VOL 7 NO 7        2009cLOud cOmpuTINg
cloud computing:                             pinnacle of IT Infrastructure                             democratization    ...
SETLabs Briefings                                                                                     VOL 7 NO 7          ...
“Cloud is designed to be available ever ywhere, all thetime. By using redundancy and geo-replication, cloud is so designed...
SETLabs Briefings                                             VOL 7 NO 7                                                20...
The horizontals describe the actors in                       CLOUD COMPUTING: THE RISE TOeach of these verticals.         ...
from InformationWeek says “It’s very hard                increasingly rich as they become more andto add a significant new...
ROLE ENTITIES: CLOUD TRENDS                              on the PDA while on the move or on high-The following sections lo...
has more than 7000 data centres and predicts            important for the delivery agents to weighthat the number of serve...
requirements of the bandwidth hungry                     content delivery through the cloud – a clear shiftcontent and app...
consumers to transfer risk. ‘My problem’ now              REFERENCESbecomes A look at an IDC study makes it clear         ...
Shape Enterprise Data Center Strategies.                     19. h t t p : / / g i g a o m . c o m / 2 0 0 9 / 0 3 / 0 9 /...
SETLabs Briefings                                            VOL 7 NO 7                                               2009...
Business Business Business                                                                              Provision      Sol...
infrastructure that can be requested on                  control of the IT organizations makes       demand.              ...
several organizations. Enterprise private                             Automationcloud solutions add capabilities like self...
for infrastructure as a service and can get it          holds true. Not just the infrastructure, evenprovisioned on demand...
computing. Also, scenarios that involve                   operating system but also the software stack,sensitive data and ...
Cloud Application Layer           CRM SaaS            Financial Service           Health Care              Community      ...
applications developed using the cloud                              Startups You Should Know, Informationplatform services...
SETLabs Briefings                                             VOL 7 NO 7                                                20...
Stora                                        behind an open and standardized cloud               n APIs      Security     ...
layer that is agnostic to any cloud API, platform          all allocated resources and running VMs. Aor infrastructure. Th...
The initiatives of some of the early adopters                      Eli Lilly and the various cloud servicestowards Cloud O...
■ Note that the client uses only one single    Cloud 1                Cloud 2            Cloud 3                         A...
service, the platform support required by           to use brokers/adapters for interoperability.       the service could ...
When applications are migrated from                  the way towards realizing the true potential/one cloud to another, ap...
11. Cloudonomics: Article RightScale Adds           whats_next_in_t.html;jsessionid=35MV   Amazon EC2 Europe to List of Su...
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  1. 1. VOL 7 NO 7 2009cLOud cOmpuTINg
  2. 2. cloud computing: pinnacle of IT Infrastructure democratization cloud computing, in brief referring to the emergent concept of flexible access to resources on a tap, with pay-as-you-go model, over the all-pervasive network, SETLabs Briefings Advisory Board stirs an uncanny familiarity to the popular slogan of a leading airline out of India, Simplifly, whose model of low cost aviation is a classic case of disruptive Gaurav Rastogi innovation. The notion of simplifly lowered the bar of access to flying, thereby Associate Vice President, democratizing air travel. On a similar note, the cloud computing concept manifests Head - Learning Services itself in myriad forms like simpliStore or simpliCompute, technically also referred to George Eby Mathew storage as a service or computation as a service, or broader terms like platform as a Senior Principal, service and infrastructure as a service. Infosys Australia The democratization effect of cloud is loud and clear from the multiple Kochikar V P PhD SmEs, including startups, which have been early cloud adopters. Likewise, even Associate Vice President, large enterprises have begun looking at the low hanging fruits to exploit cloud,Education & Research Unit especially in areas like infrastructure rationalization, where the cost advantages of cloud are immediately visible. Notwithstanding these adoption trends, a few Raj Joshi Managing Director, questions need to be answered before we can begin to see the cloud as an inflexion Infosys Consulting Inc. point in IT. Is cost the only driver for cloud? Is there a mainstream enterprise play Rajiv Narvekar PhD Manager, for cloud? Is there an innovation angle to cloud? What are the showstoppers to R&D Strategy mainstream adoption of cloud? What applications are better suited for cloud? Software Engineering & In this issue, we attempt to cover the breadth and depth of issues in an Technology Labs attempt to provide the answers. On the democratization front, while one article Ranganath M discusses internal deployment of utility model via private cloud yet another Vice President & article elucidates how high performance computing, usually a costly proposition, Chief Risk Officer can be made available to masses for massive number crunching and simulations. Subu Goparaju going beyond cost, we see interesting articles on how cloud can power Vice President & Head, innovative business models like service exchanges. We also discuss the power of Software Engineering & Technology Labs cloud in offering innovative solutions for consumers needing ubiquitous access to infrastructure be it to store data for wireless sensor networks or ISVs needing ubiquitous storage and compute power. On the other side, potential new service opportunities leveraging cloud are identified like infrastructure management services for cloud. A key contribution of this issue is in the several articles that delve deeper into the several showstoppers plaguing the cloud, requiring a leap of faith on part of enterprises to go from ‘adopting low hanging fruits’ to ‘strategic adoption.’ Key showstoppers of ‘interoperability’ and ‘standardization’ are explored in depth alongside usability and security. Overall, we hope the issue helps in ‘clearing the clouds’ to cloud adoption and that the word cloud is no longer a homonym, i.e., it is cloudy to adopt cloud. Happy reading! Srinivas padmanabhuni phd guest Editor
  3. 3. SETLabs Briefings VOL 7 NO 7 2009Trend: Cloud Computing — Transforming the IT Ecosystem 3By Rahul Bakhshi and Deepak JohnCloud computing has a wide array of things to offer. Each stakeholder in the cloudcomputing space has enough reasons to smile for the goodies it brings along. The authorsopine that since it is here to stay enterprises should explore the possibilities and seek theright fitment with what cloud has to offer.Discussion: Adopting Cloud Computing: Enterprise Private Clouds 11By Shyam Kumar Doddavula and Amit Wasudeo GawandeAn agile pay-per-use business model can prove to be cost effective for small and largefirms alike and can turn a new leaf in the way business and IT usage is defined, opine theauthors.Insight: Cloud Interoperability and Standardization 19By AV Parameswaran and Asheesh ChaddhaThe authors contend that while moving the existing applications to cloud or integratingdata and application to the cloud platform, an eye on standardization will lend a congenialand effortless move to the new platform.Model: SLA Aware ‘on-boarding’ of Applications on the Cloud 27By Sumit Kumar Bose PhD, Nidhi Tiwari, Anjaneyulu Pasala PhD and Srinivas Padmanabhuni PhDWhile adopting cloud computing, SLA aware on-boarding of application onto cloudplatforms enables a streamlined exercise, transparent deadlines and better transition, statethe authors.Platform: Can We Plug Wireless Sensor Network to Cloud? 