496100/ Platform Software Platform p50-vaquero.pdf?key1=1496100&k Case 2 ey2=5282660521&coll=GUIDE&dl=Figure 4: WSN and Cloud Platform GUIDE&CFID=47965963&CFTOKSource: Infosys Research EN=10653164 3. Weiss, Computing in the Clouds. netWorker, Vol 11 No 4, 2007 4. F Akyildiz, W Su, Y Sankarasubramaniamdata and computing infrastructure, WSN and E Cayirci, Wireless Sensor Networks:virtualization manager uses them to store and A Survey. Computer Networks, Vol 38retrieve the data from the cloud. Other services No 4, 2002like registry, metering, service provider of the 5. Weather Forecasting, Wikipediaproposed platform together will run as an 6. Intelligent Transportation System,application instance over the existing cloud Wikipediacomputing platform. 7. G Xu, J Ma and T Huang, A XML- based Composite Event Approach. InCONCLUSION Proceedings of the First internationalCloud computing has been used as an extension Workshop on interoperability ofof parallel processing. Coordinating various Heterogeneous information Systems,computing resources to achieve bigger task Bremen, Germany, November 04 - 04,is the key of cloud computing. In wireless 2005sensor network computing facility is available 8. Harvard Sensor Network Testbed,with each sensor node. Using the processed MoteLab. Available at http://motelab.data from this intelligent sensor and using eecs.harvard.edu/computing facility of the cloud will add another 9. www.citysense.netvalue to this domain. We believe it will shift 10. M M Hassan, B Song and Eui-Namthe operational paradigm of the collaborative Huh, A Framework of Sensor-business process. Cloud Integration Opportunities and Challenges. In ICUIMC ’09:REFERENCES Proceedings of the 3rd International 1. J Geelan, Twenty-one Experts Define Conference on Ubiquitous Information Cloud Computing, Cloud Computing Management and Communication, 39
    • New York, USA, January 2009, ACM. hassan.pdf?key1=1516350&key2=23126Available at http://delivery.acm. 60521&coll=GUIDE&dl=GUIDE&CFIDorg/10.1145/1520000/1516350/p618- =49153557&CFTOKEN=72600633. 40
    • SETLabs Briefings VOL 7 NO 7 2009 Cloud – Five Minutes into the First Quarter In a discussion with Jitendra Thethi, Principal Architect, Infosys Technologies, Amitabh Srivastava, Senior Vice President, Microsoft Technologies throws light on the promise that Cloud holds for the computing industry but cautions against naïve temptations to migrate to Cloud in one goJitendra: Cloud computing is all new and operating system based platformorganizations do not see a value yet in terms of approach provides two benefits:leveraging the platform. Do you see a completechange in perspective and attitude from the ο First is cost. The OS efficiently ownsstandpoint of an IT organization? How do and manages all the computingbusinesses look at the concept of considering resources and also automates alltwo worlds now? How do you visualize the management functions. This helpsshift in perception, as one has to look at data us drive the costs in the data centerin datacenters as well as data in cloud? down, both capex and opex.Amitabh: Cloud holds a lot of promise forthe computing industry but the word ‘cloud’ ο Second is agility. Cloud is a complexis not well defined or even agreed upon. environment with tens of thousandsEveryone has their own definition of the of computers operating in data centersword ‘cloud’ and sometimes hype takes over across the globe. The OS masks thereality. So let me start with our definition complexities by providing a rich setof cloud and then describe our approach to of abstractions that developers canprovide the best value to our customers. We use to write their cloud applications.define cloud as a massive geo-distributed This allows developers to focus onlycomputer consisting of commodity machines, on their business logic and quicklyload balancers and switches that are spread take their application to market.across the globe. Cloud computing presentsthis massive geo-distributed computer as a ■ Cloud is an extension of the on-premisesutility service. IT. Cloud and IT are not an either-or So, our approach to cloud computing has option. Unlike some who believe thatthe following key facets: everything will move to the cloud, we ■ An operating system (OS), Windows believe customers should have the choice Azure, manages this massive geo- to decide what runs in their IT and what distributed cloud computer. Our runs on the cloud. Many customers will 41
    • continue to rely on their on-premises experience. This will enable developers IT for some class of applications. For to innovate and bring new generation of example, some data has to be kept on- applications quickly to market. premises due to issues like compliance, security and privacy. Applications Jitendra: I do agree that the newer applications that require special hardware or have exploiting convergence, bringing different special connectivity and bandwidth channels and serviced by a common platform requirements for performance reasons is definitely one workload that can exploit will continue to be on-premises. At the cloud well. But would you tell us, what are same time there are many workloads the existing workloads in an enterprise setup that will benefit from cloud. So, rather that can be moved to cloud and be leveraged than forcing customers to pick cloud for cost optimization? Also, what are the or IT, our approach is to make cloud additional business advantages of moving to a seamless extension of IT and let the the cloud? customers decide what to run where. Amitabh: Let us look at the characteristics of We will make it simpler by providing cloud. value services that allow applications to One of the key features is elasticity. communicate securely between the cloud Hardware for applications are generally set up and on-premise IT and make it easier for to handle peak load. For example, a service may services to federate ID. require 1000 machines to handle peak load but on an average it only needs 30 machines. So in ■ Developer’s existing skills transfer to a traditional environment we have to provision cloud. On Windows Azure, we use the for 1000 machines. Such applications that are same Windows programming model, elastic in nature are suitable for the cloud so the APIs are still Win32 and the where one can easily add capacity on demand, same development tools still work on only pay for what is used. So, on the cloud you cloud. Windows Azure supports all will only provision the 30 machines and then languages, and by providing command- provision more machines as the load increases. line interfaces and REST protocols it can In addition, the machines can be returned when interface with all tools and interoperate peak load subsides. with other platforms. Of course, there Another aspect is the globally distributed are certain aspects one needs to learn facet of business, where cloud is designed to be about cloud, but majority of skills simply geographically distributed across continents. transfer. Cloud provides a convenient way of migrating data seamlessly across geographically Easy development of new generation distributed centers. Cloud benefits applicationsof applications that will span across three that are global in nature.screens (PC, phone and TV) supported by IT Enormity of scale is one of the keyand cloud. With the same Windows platform characteristics of cloud. Cloud is designedon the three screens, IT and cloud we are by using commodity machines in a highlystriving to provide a uniform and integrated distributed environment. If there is any 42
    • application that requires massive scale, cloud Jitendra: Amitabh, as you said you areis designed to handle it. building a platform that is horizontal. What in Availability is another important feature your terms defines building vertical solutionsof cloud. Cloud is designed to be available to our customers?everywhere, all the time. By using redundancy Amitabh: Windows Azure is a general platformand geo-replication, cloud is so designed that that is designed to enable easy development of aservices be available even during hardware wide range of applications. Our partners, ISVs,failures including full data center failures. Our system integrated, etc., will build the variousplatform goes further to make services available solutions. Partners, ISVs, etc., with domaineven during updates OS and the application knowledge in specific areas will build theitself. verticals on our platform. We will help lower Many of this ultimately translates into their costs and help and provide them with asavings in cost. For this, it is important to rich platform that lets get to the market quickly.measure the total cost of ownership. This shouldinclude not only the hardware costs but also Jitendra: Thanks Amitabh for your time.management and operations cost. It has been truly wonderful talking to you and knowing your thoughts about how ourJitendra: What will be the guidance to the customers can benefit from the Azure platform.customers who are looking at moving to thecloud? What do they need to do to be prepared About the Interviewerto move to cloud? Jitendra Pal Thethi is a Principal Architect withAmitabh: Take a thoughtful approach. The Infosys and anchors presales activities for Infosysfirst is to not panic and just rush into the solutions and IP built on disruptive technologiescloud. Using my favorite American football in the areas of Cloud Computing, Collaboration,analogy, I’d say that cloud is only 5 minutes Data Virtualization, Call Center Optimization andinto the first quarter. You should first try Mobility. Jitendra has more than 14 years of experiencethe cloud. It is important to understand the in IT Industry as a Solution Architect and Technologydifferent features the cloud offers, see how you consultant.will integrate it into your environment. Thenreview the architecture of your application to About the Intervieweesee if your application is taking full advantage Amitabh holds 14 patents and has published aof the cloud. There is temptation to quickly variety of papers. His paper on ATOM with Alantake the application ‘as is’ to the cloud. It Eustace in PLDI 1994 received the Most Influentialis like ‘outsourcing you hardware’ but you PLDI Paper Award in June 2005. He is the author ofwill not enjoy the full benefits of the cloud. OM, ATOM and SCOOPS software systems, whichCloud provides many benefits that will lead have resulted in products for Digital Equipment andto very substantial cost saving and give you Texas Instruments on the Alpha and PC platforms.agility in your application development, and He led the design and development of Vulcan, athese gains will easily make up for any initial second-generation binary transformation system, atinvestment you make in taking a thoughtful Microsoft. Vulcan is the foundation of a wide varietyapproach. of tools developed at PPRC. 43
    • Amitabh earned a Bachelor’s degree in Electrical received the 2003-2004Distinguished Alumnus AwardEngineering from the Indian Institute of Technology, from the Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, andKanpur, India and a Master’s degree in Computer was selected as the 2004 Outstanding EngineeringScience from Pennsylvania State University. He Alumnus at Pennsylvania State University. 44
    • SETLabs Briefings VOL 7 NO 7 2009 Cloud Computing Identity Management By Anu Gopalakrishnan Online security concerns are on the rise and a robust identity management is what cloud needs nowL atest technology facilitates different service providers to unite their efforts to addressa broader business space. It is possible that Most cloud vendors have a simplified proprietary IDM solution with shortcomings that have to be understood. The challenge inconsumers hold multiple accounts with the this area is that there are considerable effortsservice providers like e-bay, Gmail, etc. The towards outsourcing the IDM that gave birthvisibility and scope of attributes for every to the concept of identity-as-a-service (IaaS)identity has to be verified against a central [1]. IaaS vendors focus on comprehensive,trusted policy framing authority, assumed interoperable and quick-to-deploy solutions.by the systems. In such a system, much is atstake if identities are not handled with extreme UNDERSTANDING THE NEWprecaution. Such scenarios are common to high- DIMENSIONS OF IDM IN CLOUDSend applications hosted on cloud computing The evolution of cloud computing fromenvironment. Identity management (IDM) numerous technological approaches andassumes an upper hand in the whole area business models such as SaaS, clusterof cloud security. Cloud computing is an computing, high performance computing, etc.,amalgamation of various technologies to meet signifies that the cloud IDM can be consideredthe demands of an interdependent maze of as a superset of all the corresponding issuessoftware and services. This necessitates several from these paradigms and many more. AnIDMs, based on various technologies to inter- IDM in cloud has to manage — controloperate and function as one consolidated body points, dynamic composite/decommissionedover a cautiously shared user space. Hence IDM machines, virtual device or service identities,in clouds projects a number of new dimensions etc. Cloud deployments are dynamic withthat traditional IDMs cannot meet. servers launched or terminated; IP addresses 45
    • dynamically reassigned; and services started or Provisioningdecommissioned or re-started. So, as traditional Password ProliferationIDM, merely managing users and services is Maintenance of On-demand Task User Idsnot sufficient. When a deployment or serviceor machine is decommissioned, the IDM has Policies Entitlementsto be informed so that future access to it isrevoked. IDM should ideally store its details Provisioning/ Life Cycle Management De-provisioning Deactivationtill it becomes active. Meanwhile access to itsrelevant stored data has to be monitored andgranted by the defined access level for that Customer Delegation Service Centers/mode as mentioned in SLA. Traditional IDM is Self Help Linknot directly amenable for cloud computing due Administrativeto these peculiarities of cloud. Figure 1: The Identity Life cycle Management Today’s cloud requires dynamic Source: Infosys Researchg o v e r n a n c e o f t y p i c a l I D M i s s u e s l i k e,provisioning/de-provisioning, synchronization,entitlement, lifecycle management, etc. stands for real time de-provisioning. Just-in- time provisioning indicates the federation ofIDENTITY LIFECYCLE MANAGNEMENT user accounts without sharing prior data, basedLifecycle management incorporates an on some trust model. Service Provisioningintegrated and comprehensive solution Markup Language (SPML) provides XML basedfor managing the entire lifecycle of user structures for representing provisioning oridentities and their associated credentials de-provisioning requests intended for identityand entitlements. Functionally, it is divided lifecycle management [2]. SPML can make useinto two components — the provisioning of Service Administered Markup Languagecomponent and the administrative component. (SAML) assertions and facilitate a completeAdministrative component defines delegations trust model between senders and receivers.rules, providing self-service components to SAML defines an XML based framework forchange personal details or make requests to exchanging security information for enablingthe users. Delegation of administrative rights SSO or identity federation regardless of theto local group or process-in-charge is crucial for underlying architecture. OASIS Securitya volatile and dynamic cloud based scenarios. Services is currently working on developingDecentralizing the tasks will reduce the load a SAML 2.0 profile for SPML. SAML can helpon the authenticator component and also save SPML to establish trust and quantity, a subjecttime in making access control decisions. Figure against which the SPML provisioning request is1 illustrates the various components of lifecycle targeted. This makes just-in-time provisioningmanagement. and real time de-provisioning possible. Real time de-provisioning of a userProvision and De-provisioning account has to synchronize instantaneouslyIn cloud, provisioning means just-in-time or with all participating service providers. Anyon-demand provisioning and de-provisioning delay in de-provisioning could lead to security 46
    • vulnerability. Some of the issues like — ways in CLOUD ARCHITECTUREwhich de-provisioning of one user affects the Cloud architecture plays an important roleother federated identities in cloud are matters of in choosing your IDM, SaaS or the all-in-judgment on the functionality of the application one Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) [6]. SaaSdeployed on the cloud. requires only application access, whereas PaaS will require system access (for accessing theEntitlement underlying platform) as well as applicationEntitlement refers to the set of attributes that access (for accessing the hosted applicationspecify the access rights and privileges of on the underlying platform). Both require aan authenticated security principal. Lack of common IDM that can integrate well into theinteroperable representation of this information existing authentication mechanism. The thirdposes a challenge as the information needs to be type of cloud architecture is Infrastructure-exchanged among different cloud based service as-a-Service (IaaS), which is not mentionedproviders. In the absence of interoperable explicitly, since the IDM requirement of PaaSformat, expensive and customized syntactic and IaaS are comparable. Consider one oftranslation components are needed. The the most common SaaS IDM implementationsemantic aspect still remains to be tackled. using ping identity. Ping identity works by While some applications like SalesForce deploying the technology behind the firewallhave built-in control for entitlement and and making the identities exportable [7].authorization control for multiple attributes, This IDM mechanism allows integration of aothers require the help of OAuth or similar such number of authentication mechanisms suchtechnologies [3]. as Microsoft Windows based authentication, LDAP authentication, CA site minder, etc. It isProliferation of On-demand User ID deployed on top of the existing authenticationProliferation of on-demand user ID is a big infrastructure and the deployment is quiteconcern in cloud computing IDM as the efficient and fast. It uses SAML to transferoccurrence of multiple identities for the same credentials. It can be perceived as a layeruser in multiple service providers’ security of abstraction over the traditional IDM thatrepositories cannot be ruled out. A simple way fights the challenges of IDM. This aspect of itto overcome this problem is by the adoption makes this IDM architecture easy to deployof OpenID mechanism [4]. OpenID works and dynamic.by making one primary user id as the key to PaaS is commonly defined as the deliveryauthenticate a single end user with multiple of a computing platform and solution stack asservice providers. However, the difficulty in a service. It includes workflow capabilities forthis approach lies in the trust propagation and application design, application development,development of trusted relationships [5]. as well as application services such as team Synchronization services help expedite collaboration, web service integration, etc. PaaSthe roll-out and expansion of federated identity IDM automatically scales up to include all thesemanagement capabilities by enabling services features. This is illustrated in Figure 2 overleaf.in cloud to federate accounts and other data PaaS IDM has to address variousnecessary to build up trust relations. functional modules like source control, test 47
    • premise segments. In addition to all these, IDM Federated Sample handles the SaaS based challenges of federated Space of End Users user space. Due to vender lock-ins, the primary PaaS Cloud limitation with PaaS happens to be a fact that APP1 APP2 APP3 the complex IDM solution designed for PaaS is rendered useless while migrating to another cloud. A simple slice of IDM requirements are Database Integration plotted here to illustrate the complexity of the and Backup PaaS IDM. Enterprise Firewall IDM Developer Collaboration, Communities, Bug Trackers. Synchronization of USER CENTRIC ACCESS CONTROL Maintenance Activities The traditional model of application-centric Tester Communities Testbeds, access control, where each application keeps Shared Testing Infrastructure track of its collection of users and manages Source Code Control Versioning Change Tracker them, is not feasible in cloud based architectures. Synchronization to Source This is more so, because the user space maybe Code Repository shared across applications that can lead to dataFigure 2: PaaS IDM replication, making mapping of users and theirSource: Infosys Research privileges a herculean task. Also, it requires the user to remember multiple accounts/passwords and maintain them. Cloud requires a user centricmodules, development communities, etc. For access control where every user request to anythe sake of simplicity, the PaaS IDM could service provider is bundled with the user identityadopt a Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) and entitlement information [8]. User identitysystem to handle each of this and its user space. will have identifiers or attributes that identityAn RBAC system for source control will allot and define the user. The identity is tied to aminimum set of privileges to the developer domain, but is portable. User centric approachaccounts and essential services, depending leaves the user with the ultimate control of theiron the interdependency of the applications digital identities. User centric approach alsohosted on the platform. For test communities, implies that the system maintains a context ofIDM manages tester accounts, privileges, auto- information for every user, in order to find howrun test suites and knowledge collaboration best to react to in a given situation to a givenportals of the tester communities required user request. It should support pseudonyms andfor hosting a test bed. In case of development multiple and discrete identities to protect usercommunities, IDM manages the collaboration privacy. This can be achieved easily by usingof developer communities, access and privilege one of the open standards like OpenID or SAML.of each group of developer, the bug trackersystem, etc. The cloud could also expect IDM to FEDERATION OF IDENTITIEShandle the database challenges, by controlling On the internet, it is likely that each user endsthe access and synchronization with the in- up with multiple credentials and multiple 48
    • access permissions across different applications federated world. Currently it is based onprovided by different service providers. These policy files framed by the local authority,fragmented logins present a challenge to depending on various factors like the domainthe users and service providers, in forms of trust information automatically fed in bysynchronization of shared identities, security, the trust authorities. This is not a scalable oretc. There is a strong need for an intrinsic flexible model that can meet cloud computingidentity system that is trusted across the web demands. Cloud scenarios require dynamicand within enterprises and unambiguously trust propagation and dynamic authorization.identifying users. Federation of identities maintained VOLATILITY OF CLOUD RELATIONSby the multiple service providers on the In a traditional model, the IDM is based on thecloud is very critical to cloud based service long-term relation of a user to an organizationcomposition and application integration. An or trust domain. In cloud, which represents theexpected issue in this regard is the naming current e-commerce world, the relationshipsheterogeneity. Different SPs use different change dynamically and quickly, and the IDMfactors for authentication like account number, has to incorporate all that. Any retrieval or cacheemail ID, PayPal ID, etc. Also, when transactions of the volatile data has to be done cautiously.traverse multiple tiers of service hosted in The possible damage of using old data shouldclouds, the semantics of the context of identity be studied. Like, if the user has changed hisinformation has to be properly maintained, password login with old password, it shouldconstrained and relaxed as per specific needs. be restricted and locked in all the applicationsConsider a complete transaction cycle for an that are participating in the identity federation.e-bay purchase, based on PayPal account. Live data fetching, domain name resolution,It traverses from e-bay to supplier, through canonicalization of the data like URL, accountvarious tiers in supplier’s domain to get IDs, etc., are the challenges.approvals, release and shipping. Then it goesthrough PayPal to approve, validate, release the SCALABILITYpay, bill the amount to the customer, etc. For Cloud requires the ability to scale to hundredseach step, the federation authority decides the of millions of transactions for millions ofessential attribute of the customer to be shared identities and thousands of connections – withwith each department. short/rapid deployment cycles. Performance The user identity mapping in the has to be N+1 scalable across the globe andprevious environments have been one-to-one, deployments agile and quick (weeks notor in other words, user ID to single user profile. quarters/years). With the software today itIn cloud architectures the mapping challenge is takes ~6 months to make a single SAML/many-to-one, one-to-many and pseudonyms. SSO connection and it doesn’t address thePseudonyms are for privacy protection details, access control and compliance issues. Openwhen a user does not want his identity to be Cloud Manifesto states that clouds havetracked as he crusades various domains. to dynamically scale up and down, so that Another issue is the trust relation nobody needs to hoard resources to handlesetup between the service providers of the peak hours [9]. 49
    • INTEROPERABILITY infrastructure is secured with respect to someThe mass expects the cloud to provide a IDM requirements and the customers are lookingsolution that can interoperate with all existing for a different set of security. The importantIT systems and existing solutions as such or with aspect is to see that the cloud provider meetsminimum changes. Seamless interoperation with the security requirements of the applicationdifferent kinds of authentication mechanism and this can be achieved only through 100%such as the Microsoft Windows authentication, transparency. Open Cloud Manifesto exertsSSO, LDAP, SAML, OPENID and OAUTH, stress on transparency in clouds, due theOpenSocial, FaceBookConnect, etc., is what is consumer’s apprehensions to host theirexpected of cloud. The syntactical barriers have applications on a shared infrastructure,to be bridged. It requires an authentication on which they do not have any control [9].layer of abstraction to which any model of Transparency can be achieved by completeauthentication can be plugged in and off audit logging and control.dynamically. PATTERNS IN CLOUD IDMTRANSPARENCY Based on the insights gained so far threeSecurity measures assumed in the cloud must patterns in cloud IDM can be concluded.be made available to the customers to gain their The ideal scenarios for each pattern are alsotrust. There is always a possibility that the cloud mentioned. Authenticated User Enterprise on Security Domain A APP 2 Security APP 1 Domain B Authenticator IDP Decryption Firewall Cloud APP 3 Security Domain C LDAP Firewall Domain Name Resolver User trying to Encryption of authenticate by Credentials submitting credentials to system IDM Management User BrowserFigure 3: Trusted IDM Pattern Source: Infosys Research 50
    • Trusted IDM Pattern user can be shared using some mechanism likeThis pattern is intended for a smaller or even for SAML. Authorization can be effectively handleda private cloud that requires security. Scalability by XACML. A basic model of this pattern isis definitely not a feature of this cloud. But illustrated in Figure 3 on page 50.Google App Engine (appengine.google.com)that follows this pattern assures that the External IDMscalability is not a major concern at the moment This pattern is very similar to the initialas the number of requests that could be tunneled pattern but for the fact that the credentialsthrough simultaneously is quite large. The main are submitted directly to the authenticatorfeature of the pattern is that the authentication [Fig. 4]. The credentials can be collected by ais always performed within the firewall. The different browser window, channeled by SSL.credentials are submitted to the IDM component The pattern is intended for a public cloud. Theand it takes care of encrypting and tunneling IDM concentrates only on domain resolutionthe credentials through a secure channel to and triggering of the authenticator to resolvethe authenticator. IDM is independent of the the authentication. This is the architecturalauthentication mechanism. Hence deployment pattern adopted by ping identity. In pingand integration is fast and efficient. Once the identity, domain resolution is done by referringuser is authenticated in by any authentication to a spreadsheet of valid users that is alwaysmechanism, then rest of the participating kept updated. It can also be achieved throughservers trust the user. The attributes of the other mechanisms like standard domains name Enterprise with Security Domain A Authenticated User Attributes exported by SAML APP 2 Security APP 1 Domain B Authenticator IDP Firewall Cloud APP 3 Security LDAP Domain C Firewall Domain resolver and identifying if the user is valid in the system Credential exchange and User trying to authentication authenticate by over secure submitting credentials channel IDM Management to system User trying to connect to system User BrowserFigure 4: External IDM Source: Infosys Research 51
    • Open ID Request to Authenticate Request to Access Service B User APP 1 Security APP 2 Security Domain A Domain B Open ID O Auth Provider IDP Lookup Provider Details REST IDP SOAP SOAP IDM SPML/ Component Administration SAML Translator APP 2 Security Provisioning/ Domain C de-provisioning delegation synchronization, etc.Figure 5: Interoperable IDM Source: Infosys Researchresolution, discovery or YADIS protocol, or web world where there are multiple serviceXRDS query, etc., depending on the underlying providers based on a common user space.technology used. The same drawback of The central identity system, understandspattern 1 exists in pattern 2 also. Scalability is all technologies used for authentication likean issue. Symplified (www.symplified.com) is SAML, OpenID, OAuth, etc. Let us assume thatvendor on cloud IDM, whose solution has close the central identity system to be collection ofresemblance to this pattern. modules, each handling a technology, taking to a common user space and a policy database. TheInteroperable IDM Pattern information is converted to different formats,This pattern illustrates a cloud to cloud depending on the technology used like OpenID,scenario, using OpenID and OAuth. The or SAML, or WS-Security and conveyed to theidentity mechanism used, will understand and participating service providers [Fig. 5].interoperate multiple identity schemes. OpenID A brief comparison of the three patternsis an open and decentralized standard for user is shown in Table 1.authentication and access control, by allowingusers to logon to multiple services with the CONCLUSIONsame digital ID. Any service provider can Of the emerging technologies cloud computingauthenticate the user in to the system. OAuth has a lot of substance. The huge set of challengesis again an open protocol that enables a user to it has brought with it has to be captured andgrant permission to a consumer site to access a tamed to produce more benefits. Choice of IDMprovider site without any sharing of credentials design for any cloud should be tailored to suit[10]. SPML is used for XML based IDM LC. the definition of that particular cloud and openThis is extremely useful for an e-commerce to any kind of enhancements the cloud is bound 52
    • Features Trusted IDM Pattern External IDM Interoperable IDM Security of Very Secure Submitted to IDP Network Depends on Authentication Credentials Mechanism Interoperability Interoperable, since it is Interoperable Interoperable to any oblivious of the underlying Authentication Mechanism and authentication mechanism Technology Type of cloud the Private Cloud Can be used in public clouds since pattern is best the credentials are always Huge Public Clouds over suited for submitted directly to the Multiple Technologies authenticator module and secrecy is maintained Scalability Not Scalable Easily Not Scalable Easily Scalable Speed of Very Fast Fast Speed depends on the number Deployment and of technologies required Implementation Examples of this Google App Engines SDC Ping Identity Proposed Design PatternTable 1: Summary of the Patterns Source: Infosys Researchto have in future. Essentially the design should 3. OAuth. Available at http://oauth.net/be capable of incorporating any number of trust OpenID Authentication 2.0 Final, 2007.domains and of maintaining an effective shared Available http://openid.net/specs/user pool. As the next generation IDM IaaS, a openid-authentication-2_0.htmluser centric identity management is intended 4. Illustration of OpenID based on Plaxo’sto be a complete all-round solution addressing use of Yahoo OpenID. Available atall possible issues of cloud IDMs [11]. It may be http://www.plaxo.com/api/openid_the answer to the growing complexity of IDMs. recipeThe intent is to take away the complexity of IDM 5. Luis M Vaquero, Luis Rodero-Merino,away from the enterprises, thereby allowing Juan Caceres and Maik Lindner, A Break inthem to direct their energy and resources on the Clouds: Towards a Cloud Definition,their own functions, while the IaaS vendors Cloud Architectures, Vol 39 No 1, Janprovide the best solution or IDM based on their 2009. Available at http://delivery.acm.expertise. org/10.1145/1500000/1496100/p50- vaquero.pdf?key1=1496100&key2=0736REFERENCES 171521&coll=GUIDE&dl=GUIDE&CFID 1. O p e n C l o u d M a n i f e s t o , S p r i n g =50720541&CFTOKEN=61415293 2009. Available at http:// 6. Ashish Jain, A blog on Ping Identity, www.opencloudmanifesto.org/ Jan 12, 2009. Available on http:// itickr. opencloudmanifesto1.htm com/?cat=29 2. RSA’s contribution to Cloud security 7. Service Provisioning Markup Language guidelines. 2009. Available at http:// Specification, version-1, June 2003. www.cloudsecurityalliance.org/ Available atxml.coverpages.org/PSTC- guidance CS-SPMLCORE10.pdf 53
    • 8. C h r i s t i a n E m i g , F r a n k B r a n d t , Architecture, Lecture Notes in Sebastian Kreuzer and Sebastian Abeck, Computer Science, 2007. Available Identity as a Service – Towards a on http://www.springerlink.com/ Service-Oriented Identity Management content/5865u474424qw751/. 54