33By Adi Mallikarjuna Reddy V, Siva Prasad Katru and Kumar Padmanabh PhDVirtual communities, real time data share and analysis can add a different dimension to theexisting IT scenario. The authors suggest a holistic approach towards cloud through Web2.0 technologies to usher in a new age of business.Third Angle:Cloud – Five Minute into the First Quarter 41Amitabh Srivastava Senior VP, Windows Azure, Microsoft in an interview with JitendraPal Thethi, provides clarity on defining cloud computing and discusses the key traits andfuture prospects of exploring this new promising IT platform.Viewpoint: Cloud Computing Identity Management 45By Anu GopalakrishnanBeyond all the silver lining that cloud holds, the author draws our attention to identitymanagement, a growing concern in the dynamic world of virtual space. A seamless and risk-free identity management is the basis for the evolving scenario of virtual workspace, opinesthe author.Opinion: Service Exchange @ Cloud 55By Bhavin Raichura and Ashutosh AgarwalBusiness on cloud can mean low investment and high returns. Services exchange on cloudcan prove to be a win-win situation for all stakeholders, at either end of service offering andconsuming.Perspective: Revenue and Customer Growth for ISVs using Cloud Offerings 61By Ajit Mhaiskar and Bhavin RaichuraVirtualization is already in vogue and ISVs have to adapt themselves to suit the changingmodel to be able to attract and retain customers. The authors bring up some pertinentissues related to ISVs’ revenue growth and the evolving cloud space.Research: Power in the Clouds? 69By Sudeep Mallick PhD and Ganesan PanduranganHigh performance computing (HPC) is required for faster processing time in complex andparallel processing applications scenario. The authors focus on how the architecture ofcloud computing platform can be exploited fruitfully for HPC application execution.Spotlight: Infrastructure Management and Monitoring in the Cloud 79By Kaustubh Janmejay VaidyaCloud seems to be the most alluring IT innovation to every organization today. This paperoffers well-laid roadmaps to help in planning and organizing cloud adoption.The Last Word: Cloud Computing — A Disruptive Technology 89By Srinivas Padmanabhuni PhDIndex 93
  4. 4. “Cloud is designed to be available ever ywhere, all thetime. By using redundancy and geo-replication, cloud is so designed that services be available even duringhardware failures including full data center failures.” Amitabh Srivastava Senior Vice President Microsoft Technologies “System integrators with a close proximity to customershave to play a crucial role in taking the benefit of cloud computing to the enterprise customers.” Raghavan Subramanian AVP & Head – Cloud Computing CoE Infosys Technologies Limited
  5. 5. SETLabs Briefings VOL 7 NO 7 2009Cloud Computing — Transforming the IT Ecosystem By Rahul Bakhshi and Deepak John Cloud computing is here to stay and promises a fresh approach to the IT ecosystemC loud computing has emerged at an inflexion point in the industry and ourlives, where IT is all prevalent and is no longer With cloud computing sweeping across the IT and business world, the economics of this emerging world will be very different.the panacea for all industry ills. Jumping to the This paper looks at the prospects that cloudfront seat are buzzwords like TCO, business computing presents to all the stakeholders indrivers, regulatory compliance, real-time data the IT ecosystem during the transformation.streams, SOA, mobility, Web 2.0, etc. A quicklook around shows that any company worth THE IT ECOSYSTEMits salt claims to be a cloud company or at least To gather the changes that will come along withclaims to have a cloud strategy in place. The cloud computing and to better understand theacceptance of cloud computing as a mainstream way the IT ecosystem is projected to evolve,technology is gaining momentum rapidly we have segmented the IT ecosystem intobecause of a strong alignment between cloud horizontals and verticals.computing and the demands of an enterprise [1]. The verticals define the domain/type of It is interesting to note that we have all services/products offered:been touched by cloud computing in some wayor the other, irrespective of whether or not we are ■ Hardware: Infrastructure, network,aware of it. Every time we access emails through storage and computing solutionapplications like Gmail and Yahoo, view content providers, etc.on YouTube and Flikr, or post on Facebook, weare making use of cloud computing. ■ Software: Independent software Cloud computing is here to stay and vendors, value added resellers, etc.Gartner hype cycle identifies cloud computingas one of the key technology triggers of our ■ Service: Communication, media andtimes in the 2008 hype [2]. entertainment service providers, etc. 3
  6. 6. The horizontals describe the actors in CLOUD COMPUTING: THE RISE TOeach of these verticals. PROMINENCE Cloud computing offers a new, better and ■ Enablers: OEMs, independent software economical way of delivering services and vendors, etc. all the stakeholders will have to embrace the dramatic changes to exploit opportunities to ■ Delivery Agents: Value added avoid becoming irrelevant. resellers, communication, media and Following are some of the key trends/ entertainment service providers, last changes that we expect to see: mile access suppliers, etc. Movement across Domains and Competencies: ■ Consumer: Enterprise and retail users. Technology providers are realising that in order to leverage economies of scale, it is essential The complex relationship can be best to have competencies across hardware andrepresented if we consider that the consumer software verticals. Nokia for example, operatingutilizes services and delivery agents act in the handset and telecom infrastructureas intermediaries adding value to the raw space, has boldly ventured into the socialcapabilities offered by the enablers [Fig. 1]. networking space with Ovi. The acquisition It is important to realize that the roles for of US internetworking (an application servicethe actors are not limited and the entities may provider offering managed hosted applicationsspan across domains and roles. With renewed like PeopleSoft and SAP) in 2006 has enabledinterest in decoupling technology from services AT&T to offer enterprise-class cloud servicesand the falling price of bandwidth, the cloud labelled Synaptic Hosting.model of operating will drive visible growth Acquisitions, although the preferredand collaboration horizontally, vertically as route, need not be the only route, as with allwell as across quadrants. disruptive and emerging technologies, cloud computing will drive the creation of alliances spanning hardware, software and services, for instance, HP - Intel - Yahoo [3]. NetSuite, a leading vendor of on-demand enterprise services has announced its partnership with BT to deliver io n rat Consumer services via the SaaS model [4]. We also expect to bo olla see an increased clarity with standardization and dC Su Utility Cost interoperable open models like DTMF Incubator pp Delivery an o Agents rt ion and Open Cloud Manifesto [5, 6]. rat eg Int Enablers Loss of Differentiation and Startup Power: The utility or value delivered by a product will triumph over the product itself. HardwareFigure 1: Relationships between Consumer and Enablerthrough Delivery Agents and software commoditization will give waySource: Infosys Research to service commoditization. As George Crump 4
  7. 7. from InformationWeek says “It’s very hard increasingly rich as they become more andto add a significant new capability to existing more service focused [11]. For the mass, cloudproducts [7].” As we move up the triangle in computing is all about ubiquitous access toFigure 1, hardware and software enablers and content. Thus, telecom and media companies aredelivery agents will collaborate and co-innovate reinventing themselves to become on-demandto differentiate services. solution providers, aiming to provide complete John Foley describes start-ups as having experience, as opposed to just providing servicesthe innate capacity to drive innovation and fill in silos. Citrix president Mark Templeton said,niches, while pushing down costs and driving “Optimization of the user experience will happenup performance [8]. There will be a delicate in the data centre, at the edge of the networkshift in the balance of power from traditional and in internet cloud, allowing IT to deliver anyenablers to start-ups that deliver ideas, the application to any user with the best performance,likes of 3Tera, Appirio, Coghead and Kaavo. security and cost savings possible [12].” This isThis is reflected by the fact that venture capital evident from the increased investments in serverinterest in the ‘cloud’ is high. While VC funding and storage consolidation. Cisco’s ‘medianet’has dried up in many areas in this recession, suite, for one, has been built around advancedsome 25 startups in the cloud space garnered collaboration and entertainment, targeting bothmore than $150 million in VC funding in the the business and home user.past year [9]. Security and Legal Implications: It isNew Sales and Pricing Models: Delivery important to realise that even if data andof cloud computing requires optimised applications are stored and accessed remotely,infrastructure management costs and increased the responsibility of the security and integrityoperational efficiencies. This will have of data lies with the individual. Authenticationconsiderable impact on the way the enablers and authorization on the cloud, entangled withrealize revenues. The key trend to arise will be similar requirements offline will drive the needthe acceptance of the subscription model (opex for interoperable (across services and devices)model) resulting in customers increasingly identity management. Single sign-on will betransforming ‘my problem’ into ‘your problem.’ an area of investment. Ventures in this fieldWith the subscription model, the enablers include Microsoft Active Directory (within thewill require an upfront investment. However, enterprise) and OpenID. Also, issues aroundthe breakeven will be hazy depending on the privacy and the way individuals exercisevolume of subscribers. The traditional delivery control over personal data stored remotely willmechanisms (brick and mortar, media like need to be addressed.CDs and DVDs) are on the decline and not Hardware and software services availabletransforming will mean sudden death, as is through the cloud may span geographies andevident from Blockbuster’s partnership with cloud providers may soon subcontract theirTiVo in an attempt to ward off Netflix [10]. services. All the three actors will have to understand the implications of having sensitiveData/Content Driven Innovation: The data on the cloud and regulatory compliancesapplication delivery platforms will become viz., SOX, HIPPA, etc., governing the same. 5
  8. 8. ROLE ENTITIES: CLOUD TRENDS on the PDA while on the move or on high-The following sections look at the consequences definition TVs at home. This mandates higherof the cloud for each of the roles defined in the investment in product development but doesprevious section in greater detail. not necessarily allow a longer concept-to- market cycle.The Enablers To support the increased demand andEnablers provide resources that drive and adoption of cloud computing, the enablerssupport the creation of solutions in terms of are aligning their resources to provideboth hardware and software that the consumer multi-tenanted architectures, virtualizationutilizes. Following are the buzz words in the technologies along with support to highlyenabler’s arena: scalable and elastic services. Virtualization technologies span platforms, resources andConsolidation and Integration: With the markets applications and the likes of VMware’s Mobilechanging rapidly, it is imperative for players virtualization platform are steps in that direction.to find new opportunities. Some of the recent In fact enterprises are already reaping benefitsacquisitions highlight the clear horizontal of this. Westar Aerospace & Defence Group hasexpansion across hardware and software been successful in slashing their data centre sizetowards services. For instance, with its purchase by 50% and power and cooling costs by 30% withof Sun, Oracle has become a true cloud player a server virtualization solution from Dell [14].with services now ranging from operatingsystems, programming/development platforms, Environmental Sustainability and Data Centres:ERP, CRM and other support utilities, giving Environmental awareness will further driveOracle an edge over its competitors and allowing enterprises towards cloud computing as itit to offer the entire gamut of computing services allows considerable reduction in energy costs.required by any enterprise. Gartner estimates that over the next five years, Examples of integration within the most enterprise data centres will spend asdomain include Adobe acquiring Virtual much on energy (power and cooling) as theyUbiquity - developer of online word processor; do on hardware infrastructure [15]. To quoteGoogle acquiring FeedBurner - leader in RSS VMware, “Gartner estimates that 1.2 millionservices; and AT&T acquiring Ingenio - live workloads run in VMware virtual machines,search and commerce application provider, to which represents an aggregate power savingsname a few [13]. of about 8.5 billion kWh—more electricity than is consumed annually in all of New England forUbiquity and Virtualization: The fact that the heating, ventilation and cooling [16].” Cloudconsumer would demand seamless access to enabling technologies like virtualization andcontent, impacts both the enablers as well as server consolidation can help enterprises reducethe delivery agents (providers in the software energy costs by as much as 80%.vertical, a little more than anyone else). The Data centre consolidation will be drivenchallenge being, developing applications that by cost, space and energy savings. HP, for one,are ‘portable’ and offering seamless content is replacing 85 data centres with just six locateddelivery – whether on the office laptop or in America. According to IDC, America alone 6
  9. 9. has more than 7000 data centres and predicts important for the delivery agents to weighthat the number of servers will grow to 15.8 pros and cons before investing in the platforms.million by 2010. In driving the cloud data In the retail space Microsoft and Google cancentres, Linux complemented by open source emerge as dominant players due to the inertiasolutions will be at the forefront. IDC expects keeping consumers tied to its suite of products.Linux spending to boom by 21% in 2009 [17]. Supporting them will be hardware players Cloud computing is also driving the (a near monopoly of Intel) and virtualizationusage of netbooks or laptops that are enhanced providers like Citrix and VMware. The situationfor mobility, compromised on computing is complicated in the enterprise space, drivencapacity with a reduced storage capacity. by leaders like Amazon, Oracle, IBM andTherefore, there will be an increased demand Google. Cross platform compatibility and easefor transfer processing and storage in data of migration demanded by the consumer willcenters. IDC reported that netbooks accounted require the delivery agents to understand longfor 30% of all laptop sales in Europe during the term strategies.fourth quarter of 2008, with 3.6 million netbookssold [18]. Death of the System Integrators: System integrators, as we know them today, will haveMarginalization of Fringe Players: Desktop to take a second look at their model of operation.based utilities and tools like MS Office and With the rising popularity of subscriptionNorton antivirus will see a reduction in their based applications like Siebel On-Demand andinstalled user base and will ultimately be SalesForce.com, the demand for customised on-marginalized, as the same services will be premise will decrease, taking away with it theavailable online. The traditional fringe players biggest market of the SIs. In the long term, ITwill have to re-invent themselves to align services providers will have to increase effortswith the new modes of delivery, warranted to provide end-to-end management of the ITby the cloud. Adobe is already providing an estate (or whatever little would be left of it)online version of its graphics editing program or work along with the product companies tocalled Photoshop. Appistry is one of the offer technical support to their customers. Oncemore innovative companies and has recently cloud computing technology reaches the criticallaunched the CloudIQ platform, offering mass, there will be an increased demand fromenterprises the capability to port nearly any enterprises to migrate data, applications andenterprise application to the cloud [19]. content to the cloud. In the short term, service providers need to ready their arsenal to deliverThe Delivery Agents consulting services across technology andDelivery agents are value added resellers of the human resource domain.capabilities offered by the enablers. Followingare the key changes that we foresee in this Last Mile Connectivity: When push comes todomain: shove, availability will triumph over utility. Internet service providers (ISPs) and lastCollaboration, Partner Driven Work Environments: mile access supplier will have to ramp upIndustry alliances are being forged and it is their offerings rapidly to meet the increasing 7