    • SETLabs Briefings VOL 7 NO 7 2009 Service Exchange @ Cloud By Bhavin Raichura and Ashutosh Agarwal Every stakeholder can maximize her benefits in the service exchange scenario that is powered by cloud computingS ervice exchange @ cloud is a platform, where the service publishers and service subscriberscan do business online for mutual benefits. It integrator. Similarly, the service subscriber can be an individual, a corporate or an enterprise consuming these services over internet oris not a new idea from business perspective. through mobile devices.Currently, there are several players in this space The traditional web service exchangeslike Ariba, Seekda!, webservicesX, Zuora, etc. The such as Seekda! and webservicesX, providecurrent trends around cloud computing and SaaS a similar transactional platform for servicehas significant impact on the traditional offerings publishers and service subscribers. Zuorain this area. The concept of service exchange @ provides value-added billing, payment andcloud can be extended as an enabler of enterprise subscription management platform for such anSOA implementation in private cloud scenario. exchange driven by publish-subscribe modelIt can also act as a catalyst for IT consolidation [1, 2, 3].and lean IT transformation for large enterprise The concept of service exchange is veryand government IT landscape. This discussion extensible and can have a maturity model. Forwill focus on the value proposition of cloud instance, once the service exchange is setup,computing in service exchange scenario and the demand for integration platform will arise.how it creates a win-win situation for each The integration will be required for service–stakeholder. enterprise use case as well as service-service Service exchange @ cloud provides use case for Web 2.0 mash-up. The servicea platform to publish web services, search exchange platform can bring the followingpre-existing web services and subscribe and value-propositions:consume the published web services. Figure 1overleaf illustrates the service exchange concept. ■ A new revenue-channel through an Service publishers can be anyone – it eMarketplace for small/large ISVs orcan be an individual developer, small or large individual developers, along with theindependent software vendor (ISV) or a system established business model (broker) 55
    • Developer Cloud Service Enterprises System ISVs (Publishers) Community Providers (Subscribers) Integrators § Create excitement § Get competitive § Low investment § Faster time-to- § New revenue and enthusiasm in edge by service realization – market leveraging channel for service developer accelerating switch from existing services development and community adoption of cloud company owned maintenance § Flexible pricing infrastructure to § Facilitate a channel § Demonstrate models resulting in § New solution cloud services for individuals to industry leadership lower TCO. No offering in terms of earn online money through innovation § Pay-As-You-Grow development, test or payment billing and by adopting cloud flexibility in pricing hosting investment subscription § Create non-linear technologies models guaranteed management revenue channel § No software, QoS § Penetrate developer leveraging existing hardware and § New solution community investments § Lower TCO non- vendor lock-in offerings in terms of linear revenue service and project § Aligned with future channel for service management IT transformation offerings trends Benefits Promote Cloud Achieve Reduce Total Accelerate Create New Adoption Non-linear Growth Cost of Ownership Time-to-Market Revenue ChannelsFigure 1: Stakeholder Benefits Source: Infosys Research ■ Enterprise-service integration that will comprehensive, complex and extended. be required in most cases to leverage Figure 2 identifies key uses cases for service existing enterprise investments exchange implementation. ■ Service–service integration on the Register platform to leverage cross-service The publishers and subscribers need to functions and provide value mash-ups. register to avail the services from service exchange. There will be separate registration In the course of this discussion there processes for publishers and subscribers.is a need to understand the key use cases for The registration process will capture thesuch a platform implementation and how cloud required information, enroll the users andcomputing can add value to the traditional web provide a security mechanism in termsservice exchanges. of authentication and authorization. It will also capture the information relatedSERVICE EXCHANGE USE CASES to payments and accounts for monetaryThe use cases identified for service transactions. The monetary transactions andexchange are simplified in this paper for related subscription management can also bethe need of lucidity in discussion. The facilitated through external service providersactual implementation will be much more like Zuora. 56
    • Register Publish Search Subscribe Pay § Personal Info § Upload Service § Keyword Search § Subscribe § Payment Models Service § Payment Info § Configure § Provider Search § Payment Service § Consume Channels § Manage Users § Service Info Service § Manage Service § Payment History § Manage Transactions Seller Buyer § Developers Customer Payment § Customers Acquisition $ Realization § ISVs § EnterprisesFigure 2: Service Exchange Use Cases Source: Infosys ResearchPublish the search by service providers, technologyAfter registration, the publishers can be platform and many other meta-data information.presented with a user interface wherein they can The search results will present the list of serviceupload the service binaries and configuration providers that can offer the required service.and can avail the web URL that can be used to It can also further help subscribers withconsume the services. information like rating of the service provider, The publish use case will present rating of the service and various other servicea publisher admin console with more evaluation parameters along with detailedcomprehensive options to configure, modify, service documentation.delete or suspend the service and set up the Also, from the perspective of revenuedata feeds for the service. The service will also model it offers an opportunity for ad revenuebe configured to provide security for restricting channel through service sponsorship.the unauthorized access. SubscribeSearch The subscribe use case will facilitate theThe search use case will provide a basic interface subscribers to create, manage and configureto subscribers to search and identify the service services subscriptions. It will present athey want to subscribe to. Subscribers will be subscriber admin console to view, modify,able to search for the existing services through configure, delete or suspend existingbasic keyword search or by using more subscriptions. It will help subscribers toadvanced search capabilities. configure the security required to access and The advanced search option will include consume the services subscribed. It will also 57
    • present a history view of the transactions Also, the business offering needs torelated to the subscriptions. consider various customer segments like – individuals, ISVs and enterprises - andPay demonstrate huge flexibility in terms of theThe pay-per-use case addresses the monetary pricing and service models.aspects of the service realization. It will be The problem for the key decision makersconsumed by all — publishers, subscribers to realize the business of service exchangeand the service exchange host. It will present is to balance the investment with potentialthe information and alerts related to payments, growth and also having support for flexibleconsolidated and comprehensive reports for pricing models - cloud computing simplifiesfinancial transactions. It will also have interface this problem.with external systems for payment realization. These value propositions from cloud computing facilitates and makes decisionCLOUD COMPUTING VALUE makers comfortable with the initial investmentPROPOSITION required to start an innovating offering andService exchange @ cloud has a great potential scale-up the infrastructure on-demand as theto become another success story similar to business grows using pay-as-you-grow pricingApp Store, eBay or YouTube. From technology models.perspective, cloud computing technology Also, for large enterprises, consider thebrings the following value: above benefits to existing Ariba deployments to understand how it adds value by bringing ■ Dynamically scalable infrastructure Ariba as SaaS on Cloud platform. (on-demand) Although, the benefits sound interesting ■ Guaranteed quality-of-service in terms of and promising, there are multiple challenges in performance, scalability and availability realizing it, viz., of hosted services. ■ Lack of standardization across large From business perspective, cloud playerscomputing brings attractive pricing models ■ Lack of maturity of existing solution andfor individuals, start-ups or enterprises: service offerings ■ Lack of appropriate business case and ■ Lower initial investment in terms of success stories to convince C-level capital expenditure (capex) executives and ■ Flexible pricing and IT service models ■ Lack of clarity on security, data and IP (opex). ownership in cloud based deployment scenarios. Service exchange is comparatively aninnovative business idea and there will be KEY STAKEHOLDER BENEFITSconstraints on the budget to experiment. At Service exchange @ cloud has somethingthe same time, huge infrastructure support is for everyone in the value-chain. Figure 3required to manage scale and quality-of-service. articulates the value proposition of the cloud 58
    • Publisher Service Commerce Platform The publishers get a low investment platform with high quality of service (QoS) services that Service Service Publisher Subscriber can be consumed by enterprises in production scenarios. It creates a non-linear revenue Revenue Model channel for small and medium ISVs to sell their Service publisher Service subscribes and develops and publishes consumes the web services to a large service exchange marketplace. the web services: services: Service exchange also provides flexible § Currency Converter § Internet Facing Web Service Site /Portal pricing models to attract more business and § Unit Conversion § Custom Mobile Service, etc. Application, etc. offer competitive pricing. It also offers flexible investment models to facilitate pay-more-as-Figure 3: Key Stackholder Benefits you-grow and start with low capex.Source: Infosys Research Subscriber The subscribers get ready-to-use servicescomputing technology and benefits to key from service exchange that can significantlystakeholders. Service exchange realization influence the time-to-market new services fromcan happen in multiple deployment scenarios subscriber’s perspective. It helps promoting— over internet, over private clouds or over the enterprise reuse in private cloud scenarioextranet (partner network). We will articulate that helps reducing the total cost of operationbenefits to each stakeholder in different (TCO). The subscribers (enterprises, corporate,business scenario. individuals) have multiple options of service providers, the payment and pricing modelsDeveloper Community and service models to choose from and selectService exchange @ cloud over the internet the best-aligned for reuse. Also, all this comesscenario provides opportunity to individual without any software, hardware, vendor ordevelopers to develop and deploy services investment lock-in that gives tremendousto earn online money. It gives a great business agility for the decision makers.opportunity to talented freelancers to earnmoney online. System Integrator Service exchange opens up new traditionalCloud Service Provider application development and maintenanceThe cloud service providers such as Microsoft, (ADM) opportunities around serviceAmazon and Google can achieve competitive development, deployment, maintenance,edge by promoting cloud adoption by driving management, monitoring and configuration.developer community and enterprise to the The innovative solution and serviceproprietary service exchange. offering around billing, payment and The service exchange product offering subscription management can create non-suitable to enterprises or government for linear revenue channel for system integratorsprivate cloud offering can open a new revenue for enterprise, government and other privatechannel for non-liner growth. cloud or enterprise SOA scenarios. 59
    • Large Enterprises and the government can conceptualize serviceLarge enterprises having a vision to implement exchange in the private cloud scenario toenterprise SOA can benefit from enterprise wide implement enterprise SOA while consolidatingreuse of the services through service exchange. IT infrastructure to reduce TCO.It presents significant cost saving opportunitiesfor capital expenditure as well as operational REFERENCESexpenditure. It will act as a key enabler for 1. http://seekda.com/enterprise SOA implementation. 2. webservicesx.NET. Available at http:// www.webservicex.net/WCF/default.Government aspxFor the government IT landscape, service 3. Zuora: Z-Commerce Platformexchange can act as a catalyst for lean IT 4. http://www.zuora.com/products/transformation and IT consolidation for zcommerce/significant cost savings and reducing TCO 5. Bhavin Raichura and Rajat Kumar,through private cloud realization. Semantic SOA – IT Catalyst for Business Transformation, AMCIS 2007CONCLUSION Proceedings, AIS Electronic Library,Service exchange @ cloud is a highly scalable Colorado - USA, 2007monetizing platform. Cloud service providers 6. Bhavin Raichura and Shaurabh Bharti,can and should promote the adoption of cloud Achieve Dynamic Integration & Runtimeofferings. The ISVs can offer various software Process Optimization using Semanticfeatures as services. Just as enterprises can SOA, ICSD 2007, Document Researchaccelerate time-to-market new services, system and Training Centre (DRTC), Bangalore,integrators can create new business and revenue 2007-02channels and individuals can make money 7. Bhavin Raichura and Vijay Rao, Leanonline. The success of such a business model is IT Transformation, ebizQ.net, 2009-03.also well tested and proven as Apple App Store Available at http://www.ebizq.net/is to promote iPhone. Also, large enterprises topics/saas/features/11121.html. 60
    • SETLabs Briefings VOL 7 NO 7 2009Revenue and Customer Growth for ISVs using Cloud Offerings By Ajit Mhaiskar and Bhavin RaichuraThe agility of cloud is the biggest attraction for the ISVs operating in a restricted space and budgetThere are around 75,000 independent cloud computing and the commoditizationsoftware vendors (ISVs) worldwide that drive of business intelligence provide uniqueapproximately $250 billion of the software opportunities to ISVs to do more with less. Tableindustry revenue. These ISVs produce, package, 1 overleaf shows the various opportunitiessell, deliver and update software. The market available to ISVs, enabled by these recentshare in the ISV industry is highly skewed, technology trends.wherein the top 2% ISVs garner about 80% of Virtualization is one of the top trendsthe industry revenue. This top 2% (about 1,700 in the industry today and provides importantISVs) includes all ISVs with over $10 million benefits to ISVs.in software revenue [1]. The remaining 98% ofthe ISVs have very limited resources in terms BENEFITS OF VIRTUALIZATION TO ISVSof ability to spend on software development, Most of the ISVs today offer solutions to theirmarketing, sales, software distribution and customers in an on-premise model or in a hosteddeployment. In this paper, we focus on how model. Virtualization has already become acloud computing offers the large number of major trend in the IT industry, resulting insmall ISVs unique opportunities for revenue ISVs and large enterprises reaping substantialand customer growth with significantly lower benefits from adoption of virtualizationcapital and operating investments. We also technologies in their infrastructure. ISVsdiscuss the new service offerings that small as that have not adopted virtualization yet canwell as large ISVs can bring to the market by certainly consider adopting it for the significantleveraging cloud computing. benefits it can provide. A good example is of ICICI bank, theISVS AND CURRENT INDUSTRY TRENDS largest private bank in India. The bank usedThe existing trends in the industry like Web virtualization to consolidate 230 physical2.0, social commerce, SOA, SaaS, virtualization, servers to just 5, running a little under 650 61
    • Technology ISV OpportunitiesTrend Reduce Grow Improve Improve Competitor Transform to Virtualized TCO Business Customer Agility Differentia Servers Satisfaction tion (in data center)Web 2.0 Low Medium High Low HighSocial Low High Medium Low High Transform toCommerceSOA High Medium Medium High High Virtualized PhysicalSaaS High High Medium High Medium Servers Servers (on the cloud)Virtualization High Low Medium High MediumCloud High High Medium Medium MediumComputingBusiness Medium Medium Medium Medium High Figure 1: Virtualization and Cloud ComputingIntelligence Source: Infosys ResearchTable 1: Various Opportunities Available to ISVsSource: Infosys Research Almost all cloud service providers today use some form of virtualization technology toapplications in their data center. This move abstract the hardware underneath. Most cloudsresulted in an annual operating expense (opex) employ infrastructure software that can easilysavings of over seven figures in Indian Rupees, add, move or change an application with littledue to higher efficiencies related to power, to no manual intervention. Figure 1 shows howcooling and space. The break-even period, virtualization and cloud computing co-exist andconsidering capital expenditure (capex) was how ISVs can transform physical servers in theirabout six months, with projected savings for data center into virtualized environments eitherfive years of about 57 million rupees ($1.1 in their data center or on the cloud or both.million) [2]. For ISVs that have already adopted THE PROMISE OF CLOUD COMPUTINGvirtualization, the next step is the idea that Cloud computing offers an excellent opportunitythese virtual machines can be run from suitable for cash-strapped ISVs to do more with lessinfrastructure in any location – either within the and provides them unique levers in the areaspremises of the ISVs data center or in some third of software distribution, marketing andparty data center or somewhere on the internet, deployment of web-based solutions. The cloudin the cloud. That is the promise of cloud computing technology brings together a hugecomputing. VMware President and CEO Diane amount of virtualized hardware, requiredGreene says that the evolution of virtualization software and competent IT staff to monitorbegan with users deploying virtual machines these assets. The cloud computing environment(VMs) for testing and development and then and related software components are mostlyeasing into server consolidations for production fully owned, managed, supported and servicedenvironments. The third phase was resource by the cloud service provider. Gartner describesaggregation, with entire data centers being cloud computing as Infrastructure-as-a-Servicevirtualized, followed by automation of all [4].aggregated workloads. Cloud computing forms The cloud computing environment canthe final liberation phase [3]. be partly dedicated (shared cloud) to a client 62