  10. 10. requirements of the bandwidth hungry content delivery through the cloud – a clear shiftcontent and applications, with fibre being the in perspectives [20].predominant technology for last mile access. The ConsumersNew Pricing and Delivery Models: Sales channels Consumers are the demand side of the cloudwill also have to evolve to provide ubiquitous equation and following are the trends for them:delivery models and the revenues are going tobe long-tailed as the sales model will shift to a Convergence, On-Demand: The retail customersubscription based service, which will imply will now, more than ever, come to expect on-that customer retention and loyalty becomes demand everything - be it multimedia content,all the more important. So all players will have applications, gaming or storage. AMD’s newto reinvent, be it the telecom operators who campaign ‘The Future is Fusion’ is againare shifting focus to value added services or reflective of the changing times. For the retailthe internet media houses that have to come user, it is all about bringing together convergentup with variants of their web pages that can multimedia solutions on any screen supportedbe accessed from mobile devices offering a with advanced graphics capabilities; for theconsistent user experience, along with richer enterprise user it is delivering enhanced serverinteractive applications to keep the customers and powerful virtualization capabilities [21].hooked on. Collaboration and Social Networking: CloudPiracy: With the onset of the cloud, the users based platforms like Facebook and Twitterwill no longer be required to download or will become destinations for collaboration,install applications in the traditional sense. e-commerce and marketing. Enterprises areIn the online world, controlled access implies already planning to listen to the voice of thethat piracy will become increasingly difficult, if customer using such tools.not impossible. Case in point being the online Collaboration and virtual workspacedocumentation services offered by Zoho, since solutions will see increased investments. Athere is no application that has to be installed key player in this space is WebEx, acquiredat the users’ end, there is no chance of having by Cisco in 2007 for $3.2 billion – again ana pirated version of the application. example of a hardware player moving to the Likewise with online gaming, the software cloud domain. Another promisingproblem of pirated copies of the games being technology is IBM’s Bluehouse, based on Lotusspread around, resulting in millions of dollars Notes. This enables employees among businessworth of revenue loss can be curbed. OnLive partners or within the same organization tois one of the pioneers in this field and has share documents and contacts, collaborate onsigned contracts with major video game content joint project activities, host online meetings andproviders like Warner Brothers, Electronic build social-networking communities.Arts and Epic Games. What is interesting isthat Nvidia, a provider of high end graphics Back to Core Competencies: The cloud enablesprocessors and cards, primarily in the desktop businesses to focus on their core competencysegment, has welcomed the initiative of game and cloudsource the IT estate enabling the 8
  11. 11. consumers to transfer risk. ‘My problem’ now REFERENCESbecomes A look at an IDC study makes it clear 1. Frank Gens, What User Want from IT:that businesses want the cloud because of the Speed, Relevance, Information andcost benefit [22]. Innovation, IDC exchange, March 2008. Available at http://blogs.idc.com/Decentralization of Management: The traditional ie/?p=141view of management and governance of IT 2. Gartner Highlights 27 Technologiesresources through standards and frameworks in the 2008 Hype Cycle for Emerginglike ITIL, Sarbanes Oxley, HIPPA, etc., will Technologies, Gartner, 2009change. As much as the technological impacts, 3. h t t p : / / w w w . h p . c o m / h p i n f o /the challenges for enterprises will also be to newsroom/press/2008/080729xa.htmlmanage employee expectations working in a 4. http://www.netsuite.com/portal/decentralised and distributed manner. Many press/releases/nlpr04-22-08b.shtmllegacy IT system integrations will break and 5. http://www.dmtf.org/about/cloud-enterprises need to clearly understand and incubatorestimate the risks of losing visibility and control 6. h t t p : / / b l o g s . z d n e t . c o m /over critical data. Hinchcliffe/?p=303 7. http://www.informationweek.com/CONCLUSION news/software/hosted/showArticle.Cloud computing promises different things to jhtml?articleID=210602537different players in the IT ecosystem. It offers 8. http://www.informationweek.com/a radical way of collaborating, delivering news/software/hosted/showArticle.applications and content. More importantly it is jhtml?articleID=210602537here to stay. So it is easy to see why the enablers 9. http://www.ciozone.com/index.php/are paving the way for massive adoption of Cloud-Computing/Unraveling-the-the cloud and why are the delivery agents Cloud-Ecosystem.htmlleveraging their positions to catch the cloud 10. http://www.informationweek.com/demand. As for the enterprise, it reduces the cloud-computing/article/showArticle.TCO of the IT infrastructure while increasing jhtml?articleID=216300432agility. 11. h t t p : / / c o m m u n i t y . z d n e t . c o . u k / It is important to realise that the complete blog/0,1000000567,10008269o-shift to the cloud is not imminent, but enterprises 2000458459b,00.htmwill be better off with a long term vision for 12. h t t p : / / c o m m u n i t y . z d n e t . c o . u k /technology, people, information, legality and blog/0,1000000567,10008269o-security to leverage capabilities offered by 2000458459b,00.htmcloud computing. The delivery agents, more 13. h t t p : / / s t a r t u p . p a r t n e r u p .than any other players, need to reassess their com/2008/01/02/2007-acquisitions-role in enabling and delivering cloud computing web-internet-technology/to consumer for lack of innovation and not 14. http://whitepapers.techrepublic.com.keeping pace with the growth will result in com/abstract.aspx?docid=360865marginalization. 15. Rakesh Kumar, Eight Critical Forces 9
  12. 12. Shape Enterprise Data Center Strategies. 19. h t t p : / / g i g a o m . c o m / 2 0 0 9 / 0 3 / 0 9 / Available on www.gartner.com appistry-opens-the-cloud-to-almost-16. http://www.vmware.com/solutions/ all-apps/ consolidation/green/ 20. http://www.edge-online.com/news/17. h t t p : / / w w w . e c o n o m i s t . c o m / nvidia-onlive-a-net-positive-us b usiness/displaySt ory .cfm?st ory_ 21. http://news.softpedia.com/news/ id=11413148 AMD-Launches-039-The-Future-is-18. N e t b o o k T r e n d s a n d S o l i d - S t a t e Fusion-039-Campaign-93711.shtml. Technology Forecast, Consumer 22. Frank Gens, IT Cloud Services User Behavior Report. Available at https:// Survey, pt.3: What Users Want from mr.pricegrabber.com/Netbook_ Cloud Services Providers, October Trends_and_SolidState_Technology_ 2008. Available at http://blogs.idc. January_2009_CBR.pdf com/ie/?p=213 10
  13. 13. SETLabs Briefings VOL 7 NO 7 2009 Adopting Cloud Computing: Enterprise Private Clouds By Shyam Kumar Doddavula and Amit Wasudeo Gawande Cost efficiency riding on the agility of cloud computing appeals enterprises the mostC loud computing delivers IT capabilities as services-on-demand. This scalable andelastic model provides advantages like faster requirements of the internet era [Fig. 1]. In this system centric model, once the need for a business application is identified, itstime-to-market, no capex and pay-per-use infrastructure needs are identified and abusiness model. While there are several such request for infrastructure is placed with thebenefits, there are challenges in adopting public IT infrastructure team that procures andclouds because of dependency on infrastructure provisions the infrastructure. The applicationthat is not completely controlled internally is then developed, tested and deployed on thatand rather shared with outsiders. Several infrastructure.enterprises, especially large ones that have Some of the challenges with this modelalready invested in their own infrastructure include —over the years are looking at setting up privateclouds within their organizational boundaries ■ Need for Large Capex: Large investmentsto reap the benefits of cloud computing need to be made in procuring thetechnologies leveraging such investments. This infrastructure for a business application.paper describes the different options available, This increases the barrier for innovationhighlighting the key advantages and challenges as it is hard to experiment with aposed by each and the approach enterprises business idea without large investments.should be taking in adopting cloud computingwith minimal risk. ■ Poor Utilization of Resources: Application usage is not going toWHY CLOUD COMPUTING? be constant yet the infrastructure isTraditional infrastructure provisioning provisioned for peak demand, to be ablemodel is inefficient and does not meet the to guarantee application SLAs. So, the 11
  14. 14. Business Business Business Provision Solution 1 Solution 2 Solution n Business Resolve Required Requirements Plan Infrastructure Solution Infrastructure HP IBM SUN Business Provide Solution Architect Assign Team Servers Servers Servers Fulfilling Requested Requirements Resource Infrastructure RepositoryFigure 1: Infrastructure Provisioning: Traditional Model Source: Infosys Research infrastructure remains under-utilized ranging from infrastructure to platforms and for a major part of the time. applications. This is commonly referred as infrastructure-as-a-service, platform-as-a- ■ Slow Time-to-Market: This model of service and software-as-a-service. procuring and provisioning infrastructure This cloud computing model offers usually requires significant time and several appealing benefits for enterprises reduces the agility of an organization in including — creating new business solutions. ■ Faster Time-to-Market: Enterprises can Figure 2 below provides an overview avoid the step of initial infrastructureof the service centric provisioning model with procurement and setup, thus allowingcloud computing. the business solutions to be taken to In the cloud computing model, IT- market faster.related capabilities are made available asservices that can be provisioned on demand. ■ On-Demand Elastic Infrastructure:There are several offerings from various Sudden spikes due to business growth,vendors that enable provisioning different functionality additions or promotionalIT components as services, components offers can be addressed easily with Service Service Procurement Request Service Management Cloud Service Infrastructure Portal Provisioning Assign Workflow Consumer Requested Service Platform Templates Cloud Management Repository and BillingFigure 2: Infrastructure Provisioning: Cloud Computing Source: Infosys ResearchModel 12
  15. 15. infrastructure that can be requested on control of the IT organizations makes demand. it dangerous for some mission critical applications. ■ Pay-as-Use: Organizations can leverage the pay-as-use model of cloud computing ■ Vendor Lock-in: Cloud computing to ensure optimum utilization of services offered by different vendors available resources. are not governed by any standards as of today. Depending on the vendor, thePUBLIC CLOUDS AND CHALLENGES applications have to undergo changes toPublic clouds like Amazon AWS, Microsoft adapt to the service.Azure, Google AppEngine offer infrastructureand platforms as services over the internet. In ■ Leveraging Existing Investment: Mostpublic clouds, resources and costs are shared large organizations that have alreadyby users who use them over the internet on pay invested in their own data centers wouldper use model. see a need to leverage those investments This model appeals especially to startups as an important criterion in adoptingand small organizations that have not invested cloud computing.in hardware resources and are looking for waysto avoid the large capex involved in procuring ■ Corporate Governance and Auditing:infrastructure upfront. Even though there are Performing governance and auditingseveral benefits like cost savings, faster time to activities with the corporate datamarket, etc., from this model, there are a few abstracted in the public cloud poseschallenges listed below that are preventing wide challenges, that are yet to be addressed.scale adoption of public clouds. ■ Maturity of the Solutions: Some of ■ Security: The biggest roadblock is the the PaaS offering like AppEngine offer potential security issues due to multi- limited capabilities like only a subset of tenant nature of public clouds. There JDO API. are security and privacy concerns with sharing same physical hardware with ENTERPRISE PRIVATE CLOUDS unknown parties that need to addressed. In order to overcome these challenges, organizations are looking at enterprise ■ Reliability and Performance: private cloud offerings. Enterprise private Performance and availability of the cloud solutions help organizations leverage applications are important criteria the existing IT environment and create a defining the success of an enterprise’s cloud computing platform in the private business. However, the fact that internal network. This model overcomes organizations lose control over IT several challenges faced in public cloud environment and important success adoption. Enterprise private clouds are metrics like performance and reliability, seen as a natural progression of initiatives and are dependent on factors outside the like virtualization already taken up by 13
  16. 16. several organizations. Enterprise private Automationcloud solutions add capabilities like self- The private cloud solution should have certainservice, automation and charge back over the traits -virtualized infrastructure. Figure 3 provides the recommended ■ A provisioning engine that automateslogical architecture for an enterprise private the provisioning of the infrastructurecloud. ■ Workflow driven with built-in approval mechanisms enabling governanceSelf Service ■ Enable user management and integrationThe private cloud solution should have a with enterprise authentication andself service portal that enables users request authorization mechanismsinfrastructure and platforms as a service. ■ Enable enforcing enterprise policies onIt should contain a service catalog that lists resource allocation through a rules enginethe categories and the services available, the ■ Enable capturing the commonassociated SLAs and costs. deployment patterns using templates. The service portal should enablereserving as well as requesting the services on Self-service and automation helps reducedemand. the time-to-market so that users can request Service Portal Service Monitoring and Management SLA Trouble Self Service Catalogue Reports Management Ticketing User Approval Deployment Patch Metering Management Pattern Library Management Charge Back Alerts/Events Workflows Monitoring and Management Provisioning Policies Scheduling and Inventory Provisioning Engine and Rules Engine Load Balancing Virtual Network Management Service Templates Virtual Storage Management Virtual Machine Management Storage Virtualization Compute Virtualization Virtualization Layer Virtual Machines Virtualization Layer NAS SAN Physical InfrastructureFigure 3: Enterprise Private Cloud Architecture Source: Infosys Research 14
  17. 17. for infrastructure as a service and can get it holds true. Not just the infrastructure, evenprovisioned on demand. the internal clouds are to be built and managed by the IT team. Moreover, as the underlyingManagement and Monitoring infrastructure is limited, it is likely to be lessThe private cloud solution should also have scalable as compared to the immensely robustan integrated monitoring and management and scalable infrastructure of cloud providers.platform that should have the following The model also does not benefit from the lowercomponents — upfront capital costs and less management overheads that are otherwise possible withMonitoring and Management: Track various public clouds.metrics at the software and infrastructure level So, the recommended approach is to adopt a hybrid one where both public andMetering & Chargeback: Track the usage of the private clouds are used for different categories ofvarious services and allow to charge back applications. With this approach, organizationsmechanisms to be plugged in can reap the benefits of both public and private cloud models. This approach allows enterprisesSLA Management: Enable, define and monitor to adopt the public clouds partially, deployingSLAs for the services only those services that are suitable for public clouds. The private cloud helps apply the cloudPatch Management: Enable patches to be rolled computing model internally as well. Thus theout to the various software components used hybrid approach brings together the best in both worlds of public and private clouds.Reports: Generate reports on usage, SLA As technology matures, there will beadherence, etc. better options for creating such an enterprise cloud. There are already solutions availableIncident Management: Generate alerts when there that provide abstractions over infrastructureare issues and provide ticketing mechanism to available internally through virtualizationtrack and resolve incidents. software like vmware ESXi, Xen, HyperV and public clouds like AWS. Also there areVirtualization VPN solutions available that can help create aThe private cloud solution should have secure network spanning infrastructure acrossvirtualization layer that virtualize the key enterprise data centers and public clouds.infrastructure components including compute, There are still challenges to be addressed likestorage and network. latency, automated routing and load balancing, end-to-end SLA management, etc., before suchENTERPRISE CLOUD: HYBRID APPROACH solutions become enterprise ready.Private clouds help overcome some of thechallenges associated with public clouds but TYPICAL USE CASES FOR PRIVATEthey are not as cost effective as public clouds CLOUDSsince the traditional model of owning, i.e., Scenarios where there are only intermittentbuying and managing the infrastructure, still usages of infrastructure are ideal for cloud 15