    • or fully dedicated (private cloud) to a client continuity, cloud security, cloudand managed by the cloud service provider. applications and storage.The cloud service provider and the client cannegotiate the terms for pricing, QoS, SLA and ■ Salesforce.com provides customeroperations level agreement (OLA). Billing is relationship management (CRM)done based on usage (computing based billing solution to businesses over the internet- $/CPU/hr or storage based billing - $/GB using the SaaS model and was one ofor data transfer based billing - $/Mbps or $/ the pioneers in offering SaaS solutions.Gbps). Companies like Amazon, SalesForce.com ■ Facebook offers its infrastructure toand Google are the pioneers in offering cloud developers to leverage social services.based services. Amazon has the first moveradvantage in the cloud computing area and ■ IBM’s Blue Cloud and Microsoft Azurehas generated an estimated 500 million dollars are the new offerings on the block. IBMfrom cloud offerings alone [5]. The following is recently announced LotusLive Engage,a partial list of cloud offerings from different an integrated social networking andvendors – collaboration cloud service designed for businesses of all sizes. ■ Amazon’s elastic compute cloud (EC2) is a web service that provides resizable ■ There are also many VC-funded startups compute capacity in the cloud that is in the area of cloud computing (Coghead, designed to make web-scale computing Bungee, LongJump, EngineYard, easier for developers. RightScale, etc). ■ Amazon’s simple storage service (S3) ■ Virtualization solution leaders like Citrix is an online storage web service that and VMware have also presented visions provides unlimited storage through a of cloud infrastructures. simple web services interface and has been one of the pioneers in the area of With big players like Microsoft, IBM offering highly-scalable cloud based and Google now entering the cloud computing storage for a price. and storage provider market by making big investments, the cloud services provider space ■ Google’s AppEngine offers users the is maturing fast and getting commoditized. It ability to build and host web applications will be prudent for most ISVs, to desist from on Google’s infrastructure. entering the cloud services provider market and instead focus on building new solutions ■ Akamai is extending its content around offerings from big players like Amazon, delivery network (CDN) to offer Microsoft, Google and IBM. cloud based services. Akamai Table 2 overleaf shows a high-level offers optimization services for comparison of various cloud service providers cloud acceleration, cloud business in the context of the ISV market. 63
    • ConsiderationsCloudServiceProvider Offering Market ISV Focus Platform Competitor Faster Lower Costs Maturity Adoption Capabilities Differentiation Time-to-marketAmazon High High High High High CloudGoogle Medium Low Medium Medium Medium ComputingIBM Low Low High Medium Medium Extend CloudMicrosoft Medium Medium High High Medium Offer New offerings of SolutionsSalesforce. other Vendors High Medium Medium Medium MediumcomStartups Medium Medium Medium Medium High to high Figure 2: Opportunities for ISVs provided by CloudTable 2: Cloud Service Providers in the context of the ISV Computingmarket Source: Infosys ResearchSource: Infosys Research set of tools to design, build, deliver andLEVERAGING CLOUD COMPUTING FOR market cloud services. The cloud serviceREVENUE AND CUSTOMER GROWTH providers also provide a powerful, scalableCloud computing offers a great advantage to computing environment along with scalableISVs, especially the small ones, as they can now storage. The cloud platform APIs allow forleverage the power of big data centers at low easy development without having to overlycost through the cloud service providers. This focus on scalability and performance aspects.acts as a great leveler and provides plenty of A lot of development complexity and detailsfreedom to innovate. There are several areas are abstracted away by the APIs and toolswhere ISVs can leverage cloud computing to provided by the cloud service providers.get better value for money spent – All this will help in lowering application development costs and providing faster time ■ Lower application development, solution to market. However, this will also need ISVs deployment and support costs to learn new skills in application development ■ Faster time to market and will also need a significant change in ■ Offer new solutions to customers using mindset to deliver services using cloud the cloud infrastructure. ■ Extend cloud service offerings of other vendors. Lower Solution Deployment and Support Costs: With the adoption of cloud computing, most Figure 2 shows the cloud computing ISVs will not need to build and maintain databenefits to ISVs that help them to accelerate centers of their own. For ISVs that already haverevenue growth and customer acquisition. data centers of their own, cloud computing will provide additional hosting infrastructure that isLower Costs highly scalable and manageable at a fraction ofLower Application Development Costs: Most of the cost. This will provide ISVs with easy abilitythe cloud service providers provide a rich to reach a significantly larger user base than 64
    • what they currently support and scale quickly software solutions comprising primarilydepending on the success of the solutions that of Microsoft Office and Windows.they provide. ■ Offer on-demand versions of existingFaster Time-to-Market web-based solutions.With the help of cloud service offerings,ISV developers have to worry less about Cloud computing will enable ISVs toscalability and focus on aspects like solution take risks with significantly lower investmentsfunctionality and performance of key use cases. in capital and operating expenditure, but stillBy leveraging the ready-made services and being able to scale up quickly to meet peakplumbing provided by cloud service vendors, processing demand without over investing.ISVs can bring their solutions to market much Callidus, a leader in the sales performancefaster with significantly reduced investments. management (SPM) software market, spent ISVs should start looking for ways to about three years building an on-demandquickly build, deploy and take advantage of the version of its existing products. More than one-flexibility that cloud computing environments third of the customers today use the on-demandcan bring. Vendors like IBM, Microsoft, Google model and this number is likely to grow to moreand Amazon are making it easier for software than half the customers using it in a few years.developers to build solutions based on open With the addition of on-demand offerings,standards that are well supported by a vast Callidus has been able to successfully open uparray of technical resources. the market and add several new customers by offering lower prices [6].Offer New SolutionsTwo interesting ways in which ISVs can Offering New Web-based Solutions Leveraging Cloudleverage cloud services to offer new innovative Services: In general, SaaS brings business valuesolutions to their customers are by: in terms of a flexible and economical business model rather than a real technology value. ■ Extending existing solutions Cloud computing technology complements ■ Offering new web-based solutions SaaS by helping to realize these flexible business leveraging cloud services. models by offering utilization-based pricing for computing and storage resources.Extending Existing Solutions: ISVs can extend ISVs can build new web-based solutions,existing solutions in various ways – take them at the global level fast and scale them very quickly to meet global demands using ■ Offer online services for existing cloud services. ISVs can also improve customer software solutions that are currently satisfaction by leveraging Web 2.0 and social deployed to desktops. Microsoft is commerce concepts in an innovative manner to promoting a similar strategy called offer new solutions for horizontal and vertical Software + Services to offer online markets. service extensions to its vast array ISVs can offer new solutions in different of highly successful desktop-based verticals like manufacturing, healthcare, 65
    • financial services, retail, energy management, tools that can help manage existingetc., by leveraging cloud services datacenter deployments as well as cloud ISVs can also offer horizontal solutions deployments in an integrated mannerin the areas of business intelligence and will greatly help.analytics, compliance, managed services, etc. About an year and a half back, Siemens ■ New security, compliance andstarted looking at next-generation data centers management solutions can be built toand examining where unified communications extend existing cloud service offerings(UC) fit into the picture. Gradually, thecompany developed a strategy to port its ■ ISVs can offer lift-and-shift services orexisting unified communications software to solutions to customers who are interestedAmazon’s Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2). The in virtualizing their existing applicationsultimate goal for Siemens is to give partners and putting them on the cloud.and customers a front-end portal that allowsthem to pick and choose the UC services needed ■ ISVs can also offer new kinds of managedin a flexible manner [7]. services built around cloud service In the context of web-based ISV solutions, offerings from other vendors.the challenge is to balance IT investment for aglobal expansion of the solution with actual CHALLENGES AND RISKS ASSOCIATEDgrowth through sales. Even for large ISVs, it is WITH CLOUD SERVICESalmost impossible to proactively plan scalability For ISVs, cloud services are not without risks.to enable global operations. It is also impractical Some of the associated risks are -to block large investments in terms of hardware,software and people while the operation size is ■ Most of the cloud service providersrelatively small. What is needed is a dynamic today offer no guarantee of data andand on-demand scalability of IT assets and can also suffer occasional outages whichrelated services as the solution adoption grows could impact business. Few vendorsglobally. Cloud computing offers this dynamic allow security or process complianceand scalable infrastructure to facilitate quick audits of their cloud infrastructure.growth in an economical manner. ■ Most vendors today have implementationsExtend Cloud Service Offerings of Other which will result in a significant vendorVendors lock-in, even though they talk aboutISVs have a good opportunity to build new standards compliance.solutions extending existing cloud serviceofferings from vendors like Amazon, Google, ■ ISVs have traditionally built hostedMicrosoft, IBM, etc. Some key areas where the solutions or desktop based solutions.existing vendor offerings can be extended are – Making the shift from the current mindset of delivering desktop or web- ■ There is a need for better tools to manage based software to delivering services cloud deployments. Management using utility computing will be very hard 66
    • work and will require skills that most CONCLUSION of the small ISVs do not have currently. In the tight economy prevalent today, companies While some ISVs will be able to take are spending much less on IT and ISVs will have advantage of cloud services, the vast to take growth wherever they can find it. Cloud majority of ISVs will have a very difficult computing is a double edged sword which time making this switch. presents a significant challenge as well as an important opportunity for ISVs. ISVs offering Daryl Plummer from Gartner says that pure-play hosting services will really struggle inISVs are not positioned well to become the fending off the big cloud vendors. ISVs offeringnext generation of Cloud Service Providers on-premise software will be forced to innovate(CSP) or even SaaS providers. He says, some and build extensions to their software whichISVs will either change their business entirely, uses cloud-based services. The cost of deployingor go out of business if cloud computing software in the cloud will keep reducing at abecomes the mainstream norm for delivery brisk pace, potentially leading to innovative ISVof systems [8]. offerings built around the cloud infrastructure Table 3 shows some of the key challenges resulting in increased competition that is veryfor ISVs associated with cloud services. fast-moving. Cloud computing innovations Challenge Details Potential Competition Most ISVs will have to partner with cloud service providers like Amazon, Microsoft, Google, IBM, from Cloud Service etc., to deliver their solutions. If these ISV services are offered as part of a bigger service Providers offering, the ISVs will be opening doors to potential competition. Pricing will also become key as profits will have to be shared with the cloud services provider. Building a high level of trust and credibility with the cloud services provider will be critical. ISVs will also need to bring in significant differentiation in their solution offering. Introduce New Pricing ISVs will have to change their pricing model to include software, computing, storage and service Models price. This new model will be challenging and could impact profit margins. Maturity of Offerings The cloud computing technology is still maturing and many of the cloud computing offerings are not yet production ready. There are also open issues around data security, compliance, data ownership and standardization which need to be addressed. Higher Adoption Risk Unless the open issues around data security, compliance, data ownership and standardization are addressed, adoption of cloud services could be low. This low adoption could increase the implementation risk for ISVs. ISVs will need to display a significant amount of courage, passion and leadership to make their cloud-based offerings successful. Extending Existing Extending existing ISV solution offerings to the cloud will be challenging as it will involve Solutions Using Cloud significant enhancements and risks. Costs involved could also be significant if the existing Services solution is a pure desktop-based solution. Handling Cloud Service Most cloud vendors today dont provide availability assurances and SLAs are mostly non- Outage existent. Cloud vendors also dont allow embedding of security and management agents or monitors. Occasional outage of services from providers like Amazon, Google, IBM, Microsoft, etc., is a distinct possibility and recent outages have only provided fodder to this thought. ISVs will have to devise a plan to keep customers informed about such outages and assuage them if such outages occur. Lack Of Geographic With the exception of Akamai and Layered Technologies, no cloud vendor allows the placing of Coverage an application in a specific geography on the cloud. Most cloud service providers today dont have geographic coverage. Lack of geographic coverage could lead to significant performance challenges.Table 3: Challenges Associated with Cloud Services Source: Infosys Research 67
    • happening in the industry are certainly a major Cloud, April 2009. Available at http://point of inflection for the ISV market. ISVs that www.thevarguy.com/2009/04/02/are able to innovate and navigate through these siemens-channel-partners-testing-shifts will stay on to fight another day, while unified-communications-in-amazons-those who fail to innovate will perish. cloud/ 8. Daryl Plummer, Delivering CloudREFERENCES Services: ISVs - Change or Die or both! 1. Dan Lohmeyer, How does Microsoft Gartner, November 2008. Available work with ISVs? Available at at http://blogs.gartner.com/daryl_ http://blogs.msdn.com/msftisvs/ plummer/2008/11/06/delivering- archive/2007/08/22/how-does- cloud-services-isvs-change-or-die-or- microsoft-work-with-isvs.aspx both/ 2. Real CIO World, December 15, 2008 9. h t t p : / / w w w . f o r r e s t e r . 3. Bridget Botelho, VMware Entering com/imagesV2/uplmisc/ Final Phase of Virtualization Evolution: CloudComputingWebinarSlideDeck.pdf C l o u d C o m p u t i n g , I T K n o w l e d ge 10. James Staten, Cloud Computing for the Exchange, May 2008. Available at Enterprise, Forrester Research, February http://itknowledgeexchange.techtarget. 2009. Available at http://www. com/server-virtualization/vmware- forrester.com/imagesV2/uplmisc/ entering-final-phase-of-virtualization- CloudComputingWebinarSlideDeck.pdf evolution-cloud-computing/ 11. R W a n g , I B M S t o r m s I n t o C l o u d 4. http://www.gartner.com/it/page. Computing With an ISV Friendly Pricing jsp?id=868812&tab=agenda Model, Forrester Blog, October 2008. 5. h t t p : / / w e b 2 i n n o v a t i o n s . c o m / Available at http://blogs.forrester. money/2008/04/22/amazon-web- com/appdev/2008/10/ibm-storms- services-on-its-way-to-surpass-500m-in- into.html sales-this-year/ 12. IBM to Deliver Software via Cloud 6. T h e C l o u d S h i f t : D o n ’ t f o r g e t Computing With Amazon Web Services. ISVs. Available at http://www. Available at http://www-03.ibm.com/ o n - d e m a n d e n t e r p r i s e . c o m / b l o g s/ press/us/en/pressrelease/26673.wss The_Cloud_Shift_Dont_Forget_ 13. Azure for ISVs. Available at http:// ISVs_31079814.html www.microsoft.com/azure/isv.mspx 7. Siemens Channel Partners: Testing 14. Windows World, Demystifying Cloud Unified Communications In Amazon’s Computing, May, 2008. 68