  18. 18. computing. Also, scenarios that involve operating system but also the software stack,sensitive data and processes, or mission thus enabling creation of virtual appliances thatcritical applications are better suited for can be provisioned on-demand.enterprise private clouds. Some of the typicaluse cases where enterprise private clouds can Cloud Burst: With a computing stack thatbe leveraged include - provides abstraction over the underlying cloud infrastructure and enables applications and dataDevelopment and Test Platforms as Services: There to reside together on both private and publicare studies that indicate that around 30% of clouds, when there is sudden spike in usagethe infrastructure at large enterprise is used and the in-house private cloud environmentfor development and testing. These resources is not able to support the requests, additionalare not always utilized as development and infrastructure can be provisioned from a publictesting are activities that happen occasionally. cloud without affecting the service quality.These resources can be provisioned through anenterprise private cloud so that the resources High Performance Grid: Enterprise private cloudscan be shared and utilized better and also the can also be used to create grid environments sotime to provision can be reduced. that the infrastructure that would otherwise have got dedicated only for specialized gridPublic Cloud Emulation Environments: Private applications can be utilized better.clouds can be used to emulate a public cloudenvironment and can be used as a development TYPICAL USE CASES FOR PUBLIC CLOUDSand test platform while developing the Some of the initial services that can be movedapplications to be deployed on the particular into public cloud are those that are not businesspublic cloud. The design, architecture and or mission critical or do not deal with thethe actual code can be validated using the sensitive data. Some of the typical use casesprivate cloud environment. Further, the where public clouds can be leveraged include.same environment can also be used to testthe developed applications for functionality BPOs: Business productivity online (BPO) suiteas well as validations before it moves to the applications are one of the first applications ofproduction at a public cloud. An example of public clouds in enterprises. There are severalthis is usage of the open source Eucalyptus vendor offerings like exchange online and Googleframework to emulate some of the Amazon Apps that offer messaging and collaborationAWS functionality. It can be used to create software as services on subscription modelthe development and test environment that that can reduce the overheads associated withemulates AWS EC2 and S3 environments. maintaining such application on premise.Virtual Appliances: Private clouds can be used Data Backup and Archival: Cloud storageto create virtual appliances that leverage is cheaper and offer storage on demand. So,commodity hardware to create specialized enterprises are looking at public cloud storagedevices like load-balancers, storage devices, etc. solutions for their data back up and archivalA machine image is created with not only the needs. 16
  19. 19. Cloud Application Layer CRM SaaS Financial Service Health Care Community Application Application Service Application Portal Cloud Tools Admin Tools Cloud Platform Layer Cloud Application Frameworks Social Service Development Multi-tenant Batch Frame Analytics Commerce Composition Tools Web Framework Work Framework Framework Framework Cloud Management and Infrastructure Layer Migration Tools Cloud Infrastructure Services Messaging Service Storage Service Compute Service Data Service Testing Tools Cloud Management Services SLA Emulators Metering Billing Administration Security Management Cloud Adapter Framework Public Cloud Enterprise Cloud (Private Cloud) AWS AZURE App EngineFigure 4: Enterprise Cloud Computing Stack Source: Infosys ResearchInternet Content Management: Content that Cloud Infrastructure Layerneeds to be accessible from the internet like The cloud infrastructure layer provides the coreproduct literature, etc., can be stored in public middleware capabilities like compute, storage,cloud storage solutions. Amazon Offers S3 data stores, messaging, etc., as on-demandfor storage and cloud front for CDN that services. These use the infrastructure from publicincreases the efficiency of delivering such and private clouds and provide abstractions forcontent. the platform and application services. Organizations should build a cloudcomputing stack that helps them adopt this Cloud Platform Layerhybrid approach efficiently. The recommended The cloud platform layer provides thecloud computing stack is shown in Figure 4 with specialized frameworks like a multi-tenantthe various layers and the various components web framework for developing web basedneeded for managing the cloud, developing applications, analytics and batch frameworksand deploying enterprise applications and based on MapReduce algorithms, cloud basedmaintaining the applications using the cloud social commerce framework, etc.computing environment. The cloud computing stack consists of Cloud Application Layerthe following layers - The cloud application layer consists of SaaS 17
  20. 20. applications developed using the cloud Startups You Should Know, Informationplatform services. Week, September 2008. Available at http://www.informationweek.com/CONCLUSION news/software/hosted/showArticle.In the current economic climate where the jhtml?articleID=210602537expectations of efficiencies and cost savings 3. Private Cloud Computing for Enterprises:are growing from IT organizations, enterprise Meet the Demands of High Utilizationprivate clouds provide a good opportunity to and Rapid Change. Available at http://get started with cloud computing and reap www.cisco.com/en/US/solutions/the associated benefits of agility, cost savings collateral/ns340/ns517/ns224/ns836/and on-demand services while meeting the ns976/white_paper_c11-543729.htmlstringent enterprise security, performance and 4. Daniel Nurmi, Rich Wolski, Chrisreliability requirements. Grzegorczyk Graziano Obertelli, Sunil Soman, Lamia Youseff and DmitriiREFERENCES Zagorodnov, The Eucalyptus Open- 1. James Staten, Deliver Cloud Benefits source Cloud-computing System, Inside Your Walls, Forrester, April University of California, Santa 2009. Available at http://www. Barbara. Available at http://open. forrester.com/Research/Document/ eucalyptus.com/documents/nurmi_ Excerpt/0,7211,54035,00.html et_al-eucalyptus_open_source_cloud_ 2. J o h n F o l e y , 2 0 C l o u d C o m p u t i n g computing_system-cca_2008.pdf. 18
  21. 21. SETLabs Briefings VOL 7 NO 7 2009 Cloud Interoperability and Standardization By A V Parameswaran and Asheesh Chaddha Adoption of cloud rests largely on interoperabilty and standardization as they define the new age IT industryC loud computing can be defined as accessing third party software and services on weband paying as per usage. It facilitates scalability by limiting cloud choice because of vendor lock- in, portability, ability to use the cloud services provided by multiple vendors including theand virtualized resources over internet as a ability to use an organization’s own existingservice providing cost effective and scalable data center resources seamlessly. Businesssolution to customers. Cloud computing has applications and data remain in cloud silos.evolved as a disruptive technology and picked There is a need for complex developed businessup speed in 2008 and 2009 with the presence of applications on the clouds to be interoperable.many vendors in cloud computing space. Cloud adoption will be hampered if there is not With the presence of numerous vendors, a good way of integrating data and applicationsthe need is emerging for interoperability across clouds.between clouds so that a complex and developedbusiness application on clouds is interoperable. CLOUD COMPUTING STANDARDS ANDIn this paper we provide cloud computing INTEROPERABILITY VIEWstandards and interoperability view, examine To start with, we provide a cloud computingsome high level approaches for interoperability standards and interoperability view to showand look at important interoperability factors. some aspects/areas of interoperability and standardization in the cloud computingNEED FOR INTEROPERABILITY landscape [Fig. 1 overleaf]. When we lookEvery new cloud service provider have their across the broad range of things that peopleown way on how a user or cloud application consider in cloud computing, potentiallyinteracts with their cloud leading to cloud API hundreds of standards will be involved. Thepropagation [1]. This kills the cloud ecosystem good news is that many of these standards 19
  22. 22. Stora behind an open and standardized cloud n APIs Security ge ng utatio Brokeri Com p Billing ePayment interface. Thus a key driver of the unified Transactions Provisioning Management Lifecycle Management cloud interface (UCI) is to create an API of VMs Regulatory Compliance Replication Deployment on about other APIs. Network unicati Platform QoS Comm Logging ice Service Registries / ic Serv Monitoring Dynam reements Level A g Modeling Ontologies ■ It is a singular abstraction/programmatic ccess Accounting Job Scheduling Migration of Vms Data A point of contact that encompasses the ent Distributed anagem Programming Load M Cloud Services (SOA) Query Processin g entire infrastructure stack as well as Policies Notification Workflow mic Sc aling Pr Business ocess Modelin emerging cloud centric technologies Autono g IaaS Caching / Distributed Caching SaaS PaaS Coordination through a unified interface.Figure 1: Cloud Computing Interoperability ViewSource: Infosys Research ■ The purpose of cloud broker is to serve as a common interface for the interaction between remote platforms, networks,probably already exist. Reuse of good standards systems, applications, services, identityshould therefore be a primary strategy. Creating and data.a big picture view of the cloud computinglandscape is therefore necessary to understand ■ Having a common set of cloud definitionsthe what, where and why of standards. Once the is an important factor that would enableoverall view is understood, a gap analysis on vendors to exchange managementthe standards can then be done to see what information between distant cloudstandards we have and the standards we need. providers.INTEROPERABILITY APPROACHES ■ The important parts of unified cloudWe discuss some of the emerging approaches interface (UCI) or cloud broker are afor interoperability at a high level. specification and a schema. The actual model descriptions are provided by theApproach 1: Unified Cloud Interface/Cloud schema and the details for integrationBroker with other management models areCloud computing vendors have formed defined by the specification.a common platform — cloud computinginteroperability forum (CCIF) — to address ■ The unified cloud model will addressthe problem of cloud interoperability and both the platforms as service offeringsstandardization [2]. The purpose of CCIF is as well as infrastructure cloud platforms.to discuss and come up with a common cloud It will enable a hybrid cloud computingcomputing interface. CCIF is planning to come environment that is decentralized,up with a unified cloud interface (a.k.a. cloud extensible and secure.broker) whose features are as follows: Figure 2 shows a bird’s eye view about ■ Unified cloud computing is trying to the vision of the UCI project of CCIF [3, 4]. The unify various cloud APIs and abstract it primary goal is to come up with an abstraction 20
  23. 23. layer that is agnostic to any cloud API, platform all allocated resources and running VMs. Aor infrastructure. The architecture comprises component on the left side of Figure 2 is usedof layers and components with a use case to depict this. [6].described at the UCI project requirement page[5]. The architecture abstracts the usage of any Approach 2: Enterprise Cloud Orchestrationcloud API and unifies them in one layer. This is Platform /Orchestration layerdone with the help of semantic web and OWL According to IDC, in virtually every industry,which has a pool of resources semantically thousands of companies are trying to simplifyunderstood and described. This enables the the speed and adoption of their products anduser to use these resources irrespective of services by transforming them into cloudwhether these resources are being allocated services. We see that the race to the cloud isfrom provider Amazon EC2 or Enomaly accelerating [7]. The scenario that is unfoldingplatform, etc. Having a unified interface with is that there will not be just one cloud butcommon definitions of these resources helps numerous types -- private clouds and publicto do operations like allocation, de-allocation, ones. These will further get divided into general-provisioning of virtual machines or managing purpose and specialized ones. Similar to thethem through the UCI layer using the agent way that internet is a network of networks,component. Assuming that the interface to InterCloud means a federation of all kindsUCI is provided to the user via a web browser of clouds. All these clouds will be full ofor UCI cloud client, the UCI should provide applications and services. It will not be possiblea kind of a dashboard that shows the state of to use these without some type of orchestration. External Cloud ECP Amazon Ec2 Google App Engine Any Provider UCI Agent Messaging Local Server DB Semantic and OWL Engine Internal Cloud Infrastructure XML RDF Query Engine VMS Provision Layer Management and Control Layer Unified Cloud Interface (UCI)Figure 2: UCI Architecture Source: www.code.google.com [8] 21
  24. 24. The initiatives of some of the early adopters Eli Lilly and the various cloud servicestowards Cloud Orchestration are discussed it subscribes to. This layer should bebelow. provided by another vendor and not Eli Lilly itself and should comprise ■ Vendors like Cordys advocate the of various algorithms that determine need for a layer in the cloud that the best cloud service for a particular provides assembly and orchestration job based on factors like highest for enterprises, which helps to deliver performance, lowest cost or other useful business advantages [9, 10]. requirement. This approach will help Cordys delivers an enterprise cloud Eli Lilly and other users to write to a orchestration platform that helps single API rather than many and help to enterprises to quickly adopt new ways optimize service usage. Eli Lilly also sees of running their business and reaching the potential of using cloud computing their customers. for external collaboration. It is already doing some of this, but foresees that ■ Rightscale is another vendor that going forward, the cloud will become provides an orchestration layer/ a point of integration between Eli Lilly cloud management platform. A single and outside researchers. They have work management platform is provided to going on at present that starts to fit into conveniently manage multiple clouds this collaborative scheme. This gives an that facilitates businesses to migrate example of how standardization needs deployments [11]. It helps businesses to are driven both by vendors as well as manage and scale cloud deployments as end users. well as facilitate application migration and management across multiple clouds. ■ CSC has recently announced cloud Similarly organizations like Suntec are orchestration services for cloud services looking at building an orchestration integration. This provides clients with layer for billing infrastructure. features like service level management, data transparency, remote monitoring, ■ Eli Lilly, a pharmaceuticals company auditing and reporting [13]. These uses Amazon web services and other services also provide automated cloud services to provide high- arrangement, management, federation, performance computing to hundreds coordination, security and operation of its scientists based on need. In future, of public, private and hybrid cloud it foresees the possibility of using cloud computing environments, supporting services from many different vendors industry-specific compliance, etc. and wants to avoid a scenario where Eli Lilly has to configure and manage Figure 3 illustrates how a client can each of those separately [12]. Eli Lilly consume the services offered by more than describes the need for an intermediate one cloud service provider (CSP) via an orchestration layer that is in-between orchestration layer. 22