    • SETLabs Briefings VOL 7 NO 7 2009 Power in the Clouds? By Sudeep Mallick PhD and Ganesan Pandurangan Parallel computing and HPC workloads find their architectural options in cloud computingH igh Performance Computing(HPC) discipline emerged with an aim to reducethe total execution time of an application that Cloud computing has become a serious architectural option for commercial HPC applications. This is primarily due to a fewinvolves complex computations that require critical trends and happenings that is importantinordinately large amount of time to execute. to appreciate — the most notable being theIt also aims at reducing the time involved in recent release of Amazon’s Elastic MapReducethe execution of the same logic repeatedly over [2] accompanied by powerful auto-scalingan inordinately large data set. HPC techniques and load balancing features. Emergence ofare, by and large, based on the concepts of mature public cloud platform providers andparallel programming. It aims at reducing sophisticated cloud platform managementthe total execution time of an application by solutions from the big players and adoptionhaving multiple sections of it run concurrently of virtualization technologies by most largein time in such a manner that the behavior businesses paving the way for creation of(or functionality) of the application remains on-premise private clouds are two significantunchanged by the engineered parallelism. This developments.is based on the assumption that the application Additionally, the emergence of parallelcode has some inherent parallelism that can be computing frameworks such as MapReduceexploited and re-engineered. (popularized by Google), Microsoft’s Dryad HPC has already become critical for an have significantly improved perceptionenterprise’s survival [1]. High throughput, low about the ease of use and effectiveness oflatency, huge data churn tasks such as customer large scale parallel computing on commodityanalytics, risk analysis, oil and gas exploration, clusters. Finally, some very encouragingsimulation for options pricing, drug discovery benchmarking results on the performance ofhave made enterprises embrace commercial major public cloud platforms and use casesHPC techniques long back, seeking to minimize have come to light from the HPC scientificmakespan and maximize the throughput of the community who are the frontrunners in thisapplications. space [3, 4, 5]. 69
    • This leads us to the questions such as — (32, 64 bit), memory capacities and hard diskwhat are the types of parallel problems? What storage. Moreover, the variety is available inare the line-of business (LOB) applications that as many numbers as required. This makes itare best suited for clouds? What is the suitability suitable for a wider range of existing on-premiseof the existing software and hardware HPC HPC applications.techniques on the cloud? And most importantly,how suitable cloud computing is for HPC? Versatile Support for Parallel Computing Styles: The availability of uni-core instances, multi-WHY IS CLOUD GOOD FOR HPC? core instances and cluster of instances fromLet us identify the aspects that make cloud the public cloud vendors makes it amenablecomputing an attractive proposition for HPC for different architectures – shared (as in SMPs,workloads. CMPs) and distributed memory (clusters/grids) and programming models – shared (OpenMP,Versatile Support for Elastic Parallel pThreads, etc.) and distributed address spaceComputing Execution Environment (MPI, PVM, etc.). The existing commercial HPCCloud is attractive for HPC primarily because applications and libraries written using thesea well conceptualized cloud platform (public architectures and programming models can beor private) provides a wide range of parallel ported on to cloud infrastructures for derivingcomputing options on it. As is well known, the additional benefits such as ROI and scaling.high performance in HPC is achieved throughparallel computing techniques [6]. Inherent Versatile Support for Workload Varietyparallelism (at bit, instruction, task levels) in Compute intensive tasks that exhibit significanttarget application exhibiting various degrees data parallelism such as Monte Carlo simulationof parallelism (fine, coarse and embarrassingly over large data sets for generating risk analysisparallel) is exploited by computation of the reports in finance, BLAST searches in Lifeparallel portions on multiple processors (CPUs, Sciences, N-body simulation, etc., can bemulti-cores or nodes on a cluster), custom executed on a cluster of high power CPUhardware platforms and accelerators (GPUs, instances provisioned from the cloud. MonteFPGAs [1]) using different architectures and Carlo simulations also require significantprogramming models (shared and distributed caching requirements that can be provided bymemory). distributed caching across multiple compute At a basic level, suitability of a cloud instances. Memory intensive tasks limited byplatform for an HPC application would memory latency such as dynamic programming,be determined by the support provided sparse matrix computations, etc., in manyby the platform for the execution platform financial applications are suitable for runningrequirements — CPU (speed and numbers), in instances that have higher RAM capacitieslatency and bandwidth of memory hierarchy and multi-core instances sharing the same(cache, RAM, disk) and the network. Typically, physical node. For compute, memory andcloud platforms provide a reasonably wide communication intensive tasks such as, densevariety of compute units in terms of CPU speed, linear algebra (DLA) computations as in oil andnumber of cores, frequency, architecture type gas exploration and simulation applications 70
    • that require small size message exchange can examples in this area. Cloud computing enablesperhaps be executed on a fewer multi-core flexibility not at the cost of optimal resourceinstances provisioned from the cloud rather allocation, but in consonance with it.than more number of low end uni-processorinstances. The shared memory model would Freedom from Performance Clippers andobviate memory latency and bandwidth issues. Achievement of Better Architectural Match For example, for tasks exhibiting coarse The trade-off in cloud computing is betweengrained or are embarrassingly parallel, such as cost and performance, unlike the on-premiseweb page search, indexing, machine learning, case where there are hard limits to theetc., low speed network interconnects are not available horsepower and hence performancea problem and distributed memory model gains. Often parallel computing applicationis appropriate for scaling. Some of these architectures encounter bottlenecks in specificapplications can experience performance gains portions resulting in sub-optimal provisioningby exploiting data parallelism on a larger and performance. For example, the master innumber of low strength processors having a a master-slave configuration often becomeslarger amount of distributed memory (total a bottleneck due to its centrality in theRAM across the cluster). Frameworks such as architecture, similarly certain nodes in anMapReduce are popular on cluster of nodes HPC cluster responsible for reading/writing toprovisioned from the cloud. However, it is data sources/sinks become bottlenecks due toimportant to note that MapReduce is just one I/O latency and bandwidth limitations. Cloudof the many different categories of parallel makes possible better matching of architecturalcomputing models [7]. Offline batch workloads requirements.where the batch data can be uploaded on thecloud storage space are very suitable for clouds. Availability of Feature rich HPC Frameworks The advent of the Elastic MapReduce frameworkFlexible yet Optimal Provisioning by Amazon has heralded the beginning of theCloud computing infrastructure platforms availability of HPC frameworks tailored tocoupled with dynamic provisioning features cloud computing infrastructures. Job schedulingenable flexible ramp up and down of resources and resource provisioning are closely tied to thebased on SLA requirements. Policy aware topology of the cloud infrastructure and can beprovisioning enables specification of thresholds optimized by the cloud provider. For example,and scenarios for resource ramp up and down provisioning the MapReduce cluster fromto handle unexpected workload fluctuations. the same subnet or physically proximal set ofThis enables low variation in performance hardware can result in obvious performanceand scalability in true sense. For constant gains which only the cloud provider can makeworkloads such as drug discovery and protein possible. Moreover, the cloud HPC user doessynthesis this does not matter, however for not have to handle the onerous tasks of settingvariable workloads faced by financial analytic up clusters, provisioning adequate capacityapplications this would be of great help. Amazon nodes (for example, high end compute node,cloud‘s auto scaling feature and the provisioning I/O capacity node for masters in a master-slaveand management solutions from RightScale are configuration). 71
    • Clouds for Real time Workloads CHALLENGES FOR HPC ON CLOUDHPC workloads such as extreme transaction Cloud computing based HPC is at a nascentprocessing, distributed query processing, stage and holds great promise as indicated incomplex event processing, streaming data the earlier section. However, there are quiteapplications, real time analytics applications a few challenges that need to be overcomeare more suitable for private clouds (in the henceforth.current state of maturity of public clouds).These applications are characterized by the Virtualization Related: Some of these arise dueneed for online or real time responses from high to the basic issues pertaining to virtualizationperformance computation on large on-premise and its effect on the absolute performancedata, often generated in real time. that can be expected as well as the variability and instability in performance. There couldHPC Data Grid be unexpected performance variations whenCloud infrastructure is appropriate for storing scaling to larger number of instances andhuge data sets for HPC computations, such as cores. Another issue is the possibility ofdatabases in BLAST searches in life sciences loss of performance due to the time taken inapplications, financial market data from third bringing up new instances as well as ramp upparty providers (such as data from Reuters in virtualized infrastructure.Market Data System and the Reuters TickCapture Engine, etc.) for options pricing Cloud Management Services: Dynamic andapplications, etc. Amazon’s offer to host public policy based provisioning features to ensuredata sets on AWS is an initiative in this direction auto-scaling and load balancing are importantthat makes things simpler, faster and cost to ensure reliability and expected throughputeffective for service users. Performance of cloud of HPC workloads. The solutions in this spacecan be improved in the presence of data grid are still in nascent stage with many open issues.middleware enabling sharing of data among the Solutions from Amazon for its own cloud andparticipants in the cloud. Data grids reduce the independent solutions from vendors such asI/O – blocking calls that an application might RightScale [8], 3Tera would go a long way inincur when writing to files. making cloud platform (public and private) In memory data grid (IMDG), distributed effective for HPC.file systems (DFS) and distributed cachingstrategies are the options in this area. The Public Cloud Related: The second category ofavailability of cloud databases such as Amazon’s problems arises in the case of public clouds.SimpleDB, Google’s BigTable, Microsoft’s SQL There are studies that indicate inordinatelyServer Data Services, etc., that store data as key high latency of large size data uploads, storagevalue pairs are worth exploring as the data tier costs associated with storing large amounts ofof the HPC application. This enables availability basic and derived data in the cloud. Most ofof durable and pervasive data handling the current public cloud infrastructures runmechanisms across multiple compute nodes using high latency network and low bandwidthand the ability to move workloads effectively interconnects. HPC clusters usually requireacross machines. extreme low latency and high bandwidth 72
    • interconnects (such as Myrinet, Infiniband) for HPC application for cloud and could forceparallel tasks that are inter-task communication the architects to think of innovative options.intensive and I/O intensive. Another aspect is Yahoo!’s Pig, IBM’s JAQL, and Facebook’sthe upload of large data sets to the cloud on Hive, MapReduce implementations such asinternet. Uploading a terabyte of data over a from Greenplum and Aster Data are efforts in1.5Mbps T1 broadband line takes more than 80 this direction.days. Hence, offline data transfer on physicaldisks by courier service is to be considered. HPC ARCHITECTURES FOR THE CLOUDThis has implications in terms of security and Analysis of various cloud providers andrelated issues. other participants in the cloud ecosystem, led to a representation of the cloud based HPCBenchmarking: As mentioned in an earlier application as given in Figure 1 overleaf. Thesection, suitability of a cloud infrastructure for architecture provides many features that area specific HPC workload will be determined common in HPC systems and are described inby the workload characteristics and its match the following sections.with the declared and observed performance Cloud architecture can be used for HPCof the compute infrastructure. Published workloads like scientific computations and inperformance data and benchmarking results for most cases can perform at the same level ofboth uni-processor performance such as HPC efficiency as that provided by a dedicated grid.Challenge and parallel computing performance It has to be noted that the network interconnectbenchmarks such as the NAS PB for the cloud between the machines may not be as fast ascomputing infrastructure will be necessary in a dedicated grid and can cause performancematching process. Without such benchmarking degradation when the nodes share a largerelated inputs the cost-benefit analysis would amount of data.be a faulty one. CLOUD COMPUTING AND HPCSecurity: Security of large data sets imported WORKLOADSonto public clouds from an enterprise’s internal The versatility of the cloud computing platformsystems is definitely a concern from security enables its mapping with a variety of HPCpoint of view. Most of the Byzantine fault workload patterns [Table 1 on page 75].tolerance issues are handled by the cloudinfrastructure but the application architectures Applications that have Seasonal Workloadsalso needs to account for such faults. Scalability at low cost is the unique selling proposition for the cloud. Consumer facingTransaction and RDBMS Related: Cloud applications such as retail systems that facestorage is mostly non-relational and most of the huge demand during festive seasons arelegacy enterprise HPC applications have data well suited for cloud architecture. Cloudhosted in RDBMS. This disconnect could lead to infrastructure functions as a load balancerobvious migration and porting issues of legacy at a high level and distributes the incomingHPC applications for cloud infrastructures. request to one of the nodes in the cloud. WeThis would determine suitability of a particular classify this workload as a single job getting 73
    • Applications Applications Applications Applications Internet Scaling and SLA Cloud Architecture Services (Auto Management) Value Added Application SLA Policy Database Grid Manager Scheduler and Load Balancer Metering and Billing Services Parallel Frameworks Libraries and Middleware Application On-boarding Data Grid Admin and Application Platforms Databases (RDMS Columnar) Control Screens Platform as Service Messaging Queues Monitors and Data Collectors Information as Service Server and Storage Virtualization ComputeServers Persistence Distributed File Systems Storage (Physical) Server Server Server Server Server ServerFigure 1: Cloud Based HPC Architecture Source: Infosys Researchexecuted in a single machine. The workload can be run in one of the machine [Fig. 2 onis executed by one single machine/node and page 76]. This effectively is data parallelismhence when more jobs arrive, if more nodes in use to get the required throughput. Theare allocated, the application can easily scale performance of such workload is excellentand cater to the increase in demand. Such when there is minimal data sharing betweenworkloads are highly suitable for cloud the participating nodes. Long running batchmodel. applications working on large data volumes are suitable for cloud environments.High Throughput WorkloadsApplications that run against a huge data High Performance Computing Workloadsvolume and that has shorter time window for Under this category, we have groupedexecution can leverage cloud models. Such application workloads as — compute intensivekind of workloads can be classified as single scientific calculations; embarrassinglyjob multi machine workloads. The input can parallel logics like Monte Carlo; low latencybe cut in to smaller pieces and each piece requirements for systems like trading and 74
    • Application Application Worked Type Distribution of Example Cloud Key Factor Sterotypes Characteristics Suitability Job Unit of Works Adaptive Systems with Single Job 1 Job Very High Load Balancing Internet facing e-commerce retail Systems Seasonal run in corresponds to (at Job Level) sites. tax processing system, Demands Single 1 Unit of between the Regulatory systems that are required Machine Work/Unit of Participants to operate in response to an event Work run on a Single Machine High Long Running Single Job 1 Job = Many Very High Data Parallelism Purchase order systems, updation of Through- Batch Systems run in Units of Work/ from the stock in a retail industry. Billing in put Multiple A Unit of Work Application Side telecom. Back office risk analysis Systems Machines run on a Single Data Sharing batches in financial firm Machine. between Results of Unit Machines of Work Minimal. No assemble later Task Parallelism Search Engines Single Job A Unit of Work High Map Reduce Distributed information processing, High run in is run in Many Algorithm Petabyte data processing — searching Performa- Multiple Nodes in Two Implementation - for field to get a particular value nce Data Machines Phases — Map might require a Mining Reduction and Reduce High Global Parallel High Performance Data Analytics and Algorithms (Data Phases File System mining in Telecom industry – real time Dependencies in information for law enforcement??- Set of Records) data load and retrieval on a columnar database can improve the overall throughput Single Job 1 Unit of Work Medium Performance will Life science modeling for drug Compute High run in spreads across not be as good discovery and simulations Intensive – Performa- Scientific Multiple Multiple as a Dedicated nce Machines Machine (with HPC Cluster Computing Calculations Varying (Data + Task Degrees of Parallelism) Data Sharing) Embarrassingly High Can Leverage Pricing application for a financial Parallel Logics MPI and Open derivatives — Monte Corlo MP Libraries Low Latency Still need Machine Algorithmic Trading Requirements to evolve Interconnect for a Trading Speed might be System BottleTable 1: HPC Workload Patterns Source: Infosys Researchfront office analytics. Cloud can be used for HPC Data Analytics Frameworksthese workloads however; performance would The advent of the Elastic MapReduce frameworkdepend on extent of data and sharing between by Amazon has heralded the beginning of thethe nodes. availability of HPC frameworks tailored to For low latency applications, the current cloud computing infrastructures. Job schedulingcloud architecture needs to evolve and will and resource provisioning are closely tied to thehave to support high speed networks, have topology of the cloud infrastructure and can beconnectivity to data providers and provide optimized by the cloud provider. For example,infrastructure required to support complex provisioning the MapReduce cluster fromevent processing capabilities. At this juncture, the same subnet or physically proximal set ofthese applications are suited for in house hardware can result in obvious performancedeployment. gains which only the cloud provider can make 75
    • High Throughput Workloads — Cloud is highly suitable for divide and conquer approaches A set of records for batch processing Cloud Infrastructure [A Grid Infrastructure] A unit of work broken to smaller pieces and run parallel Parallel File systems Parallel File systems can be used as a file server Performance can be improved if the application use Grid based Application Platforms [GBAP] and follow Master worker and data affinity based work allocation Node Node Node Node 1 2 Clouds can be used as pay per use service for this kind of workloads Node Node Node Node Additional resources added on demand to cater the requests Clouds with Grid Middleware are suitable for this kind of workload. Performance can be improved if records can be routed to nodes where relevant data is already available. Master- Worker patterns can be used to achieve the same.Figure 2: Cloud for High Throughput Workload Source: Infosys Researchpossible [Fig. 3]. Moreover, the cloud HPC for HPC jobs will emerge for workloadsuser does not have to handle the onerous tasks such as extreme transaction processing,of setting up clusters, provisioning adequate complex event processing, etc. Extensionscapacity nodes (for example, high end compute and customization of MapReduce frameworksnode, I/O capacity node for masters in a master- would emerge for different types of HPCslave configuration). workloads and industry verticals. Parallel computing libraries benchmarked on specificCONCLUSION public cloud platforms would evolve. MoreWe foresee emergence of more mature cloud comprehensive performance benchmarksprovisioning and management solutions of popular public clouds would becomeincreasing the throughput of HPC jobs available. Customized HPC application stackthrough enhanced resource allocation, images would become available for specificscheduling and reliability. Public cloud public cloud platforms easing setup of HPCwith faster inter-node interconnects, that applications on the cloud. Industry verticalare good for communication intensive specific SaaS HPC platforms would emergeHPC jobs, will emerge over a span of time. and performance benchmarked with respectSpecialized on-premise private clouds to specific public cloud platforms. 76
    • High Performance Data Mining- Cloud with map reduce algorithm implementation can be leveraged Intermediate data arranged in key value pair {k.v}- kept ready for further reduction Input data broken to multiple pieces Very large input data K1 having some dependencies Map logic K2 Map logic K3 Output Data Map logic Results Parallel File Systems Ki Map logic Map logic Kj Map Phase {A master will distribute the data based on a key to certain Reduce Phase - Data partition in the intermediate form} structured such the Uses data parallelism to process throughput can be data in parallel improved by using data parallelism Performance considerations Network interconnect between the machines-nodes hosting the map logic intermediate data and reduce logic volume of data transferred to intermediate storage. Performance can improve if map phase can implement local reductionFigure 3: Representation of Map Reduce Workloads Source: Infosys ResearchREFERENCES Computing, Report number PDS- 1. Richard Walsh, HPC Directions in 2008-006, December 2008. Available at Financial Services, July 2008. Available http://www.st.ewi.tudelft.nl/~iosup/ at http://www.idcindia.com/events/ PDS-2008-006.pdf HPC/pdf/IDC%20AP75514Q.pdf 5. Michael Armbrust et al., Above the 2. Amazon Elastic Map Reduce. http:// Clouds: A Berkeley View of Cloud aws.amazon.com/elasticmapreduce/ Computing, Technical Report No 3. Constantinos Evangelinos and Chris UCB/EECS-2009-28. Available at N Hill, Cloud Computing for Parallel http://www.eecs.berkeley.edu/Pubs/ Scientific HPC Applications: Feasibility TechRpts/2009/EECS-2009-28.html, of Running Coupled Atmosphere- February 2009, accessed May 2009 Ocean Climate Models on Amazon’s 6. Krste Asanovic et al., The Landscape of EC2, CCA-08 October 22–23, 2008, Parallel Computing Research: A View Chicago, IL from Berkeley, Technical Report No 4. Simon Ostermann et al., An Early UCB/EECS-2006-183, December 2006. Performance Analysis of Cloud Available at http://www.eecs.berkeley. Computing Services for Scientific edu/Pubs/TechRpts/2006/EECS-2006- 77
    • 183.html known-applications-of-mapreduce/7. Known applications of MapReduce, 8. RightScale. http://www.rightscale. http://www.dbms2.com/2008/08/26/ com/products/. 78
    • SETLabs Briefings VOL 7 NO 7 2009 Infrastructure Management and Monitoring in the Cloud By Kaustubh Janmejay Vaidya Cloud computing initiative can be best driven by a stepped approach, proper planning and internal IT capability assessmentA cost optimization mandate within the business organization and theavailability of cloud computing necessitates an insight into working out a technical roadmap with focus on IT management and monitoring aspects while planning a cloudan understanding of the key aspects in for the organization.managing and operating in an abstract cloud.IT management and monitoring within the CLOUD COMPUTING FOR THE ITlocal organizational periphery is more visible. INFRASTRUCTUREWhat goes beyond this boundary to operate The cloud computing buzz has reached theas a private cloud and further as a public nook and corner of every organization’s ITcloud has its own challenges. There are issues arm and everyone is gearing up to get onin retaining enhanced technical visibility, to the bandwagon early. This technologymonitoring and controlling, security using is not relatively new, but neither hasthe right levers and tools, and on transitioning it matured for an end-to-end businessfrom the local-to-public-to-private level in the functioning. There are a large number ofcloud. options available in the market today and The problem cannot be addressed selecting the right option for one’s businesswith a single formula. It requires incremental is a complex task due to the limited visibilitysteps within the organization that are of IT capabilities within the organizationiterative in nature, validated over a period and also at the vendor end. There is also aof allotted time and those which operate mandate of effective utilization of existingin tandem with the business requirements. IT infrastructure and avoiding furtherAn attempt is made in the paper to provide capital expenditure(capex). 79
    • Option Type Model CPU RAM Disks RHEL cost VMware Total Cost Support (USD) 1 Standalone PowerEdge 2 quad core 2 GB 900 GB Included Not 20000 approx 2950 CPU- E5410 applicable (3 Servers) 2.33GHz 2x6MB Cache 2 Virtualized PowerEdge 2 quad core 16 GB 2700 GB Included – 3 3 yrs 20000 Approx. 2950 CPU- E5430 licenses (1 Server of a 2.66GHz, higher 2x6MB Cache configuration)Table 1: Configuration of Three Standalone Servers vs Source: Infosys ResearchVirtualized Server at Same CostMOVING FROM A STANDALONE TO A To optimize the infrastructure,VIRTUALIZED INFRASTRUCTURE a second option of a single server withFor the smallest of the organizations to start, sufficient configuration can be proposed withthe first step is to understand the importance virtualization software like VMware. Anyof moving from a standalone infrastructure to technological change or movement should firsta virtualized infrastructure. indicate a business value. Let us consider a simple illustration By comparing the above indicativeon optimizing the infrastructure internally costs and configuration in Table 1 we note theusing virtualization. An organization needs following in Table 2.infrastructure for development environment, Besides, if there are different operatingfunctional testing and QA with a budget of systems required for two different partitions20000 USD for server infrastructure. At a they can be accommodated on the same virtualgeneric level, three standalone servers of a server (e.g., Windows and Red Hat Enterprisestandard configuration will be proposed for Linux) as seen in Figure 1.three environments. From the infrastructure monitoring Sl. No. Standalone Infrastructure (3 servers) Virtualization with 1 Server 1 Limited Configuration, Scattered Capacities Higher Configuration, Sharable Capacity 2 Limited Scalability for Servers and no scope for More Flexibility for Server Resource Management and Scope Processing Power Sharing between Servers of Processing Power Sharing between Virtual Servers 3 Islands of Limited Configuration within Budget Effective Higher Configuration at the Same Price within Budget 4 More Management overhead for 3 Servers Less Management Overhead 5 More Space, Power, Cooling Less Space, Power, Cooling 6 Green Initiatives are not served appropriately Organizations Green Initiative Served BetterTable 2: Comparative Analysis Source: Infosys Research 80
    • monitoring tools and will operate a ticketing Physical Server Virtual Server Infrastructure Infrastructure system for resolving user support issues. This simple example thus conveys how Physical an IT organization can reduce infrastructure RHEL Additional Server 1 Spare WIN costs, optimize resources and achieve better Virtual manageability to move away from standalone RHEL Physical RHEL Server dedicated infrastructure. Server 2 Virtual Server RHEL CREATING AN INTERNAL VIRTUALIZED Physical RHEL INFRASTRUCTURE Server 3 Virtual RHEL A number of organizations have already Server made large investments in the dedicated Physical Server 4 RHEL VMWARE infrastructure for multiple environments because were needed at that point in time.Figure 1: Physical Servers and Virtual Server Now these environments with respectableSource: Infosys Research numbers are either in excess or under utilized. It makes business sense to utilize the same infrastructure for new upcoming applications using the excess/spare capacities. This callsperspective, we need to monitor three server for some internal changes for unlockingunits (physical or virtual) in both the cases. these capacities by modifying the internalHowever the flexibility to allocate memory IT infrastructure canvas to transform itto one partition on the fly is not possible into an internal cloud, using virtualizationin the standalone case. After monitoring in technology.virtualized environment, if we find that the It will help the organizations to save onapplication needs more memory, we can new purchases and power, and thus reduceallocate some more from the buffer capacity overall capex. Note that a virtual and dedicatedthat is already available with us. We have server infrastructure may co-exist based onthe flexibility to accommodate some more business criticality and organization’s overallenvironments in the same box in the future strategy of moving to a cloud.that saves cost of purchasing additional There are a number of prominent factorsservers. that an organization should consider and Day-to-day infrastructure management evaluate before delving into virtualization.and support (backups, vendor co-ordination, Factors that need to be considered are —OS upgrades and patching, applicationupgrades) is carried out by internal IT team in ■ Business benefits in term of savings/both the cases. value delivered In case the infrastructure landscape ■ Capabilities of internal teams managingis huge, the team that manages either the the existing infrastructurestandalone or virtualized environment will ■ Flexibility in managing the virtualuse tools like traditional scripts or third party environment 81
    • ■ Groups involved in supporting the IT Other factors of IT management that were landscape done for the standalone infrastructure would ■ Readiness to work in tandem be applicable here too. Rather than a localized ■ Roles and responsibilities backup, centralized backup may come into ■ Policies, procedures, OLAs and SLAs picture and will drive the organization’s affected. backup strategy. Monitoring of the server infrastructure They should be properly evaluated, in case of traditional commands/scripts/planned and executed and need strong backing third part tools would remain the same.and support from the senior management. However, the organization needs to closelyOther technological factors that will come into monitor if there is any change in the licensingpicture are – policies specific to the monitoring agents and licenses that are deployed for the virtual ■ Mode of storage and data access for the servers. This also holds true for all the application (central/NFS/SAN) software licenses that are installed on the ■ Compatibility and interfacing of existing virtual servers. server commodity hardware We note that the organization’s internal ■ Booting processes virtualized infrastructure (or should we call ■ Network access an internal private cloud?) has a boundary ■ Distribution and interfacing of and can be extended upto the limit the server applications resources are available in the organization. ■ Virtualization/cloud readiness for the Beyond this, the IT management would face the application issue of provisioning more resources or adding ■ Ones to move and ones not to move to more servers to the internal private cloud. the virtualized infrastructure. Thus, we understand that internal virtualized infrastructure has limitation of scaling but is Due to the limited dynamic ability of initially suitable for the organization that isthe virtualized infrastructure to provision planning to transition in the future to privateresources, there will be a significant change or public clouds.in the way we look at the configurationmanagement data base (CMDB) from the CONTINUING THE JOURNEY FURTHER —perspective of application usage and updating THE PRIVATE CLOUDinformation. Organizations should look at Crossing over the boundary of the organizationthis process of dynamically updating CMDB. towards a private cloud (or call it externalThe internal ticketing process would also private cloud for location namesake) indicatescontinue to be the same with the exception of that we are moving towards something that isa few variations that are a result of dynamic provisioned as a service (pay-per-use) to us likeprovisioning. a commodity like electricity or water. Management in the internal virtualized It further makes sense to understandinfrastructure would be simplified with various perspectives of vendors, researchers andreference to the provisioning of resources. experts on terminologies like cloud computing, 82