  25. 25. ■ Note that the client uses only one single Cloud 1 Cloud 2 Cloud 3 API offered by the orchestration layer 5. Execute 7. Execute Service 3 3. Register and thus is insulated from the different Service 1 Service 3 6. Execute 2. Register APIs offered by different CSPs. Service 2 Service 2 Orchestration ■ Figure 3 shows an example of how a 1. Register Layer client request for executing a business Service 1 4. Execute Business process (or workflow) is satisfied by Process the orchestration layer by invoking a Client sequence of three different services provided by three different CSPs.Figure 3: Cloud OrchestrationSource: Infosys Research The challenges with such an approach are discussed below. T h e f e a t u r e s o f t h e a p p r o a c h a re ■ Service Level Management: Sinceexplained below. the orchestration layer provides functionality to dynamically select ■ Different cloud service providers can and bind to services based on criteria/ register the cloud services that they offer algorithms that determine the best with the orchestration layer. This is similar cloud service for a particular job based to vendors who offer web services on highest performance, lowest cost or publishing their web services with the other requirement as specified by the Universal Description, Discovery and client, such an approach will involve Integration (UDDI). The orchestration performance overhead due to runtime layer can then dynamically select and binding delays. bind to services based on criteria/ The orchestration layer also algorithms that determine the best cloud needs to interpret client API calls service for a particular job based on and translate them suitably to invoke factors like highest performance, lowest services provided by different CSPs. This cost or other requirement as specified by will involve latency as well. the client. ■ Data Volumes: Depending on the ■ Note that since the orchestration layer provided service, the data volumes interacts with the cloud services offered required to be transported across cloud by different vendors via different APIs, services is another important factor to be it can use user-computer interface (UCI) considered. For certain types of services, for interacting with different CSPs or this could be a limiting factor due to the have similar functionality built-in to be overhead involved. able to understand and interact with different CSPs via different APIs. ■ Platform Support: Depending on the 23
  26. 26. service, the platform support required by to use brokers/adapters for interoperability. the service could also be a limiting factor. New users however will be able to natively use the standard API. There will also be ■ Others: Apart from the above, vendors developing orchestration layers to there could be other challenges like build business processes/workflows using the security, regulatory compliance, data cloud services provided by different vendors. transparency, etc. With some of the major vendors like Microsoft and Amazon rejecting the CCIF agenda andIMPORTANT INTEROPERABILITY pursuing their own interoperability agenda,FACTORS this makes standardization and consensusThis section discusses the emerging scenario more difficult and could lead to multipleand other important interoperability factors standards. This could lead to a scenario in thefrom different viewpoints. long run where multiple standards co-exist We see that there are multiple initiatives and customers using brokers/adapters forby stakeholders from industry, academia and interoperability for using services from multipleusers. This does help the problem or parts of the cloud service providers.problem being addressed by multiple standard It is also important to look at standardsbodies/forums/consortiums in parallel and also required from the perspective of differentprovide diverse view points. But it is important industry verticals. For example, HIPAAfor the standard bodies, vendors and users to sit compliance could be important for healthcaretogether, discuss and arrive at a consensus on services, SOX compliance could be importantthe standards and APIs in different areas and for financial services, etc. This requires activeshare information. This is all the more essential participation from different vendors and usersdue to the duplication and overlaps among the from these verticals in standard bodies. It willvarious groups involved. The flip side of the also be good if different vertical specific groupsstory is that this could lead to the possibility of are setup in order to focus and discuss theseveral standards emerging and possible lack vertical specific requirements and come up withof consensus. It is important for the standard standards that are vertical specific.bodies/forums/consortiums to have balanced Another challenge is that since there arerepresentation of interests in order to avoid bias many models of cloud computing (SaaS, PaaS,towards certain stakeholders’ agenda. IaaS), standards are required for particular Though initiatives like OGF’s OCCI models and not just one set. There is a needare trying to come up with standards in a to prioritize and concentrate on core set ofquick timeframe, it takes time for standards standards to start with and then expand toto mature and for reference implementations other areas. It is important to note that overto become available. Till then the users will specification inhibits innovation. Patents anduse APIs/platforms from cloud computing intellectual property could be a hurdle forvendors, whichever they feel is most suitable standardization process. Unlike Sun’s openfor their requirements. When standards cloud platform APIs, it will be interesting toemerge and these vendors want to use the see if other vendors give their cloud APIs andservices of other vendors, then they will need protocols to the community. 24
  27. 27. When applications are migrated from the way towards realizing the true potential/one cloud to another, apart from functionality, benefits of cloud computing.it is also important to ensure that non-functionalrequirements (NFRs) are satisfied as well in REFERENCESthe new migrated environment. This requires 1. Cloud API Propagation and the Race tostandards for defining and exchanging meta Zero (Cloud Interoperability), Januaryinformation regarding the application between 2009. Available at http://www.the cloud service providers to check for elasticvapor.com/2009/01/cloud-API-compliance of NFRs before actual migration of propagation-and-race-to-zero.htmlthe application via VM migration. The scenario 2. The Cloud Computing Interoperabilitycould be complex considering the fact that there Forum. Available at http://www.could be several NFRs pertaining to security, cloudforum.org/availability, reliability, performance, scalability, 3. Unified Cloud Interface Project (UCI).etc., that requires compliance. Available at http://groups.google.com/ group/unifiedcloud?hl=enCONCLUSION 4. UCI Architecture. Available at http://Interoperability and standardization have code.google.com/p/unifiedcloud/huge impact on the cloud adoption and usage wiki/UCI_Architectureand thus the industry is witnessing high 5. U n i f i e d C l o u d I n t e r f a c e ( U C I )amount of energy and thrust towards these Requirements. Available at http://code.from different stakeholders viz., users, vendors google.com/p/unifiedcloud/wiki/and standard bodies. Standardization will UCI_Requirementsincrease and accelerate the adoption of cloud 6. CCIF’s Unified Cloud Interface Project.computing as users will have a wider range Available at http://code.google.com/p/of choices in cloud without vendor lock-in, unifiedcloud/portability and ability to use the cloud services 7. F o r e c a s t f o r C o m p u t i n g : C l o u d y ,provided by multiple vendors. This will also iStockAnalyst, December 2008.include the ability to use an organization’s Available at http://www.istockanalyst.own existing data center resources seamlessly. com/article/viewiStockNews/Standardization further promises to help articleid/2904589#towards complexly developed business 8. Unified Cloud. Available at http://code.applications on the cloud to be interoperable google.com/p/unifiedcloud/wiki/and ensure data and application integration UCI_Architectureacross clouds. It also provides business 9. C O R D Y S , T h e I n t e l l i g e n t C l o u dopportunities to users to choose and use Platform. Available at http://partners.services provided by many different cloud cordys.com/cordysportalpartners_com/vendors based on various criteria. On the other cloud_solutions.phphand it helps vendors to provide additional 10. C O R D Y S - E n t e r p r i s e C l o u dhigher level services like orchestration, apart Orchestration. Available at http://from normal cloud services that are needed www.cordys.com/cordyscms_com/by the users. Standardization will thus pave enterprise_cloud_orchestration.php 25
  28. 28. 11. Cloudonomics: Article RightScale Adds whats_next_in_t.html;jsessionid=35MV Amazon EC2 Europe to List of Supported LYFIRJL2GQSNDLRSKHSCJUNN2JV Clouds. Available at http://apache.sys- N?catid=cloud-computing con.com/node/841086 13. CSC Announces New Family Of Cloud12. Eli Lilly On What’s Next in Cloud Services. Available at http://www.csc. Computing. Available at http:// com/banking/press_releases/27609- www.informationweek.com/cloud- csc_announces_new_family_of_cloud_ computing/blog/archives/2009/01/ services. 26

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