    • vendors of the cloud, cloud computing who manages the private cloud. The endtechnology and services. Organizations also user admin can on the fly create a server bydraw out key considerations before embarking providing the operating system, number ofon cloud services and prepare a scorecard CPUs, memory and disk space. There arebased on the key considerations that has various other granular parameters that differweight, raw score and a weighted score before from vendor to vendor. The responsibility ofdeciding on a value for go, hold or no-go. The the homegrown application tuning still lies withsame can be considered for public cloud too but the IT organization whose end users work onthat requires greater emphasis on factors like the cloud infrastructure.organizational strategy, application criticality, There are a few aspects like applicationfederal norms, security aspects and compliance transition to the private cloud and inter-issues. dependency of the applications that should be Private cloud can be called as a private thoroughly tested before transitioning. Therecomputing facility provisioned for any are vendors who have a process defined as toorganization. All the resources like server’s how data should be transitioned to the cloud,infrastructure and cloud computing software is scheduling the timeframes for backing up thededicated to the organization. Unlike the internal data in the cloud, scheduling of adhoc backupscloud, private cloud is extensible on demand. and restoration options.It has the feature of dynamic provisioning of From infrastructure monitoringthe virtual resources. Different vendors deploy perspective, the standard tools that thedifferent mechanisms for quick provisioning organization uses like scripting can be used.but capacity planning aspect of the underlying Vendors also provide interfaces to display thesystems is closely monitored. End user identity standard monitoring parameters like CPU, diskmanagement and resource provisioning are the space utilization and processes. Third partykey factors that have impact on the security vendors and cloud vendors also are in the frayaspect [1]. to provide the cloud performance parameters. One aspect to note here is that there The web service Amazon CloudWatch thatis a separation between the person who is tracks and monitors Amazons Elastic Computedemanding resources and the person who is Cloud (EC2) service provides real timeprovisioning them. From an organization’s monitoring by using web service APIs orperspective, although it is flexible to manage command line tools for cloud resources withsuch separation, there should be an approval demand pattern parameters like resourceprocess set in the standard processes for utilization, operational performance, and CPUdynamic provisioning of the resources. It might utilization, disk reads and writes, and networkso happen that more resources are consumed utilization [2].and performance tuning aspect of the entities Various aspects like vendortakes a back seat. dependency, switching flexibility from one From infrastructure management vendor to the other, business continuityperspective, the responsibility of managing and disaster recovery capabilities of thethe servers and dynamic provisioning has vendor, application and software support,now shifted to the third party private vendor stability, security aspects, compliance, SLA 83
    • provisioning should be given consideration. Fluctuating and unpredictable load patterns areThere should be a process defined for also factors that decide how we should scaleintegration of the vendors ticketing system up and down in the elastic cloud. A hybridwith the organizations internal one in a cloud infrastructure (mix of private and publicseamless way so that call handling takes place cloud and local virtualized infrastructure) cansmoothly and SLA violations get recorded and also exist.reported accurately. The journey from a standalone infrastructure to the public cloud is shown inFINAL DESTINATION — THE PUBLIC Figure 2. Note the reduction in the peripheryCLOUD and the infrastructure landscape within anThere are four key steps to cloud adoption organization reduce as we move towards thestrategy - access, validate, prepare and execute public cloud. This surely presents a challengethat help the CIOs integrate cloud computing to handle IT Service Management (ITSM)with the IT strategy of a firm. Understanding the processes.key set of activities pertaining to infrastructure, As per the standard ITSM supporttimeframes and challenges associated to processes, the users raise a ticket in themove further would determine how early and ticketing system as illustrated in Figure 3 [3].successfully the organization becomes cloud The ticket appropriately gets processed at theready. client system and is raised as an issue based Support for the organization on the severity level (L1, L2 or L3) in the cloudapplication landscape and if they are cloud- vendors ticketing system. Note that the usersdeployable or cloud ready in the public and the administrators access the resourcesdomain should be evaluated. Here, although in the cloud on the encrypted network as athe technical infrastructure continues to part of security and compliance. Based on theremain like the private cloud, it is not a levels, the ticket traverses through the threededicated one but a shared one wherein levels. User does not have a visibility beyondthe cloud space is shared by a number of this since underlying hardware and resourcesorganization’s and their end users. The provisioned are managed by the cloud vendor.underlying infrastructure that was visible to Based on the dynamic provision requested,the end user gets limited to a set of virtualized usage and the SLAs adhered as per agreedsets that can be monitored and tasks can be terms between the cloud vendor and the client,scheduled remotely. billing will get calculated. Resource usage Data security measures become statistics are visible to the administrator ofprominent in the public cloud and necessitate the client.data encryption and security measures to be From the system administratorsdeployed for flow of traffic across the network. perspective, the CMDB that holds the serverAll the features provided in the private cloud configurations may change frequently (scale uplike creating the server on the fly, dynamic or scale down) based on dynamic provisioningprovisioning of resources, scheduling of available. The process whether to involvethe backups, restoring a earlier backed up the change advisory board (CAB) for everysnapshot are available in the public cloud also. provision needs to be given a thought based on 84
    • § Server resource at cloud vendor § Can be created on-the-fly § Shared server resources (system / database) for IT organization § Further reduction in costs Public Cloud § SLAs / security concerns due to sharing should be addressed appropriately § Vendor provisioned / Third party monitoring tools § Server resources at cloud vendor § Can be created on the fly § Dedicated server resources Organization (system /database) for IT organization Private Infrastructure § Reduction in costs Cloud Landscape and Control § SLAs with cloud vendor § Vendor provisioned / Third party monitoring tools § Virtualizes servers within organization periphery Cloud Vendor / § Flexibility in dynamic resource management to Virtualization certain extent Virtualized Software Vendor Infrastructure § Better visibility to organization server resource Infrastructure management better value of investment than Landscape and standalone option Control § Standalone servers within organization periphery § No virtualization Standalone § Limited flexibility in dynamic resources management § Complete visibility to organization on how servers resources are managed. High costFigure 2: Infrastructure Journey from the Standalone to Source: Infosys Researchthe Public Cloudfrequency and variation on higher side since it internet and installing them as a plug-in shouldis directly linked to costs. not hamper the performance of the application. Some of them are Hyperic (prominently visible),CONTROL IN THE CLOUD USING Nagios, Zennos and others.MONITORING TOOLS The monitoring product Hyperic HQThere are internal monitoring mechanisms for equips IT organizations with the ability tocloud provisioned by the cloud vendor by a third securely monitor internal IT infrastructureparty. However, there are a number of open as well the cloud services [4]. HQ’s ability tosource tools available which can be evaluated automatically discover, monitor and managefor usage. There are various considerations like software services, regardless of type or location,operating systems support, support on thin enables organizations to easily create a unifiedclients (being lightweight) since monitoring view of the performance and health of theirhas to be done across the network or across applications is a definite plus. 85
    • Change Advisory Board (CAB) Usage Billing Configuration Management Dynamic CMDB Cloud Infrastructure Release Management ITSM Monitoring/ Change Management Scheduling/ SLAs Access (encrypted) Problem Management L3 Problem Management ITSM Incident Management Visibility Incident Management L2 to Client Help Desk L1 Help Desk Service Tickets Organization End Cloud Vendor EndFigure 3: Cloud Vendor and Organization ITSM processes Source: Infosys Research An open source monitoring tool Nagios memory utilization and disk space utilization areis a powerful comprehensive monitoring system available in most of the products. Cloud vendorsthat enables organizations to identify and also do provide an administrator interface andresolve IT infrastructure problems before they the usage/billing statistics. The administratorstrike and offer visibility through web interface, can dynamically provision/remove the dynamicalerts reporting and multi-tenant (access based server resource created in the cloud. Clarityview) capabilities [5]. should be obtained on business continuity and Zennos supports full operational disaster recovery provisioning, country of dataawareness by monitoring the entire IT storage (few countries require critical data to beinfrastructure through agentless collection stored within country), provisioning clause forand control. Key features are autodiscovery, switching to a different vendor.IT configuration database, alerting, fault Once the final stage is reached, themanagement, availability and performance organization is free to concentrate on its corereporting and a host of other features [6]. business competencies and outsource a large Organization can select appropriate part of its IT operations to the cloud vendor.cloud vendor monitoring option or a third party The internal IT hardware/license managementtool or a combination of both that would serve overheads will reduce. Does this mean that thebest for comprehensive monitoring. local IT organization will cease to exist? Not All the standard utilization and really. IT organization will have to prominentlymonitoring parameters like CPU utilization, play a role in the following: 86
    • ■ Transitioning of the existing application to have few cloud vendors like regular IT to and from the cloud vendors that it has today. ITSM processes of ■ Ensuring data management and security an organization should be drafted considering aspects the dynamic set of provisioning resources and ■ Planning and developing new application monitoring tools should be adopted as per and monitoring existing applications application compatibility. Future may also and virtual servers necessitate interfacing between two different ■ Handle the dynamic CMDB for the cloud cloud vendors rather than operating in silos which now gets tied to the revenue and having vendor dependency. Most of outflow the vendors have their own offerings today ■ Handling complex interfacing handling and standards for cloud computing are in the cloud taking shape with features that are suitable ■ Monitoring cloud resources usage to different set of organizations. There are statistics and optimizing resource usage initiatives by organizations and groups in that is extensible on the fly this direction to have defined processes and ■ Responsibility of ensuring a balance inter-operatibility between the cloud vendors between resource demands and spending and this will largely shape the adoption of the ■ Handling a hybrid infrastructure mix cloud in the years to come. (public, private and internal virtual infrastructure) REFERENCES ■ Understand portability of the data being 1. Bernard Golden, Defining Private hosted and alternate plans on getting Clouds, Part One, CIO. Available off the cloud if service provider shuts at http://www.cio.com.au/ business [7]. article/304190/defining_private_ clouds_part_oneCONCLUSION 2. A m a z o n C l o u d w a t c h . A v a i l a b l eMoving to a cloud requires small incremental at http://aws.amazon.com/steps, proper planning, willingness from cloudwatch/teams for adoption and a very strong senior 3. IT Service Management. Available atmanagement support. From a standalone http://www.itsm.info/ITSM.htminfrastructure an organization can transition 4. Gartner Names Hyperic “Cool Vendor”to a hybrid one targeting to completely be in Latest Research Report. Availableon cloud in the future. Moving towards the at http://www.hyperic.com/news/cloud reduces the day-to-day IT operational releases/hyperic-named-cool-vendor-management issues since they shift towards the by-gartner.htmlvendors end. Yet the complexities of demand- 5. h t t p : / / w w w . n a g i o s . o r g / a b o u t /cost management, application interfacing, features/security and process management and overall 6. http://www.zenoss.com/product/billing rests with the internal IT organization. network-management As the cloud computing adoption 7. Mario Moreira, Infrastructure - onunfolds, an organization may also prefer Premises or in the Clouds? Agile Journal, 87
    • April 2009. Available at http://www. column-articles/1469-infrastructure-agilejournal.com/articles/columns/ on-premises-or-in-the-clouds. 88
    • THE LAST WORD Cloud Computing — A Disruptive Technology In a freewheeling discussion on multiple facets of cloud as a technology, business trend and other related issues Dr. Srinivas Padmanabhuni poses a set of questions to Jitendra Pal Thethi, Principal, Microsoft Technology Centre and Raghavan Subramanian, AVP and Head of Cloud Computing CoE at Infosys.Srinivas: Raghu, what are your thoughts on because public cloud opens up the possibilitycloud as a disruptive technology? How is it to a lot of great software ideas that remained asrelated to recent trends of grid, virtualization mere ideas so far to be realized now as softwareand SOA? and disrupt well-entrenched software. ThereRaghavan: The technologies that make cloud will also be a lot of disruption on how enterprisespossible have been knocking at the doors of want to develop new applications and maintainthe research community and the common man and enhance their existing applications.for quite some time now. Cloud is not new to Infrastructure engineers will advocate IaaS,scientific research where there is a need for developers will push the evolution of PaaS,massive computational and storage capabilities. while business-stakeholders might be keenCloud is not new to consumer software business on SaaS. Depending on an organization’s ITeither given the fact that Google, Amazon, culture, its IT portfolio could be a mix of theseFacebook and several others have been early different cloud delivery models. Disruption canadopters of cloud. However what is new here also happen if in the enterprise world - a neware the technologies enabling these cloud application like Facebook becomes the preferredcapabilities now available to enterprises small platform to write enterprise or industry specificand large alike. Viewed this way cloud is both applications. The possibilities are limitless butevolutionary and disruptive. Evolutionary the hype generated is working against it.because organizations can try to aggregatetheir own computational, storage and network Srinivas: Jitendra, how do you think cloudneeds and use the abstraction provided by can help enterprises in contrast to the popularvirtualization to reap cost, scalability, time-to- SMB segment?market and several other benefits. Disruptive Jitendra: The value proposition of cloud applies 89
    • more to an enterprise segment than to an SMB must also help to identify the SaaS potentialin many different ways. Cloud certainly helps to of some of the custom applications within antranslate the investments from capital expense enterprise and help them in re-architectingto operating expense which is becoming a a custom application into a multi-tenant,good financial lever for enterprises. More customizable, pay-as-you-go metered SaaSimportantly, with a cloud based infrastructure application.the speed at which a solution can be broughtto market is radically fast. With cloud, the Srinivas: Any thoughts on relative penetrationlead time to get the infrastructure in place of cloud in different verticals?is translated from weeks to minutes that Jitendra: The penetration of the cloud infurther help organizations in getting their new different verticals is truly workloads driven.solutions and ideas roll out quickly. This small Verticals like life sciences where there is a largechange is a huge catalyst to innovation in an data processing and computation involved areenterprise. Organizations can quickly pilot a leveraging cloud for scaled-out architecture.solution, measure its effectiveness and use it Verticals like banking and financial industriescreate competitive advantage. are coming toward approaching cloud from a cost structure and resource optimizationSrinivas: What are the business opportunities perspective. In the area of manufacturing andfrom an IT services perspective? retail the emphasis is more towards leveragingRaghavan: Enterprises always look up to the publically available infrastructure andIT service providers for trusted opinions scenarios of partner integration.on anything new. Enterprises would likeconsultants to help them with their cloud Srinivas: What have been the typical businessstrategy and implementation. In order to drivers considering the early adopters we havedo this IT service providers must be able to worked with?understand an enterprise’s organizational Raghavan: Once again, the term cloud is broadculture - the ecosystem in which it operates as it includes public, private, community andand its IT portfolio before adopting cloud hybrid models of cloud delivery. From the earlystrategy. IT service providers also need to have adopters of public cloud we see a few patternsa firm grasp on the various cloud offerings, the emerge. Testing and other environments that arepotential and the limitations of the technology. not required through the year are being createdEnterprises need to understand the issues on a need basis on the public cloud. One-offone can face and acquaint themselves with computational needs, like data crunching,limitations and workarounds to overcome them. archiving, etc., are also happening on publicIT service providers have the role of tempering clouds. Some of the new applications with lessthe marketing hype and provide a balanced and emphasis on security are getting developed inunbiased view of the relevance of cloud and its a public cloud. On the private cloud front itadoption for an enterprise. IT service providers is primarily to do with virtualization of datahave the role of helping enterprises migrate centers. So the applications are being movedrelevant legacy applications and develop new away from deployment models where theyapplications using cloud. IT service providers used to run on dedicated hardware. This further 90
    • means that independent software vendors to cloud is not simple with the existence(ISV) support for virtualization is becoming of multiple vendors that make the overallan important factor for the future of ISVs. The migration cost and time high and therefore notbusiness drivers for the public cloud are time- much practicable.to-market, pay-as-you use, less in-house staff,opex instead of capex, standardization of IT Srinivas: What are your thoughts on cloudand the ability for IT department to embrace an standardization and interoperability?imminent future paradigm among various other Raghavan: Let us look at the standardizationthings. For private or internal cloud the business needs at the IaaS layer, since PaaS and SaaSdrivers are very similar to virtualization i.e., bring a different set of problems to the picture.abstraction of hardware resources, elastic IaaS needs a standard to ensure that anscalability (limited), improved utilization of application and its dependencies can behardware, etc. extracted and abstracted from its current running environment and deployed on toSrinivas: What are the business and technology any target virtual machine, private or public.inhibitors/showstoppers when it comes to This problem arises because cloud-playerscloud adoption? are providing point-solutions that addressJitendra: Most of the business challenges this problem only in the narrow context ofare associated with the lack of trust on an their self-interest. Open virtualization formatexternalized infrastructure. Data privacy, (OVF) is trying to address this problem throughsecurity and compliance are pressures which standards, while companies like AppZero aredo not allow use of a cloud infrastructure addressing this through their technologiescrossing global boundaries. Ambiguity on (Virtual Application Appliance). The secondSLA definition and lack of end-to-end SLAs for problem comes from the proprietary storagebusiness services do not leave businesses to take formats used by cloud-players that would meana calculated risk to grab the cost advantages. either vendor lock-in or the need to write dataLastly, the penalties agreed upon by the cloud extraction logic for vendor specific storageproviders for SLA breach is disproportionate to technologies. This problem has to be solvedbusiness loss caused due to a possible outage. either through standards or by innovative From a technology standpoint, the technologies.heterogeneity of managing different cloudvendors lead to integration challenges and Srinivas: What are the key takeways formanagement overheads. Today, only a handful systems integrators?of software licenses from vendors are available Raghavan: System integrators with a closeon a pay-by-use model and hence are not proximity to customers have to play a crucialavailable as part of cloud provider. Third, role in taking the benefit of cloud computingmany cloud providers impose new models of to the enterprise customers. However theirdevelopment like use of column database rather approach to cloud computing will determinethan relational database that further creates a if they continue to retain their proximity to thelot of ambiguity and design problems. Lastly, enterprises. Let me illustrate this point with onethe migration from an on-premises application example. Consider SLAs. System integrators 91
    • have to decide whether they will bundle the consultant. He can be reached at Jitendra_Thethi@infra-offering and front the SLAs to provide a infosys.com.single-point-of-contact for customers or whetherthey partner with infra-players and carve out Raghavan Subramanian is an Associate Vicedifferent realms of SLAs thereby leading the end- President and the head of Infosys Cloud Computingcustomer to deal with multiple players. There center-of-excellence.are multiple ways in which system integrators Raghu was in the recent past with the Infosyscan retain and increase their proximity with SaaS unit where he was product manager for SaaStheir customers by making software (whether it social media platform and program manager foris running on IaaS or PaaS infrastructure or if it Infynity, the Infosys Social Network.were already consumed as SaaS) the focus of the He advises many clients in the areas ofinteraction with the enterprise customers. There information security, Enterprise Applicationare new models like process-as-a-service (PraaS) Integration and Object-oriented programming.where process services are bundled along with He has co-authored two patent applications,software to provide a higher level of abstraction has written several white-papers and articles in peer-to customers. reviewed journals and magazines.About the Discussants Srinivas Padmanabhuni PhD is a PrincipalJitendra Pal Thethi is a Principal Architect with Research Scientist, leading the Software EngineeringInfosys and anchors presales activities for Infosys and Distributed Computing Labs in SETLabs, Infosys.solutions and IP built on disruptive technologies He has several publications to his credit including ain the areas of Cloud Computing, Collaboration, book, several book chapters and conference publications.Data Virtualization, Call Center Optimization and His research interests include distributed computing,Mobility. global software development, service oriented software Jitendra has over fourteen years of experience engineering and enterprise architecture. He can bein IT industry as a Solution Architect and Technology reached at srinivas_p@ infosys.com. 92
    • IndexApplication Development and Maintenance, Ownership 67also ADM 59 Privacy 91Agents 4, 6-7, 9, 67, 82 Security 67 Delivery 4, 6-7, 9 Service 17 Management 67 Volumes 23 Monitoring 82 Dense Linear Algebra, also DLA 70Business Productivity Online, also BPO 16 Elastic Compute Cloud, also EC2 16, 21, 25, 63,Change Advisory Board, also CAB 84, 86 66, 77, 83Cloud Computing Interoperability Forum, Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol,also CCIF 20-21, 24-25 also XMPP 20Component 21, 30, 36-37, 46, 51 Extension Protocol, also XEP 20 Administrative 46 Identity Management, also IDM 45-53, 83 Agent 21 Independent Software Vendor, also ISV 43, Analyzer 37 55-68, 91 Application 30 Infrastructure as a Service, also IaaS 20, 24, 45, Authenticator 46 47, 53, 89, 91-92 Disseminator 37 IT Service Management, IDM 51 also ITSM 84, 86-87 Processes 36 Layer 14-15, 17-18, 21-24, 50 Profiles 30 Abstraction 21 Provisioning 46 Authentication 50 Registry 37 Cloud Application 17-18Configuration Management Database, Cloud Infrastructure 17-18also CMDB 82, 84, 86-87 Cloud Platform 17-18Content Delivery Network, also CDN 17, 61 Orchestration 21-24Customer Relationship Management, UCI 21also CRM 6, 17, 63 Virtualization 14-15Data 5-7, 13, 17, 19, 23, 25, 28, 32-35, 41, 43, 62, Line of Business, also LOB 7064, 66-67, 84, 91 Manager 35-37, 39 Application 35 Metering and Accounting, Assimilation 34 also MAM 35-37 Center 5-7, 13, 19, 25, 28, 32-33, 41, Computation and Storage 35-36 43, 62, 64, 66 Subscription Registry 35-37 Collection 34 WSN Virtualization 35-36, 39 Encryption 84 Non-functional Requirements, also NFR 25 Monitoring 33 OpenID 5, 47-48, 50, 52-53 93
    • Platform as a Service, also PaaS 13, 20, 24, 47-48, Service Level Agreement, also SLA 15, 27, 32,89, 91-92 37, 46, 63, 67, 71, 74, 83Quality of service, also QoS 20, 28-29, 56, 59, 63 Software as a Service, also SaaS 4, 17, 20, 24,Sales Performance Management, also SPM 65 34-38, 45, 47, 48, 55, 58, 60-63, 65, 67, 76, 89-92Sensor Event as a Service, also SEaaS 34-38 Total Cost of Ownership, also TCO 3, 9, 56,Service Administered Markup Language, 59-60, 62also SAML 46-52 Unified Cloud Interface, also UCI 20-21, 25Service Provisioning Markup Language, Wireless Sensor Network,also SPML 46, 52-53 also WSN 33-39 94
    • SETLabs Briefings BUSINESS INNOVATION through TECHNOLOGY Editor Editorial Office: SETLabs Briefings, B-19, Infosys Technologies Ltd. Praveen B Malla PhD Electronics City, Hosur Road, Bangalore 560100, India Email: SetlabsBriefings@infosys.com http://www.infosys.com/setlabs-briefings Guest EditorSrinivas Padmanabhuni PhD Consulting Editor SETLabs Briefings is a journal published by Infosys’ Software Engineering Jitendra Pal Thethi & Technology Labs (SETLabs) with the objective of offering fresh Deputy Editor perspectives on boardroom business technology. The publication aims at Yogesh Dandawate becoming the most sought after source for thought leading, strategic and Copy Editor experiential insights on business technology management. Sudarshana Dhar Graphics & Web Editors SETLabs is an important part of Infosys’ commitment to leadership Ankur Madnani in innovation using technology. SETLabs anticipates and assesses the Srinivasan Gopalakrishnan evolution of technology and its impact on businesses and enables Infosys Program Manager to constantly synthesize what it learns and catalyze technology enabled Abhoy K Jha business transformation and thus assume leadership in providing best IP Manager of breed solutions to clients across the globe. This is achieved through K V R S Sarma research supported by state-of-the-art labs and collaboration with industry ITLS Manager leaders. Ajay Kolhatkar PhD Marketing Manager Infosys Technologies Ltd (NASDAQ: INFY) defines, designs and delivers Pavithra Krishnamurthy IT-enabled business solutions that help Global 2000 companies win in a Production Manager flat world. These solutions focus on providing strategic differentiation Sudarshan Kumar V S and operational superiority to clients. Infosys creates these solutions Distribution Managers for its clients by leveraging its domain and business expertise along Santhosh Shenoy with a complete range of services. With Infosys, clients are assured of a Suresh Kumar V H transparent business partner, world-class processes, speed of execution and the power to stretch their IT budget by leveraging the Global Delivery How to Reach Us: Email: Model that Infosys pioneered. To find out how Infosys can help businessesSETLabsBriefings@infosys.com achieve competitive advantage, visit www.infosys.com or send an email to Phone: +91-40-67048455 infosys@infosys.com Post: SETLabs Briefings,B-19, Infosys Technologies Ltd. © 2009, Infosys Technologies Limited Electronics City, Hosur Road, Infosys acknowledges the proprietary rights of the trademarks and product names of the other companies Bangalore 560100, India mentioned in this issue. The information provided in this document is intended for the sole use of the recipient and for educational purposes only. Infosys makes no express or implied warranties relating to the information Subscription: contained herein or to any derived results obtained by the recipient from the use of the information in this setlabsbriefings@infosys.com document. Infosys further does not guarantee the sequence, timeliness, accuracy or completeness of the information and will not be liable in any way to the recipient for any delays, inaccuracies, errors in, or omissionsRights, Permission, Licensing of, any of the information or in the transmission thereof, or for any damages arising there from. Opinions and and Reprints: forecasts constitute our judgment at the time of release and are subject to change without notice. This document praveen_malla@infosys.com does not contain information provided to us in confidence by our clients.
    • NOTES
    • Authors featured in this issueADI MALLIKARJUNA REDDY VAdi Mallikarjuna Reddy V is a Junior Research Associate in SETLabs, Infosys. He can be contacted atAdi_Vanteddu@infosys.com.AJIT MHAISKARAjit Mhaiskar is a Principal Technology Architect with the Manufacturing business unit of Infosys. He can bereached at Ajit_Mhaiskar@infosys.com.AMIT WASUDEO GAWANDEAmit Wasudeo Gawande is a Technology Lead at SETLabs, Infosys. He can be contacted at Amit_Gawande@infosys.com.ANJANEYULU PASALAAnjaneyulu Pasala PhD is a Senior Research Scientist at SETLabs, Infosys. He can be reached at Anjaneyulu_Pasala@infosys.com.ANU GOPALAKRISHNANAnu Gopalakrishnan was a Product Technical Architect in SETLabs, Infosys.ASHEESH CHADDHAAsheesh Chaddha is a Project Manager with Performance Engineering and Enhancement practice, Infosys.He can be reached at Asheesh_Chaddha@infosys.com.ASHUTOSH AGARWALAshutosh Agarwal is a Senior Project Manager and certified PMP with Infosys. He can be contacted atashutosha@infosys.com.A V PARAMESWARANA V Parameswaran is a Senior Technology Architect with Infosys Performance Engineering and Enhancementpractice. He can be reached at Parameswaran_AV@infosys.comBHA VIN JAYANTILAL RAICHURABhavin Jayantilal Raichura is a Senior Technology Architect with the Manufacturing unit of Infosys. He can becontacted at Bhavin_Raichura@infosys.com.DEEPAK JOHNDeepak John is a CRM Consultant with the Enterprise Solutions business unit at Infosys. He has a keen interestin emerging technologies and can be reached at deepak_john@infosys.com.GANESAN PANDURANGANGanesan Pandurangan is a Senior Technology Architect working with System Integration unit of Infosys.He can be contacted at Ganesan_Pandurangan@infosys.com.KAUSTUBH V AIDYAKaustubh Vaidya is a Project Manager for shared database services with the Infrastructure ManagementServices unit of Infosys. He can be reached at Kaustubh_Vaidya@infosys.com.KUMAR PADMANABHKumar Padmanabh PhD is a Research Scientist and leads the wireless sensor networking (WSN) research groupat SETLabs, Infosys. He can be contacted at Kumar_Padmanabh@infosys.comNIDHI TIWARINidhi Tiwari is a Senior Technical Architect with SETLabs, Infosys. She can be reached at nidhi_tiwari@infosys.com.RAHUL BAKHSHIRahul Bakhshi is a Consultant with the Enterprise Solutions business unit of Infosys. He can be contacted atrahulsantosh_b@infosys.com.SHYAM KUMAR DODDA VULAShyam Kumar Doddavula is a Principal Technology Architect at SETLabs, Infosys. He can be reached atshyamkumar_d@infosys.com.SIV PRASAD KATRU ASiva Prasad Katru is a Junior Research Associate in SETLabs. He can be contacted at SivaPrasad_Katru@infosys.com.SRINIV PADMANABHUNI ASSrinivas Padmanabhuni PhD is a Principal Research Scientist in SETLabs, Infosys. He can be reached atsrinivas_p@infosys.com.SUDEEP MALLICKSudeep Mallick PhD is a Principal Research Scientist with Infosys SETLabs. He can be contacted atsudeepm@infosys.com.SUMIT KUMAR BOSESumit Kumar Bose PhD is a Senior Research Associate with Distributed Computing Lab of SETLabs. He canbe reached at Sumit_Bose@infosys.com.
    • Subu Goparaju “At SETLabs, we constantly look for opportunities to leverage Vice President technology while creating and implementing innovative businessand Head of SETLabs solutions for our clients. As part of this quest, we develop engineering methodologies that help Infosys implement these solutions right first time and every time.”For information on obtaining additional copies, reprinting or translating articles, and all other correspondence,please contact:Telephone : +91-40-67048455Email: SetlabsBriefings@infosys.com© SETLabs 2009, Infosys Technologies Limited.Infosys acknowledges the proprietary rights of the trademarks and product names of the othercompanies mentioned in this issue of SETLabs Briefings. The information provided in this documentis intended for the sole use of the recipient and for educational purposes only. Infosys makes noexpress or implied warranties relating to the information contained in this document or to anyderived results obtained by the recipient from the use of the information in the document. Infosysfurther does not guarantee the sequence, timeliness, accuracy or completeness of the information andwill not be liable in any way to the recipient for any delays, inaccuracies, errors in, or omissions of,any of the information or in the transmission thereof, or for any damages arising there from. Opinionsand forecasts constitute our judgment at the time of release and are subject to change without notice.This document does not contain information provided to us in confidence by our clients.