SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING AND DESIGN
BACHELOR OF QUANTITY SURVEYING (HONOURS)
QSB1513 – Building Material
PVB Laminated Glass & Tempered Glass
April Semester 2013
Submission Date: 11th July 2013
Name Student ID
Yam Yih Hwan 0305861
Ng Jun Keat 0307587
Wong Ha Shiong 0309640
Lim Ai Pei 0307972
Low Rong Tzuoo 0308336
Fatin Atiqah Putri binti A Razak 0308496
PVB Laminated Glass
Laminated glass is made of one piece of plastic Poly Vinyl Butyral between two or more glasses.
The PVB sticks with the glass, forms chemical as well as mechanical bonds. When laminated
with annealed glass, the layer maintains the geometric integrity of the pane in case of breakage.
The PVB is always in the thickness of 38mm or the multiple of 38mm. So the basic
nomenclature of laminated glass is XY.Z where X & Y
are the thickness of the 2 panes of glass a3 Z is the thickness of the PVB.
Properties of Laminated Glass:
• PVB thickness --0.38mm, 0.76mm, 1.14mm, 1.52mm
• PVB colors --Clear, white, gray, purple, blue, green, yellow, orange, red
• Refractive Index -- 1.48
• Visible Light Transmittance, Clear -- 89%
• Shading Coefficient, Clear -- 0.92
• UV Screening, up to 380 nm -- 99%
• Tensile Strength -- 3220 psi
• Tensile Elongation -- 205% (JIS K6771)
• Specific Gravity -- 1.07
• Specific Heat -- 0.47 Btu/lb°F
• Thermal Conductivity (K value) -- 0.12 Btu/(ft2hr°F)
• Coefficient of Thermal Expansion -- 2.6 x 10-4 in./in.°F
• Emissivity -- 0.9
Tempered glass is made from normal annealed glass via a thermal tempering process in which
the glass is subjected to heat till its softening point and then rapidly cooled.
Properties of Tempered Glass:
Density (approximate) -- 2.42-2.52 g/cubic cm
Tensile Strength -- 120 to 200 N/sq .mm
Compressive Strength -- 1000 N/sq.mm
Modulus of Elasticity -- 70Gpa-
Coefficient of linear expansion -- 9 x 10-^6 m/Mk
U Value -- 5.7 W/sq .m.K for 6mm thick clear
SF for 6 mm clear -- 81 %
Shading coefficient of 6mm clear -- .93
Selectivity -- 1
Visible light transmission of 6mm clear -- 87 %
Appropriate Usage & Application
The benefits of using laminated glass. Ordinary window glass is brittle, easily to break,
breaking into long sharp pieces which can cause serious and sometimes fatal injuries. The
principal feature of laminated safety glass is its performance under impact. Laminated glass
remains intact when broken, protecting people from injury. This is why many building codes
worldwide require laminated glass for overhead glazing. Other than that, it also provide
protection from weather and natural disasters. If broken, laminated glass remains in its frame,
preventing interior damage, while reduced flying glass protects people both indoors and outdoors.
Increase the security of your house. Burglars often break windows to get to door and window
handles, and laminated glass can resist their intrusion. Laminated glass can be designed to
withstand bullets and bomb blasts by using multiple or thick layers of glass and interlayer.
Tempered glass is most commonly used in car windshields because of its special property
of breaking into small, non-lethal pieces. Products made from tempered glass often also
incorporate other technologies, especially in the building and automotive and transport sectors.
When using frameless glass doors or sliding doors, tempered glass is used to ensure the
maximum protection. Safety glass is typically used in the outside windows of many houses,
especially the modern all glass façade house, because of its durability. When you need heat
resistance and durability, tempered glass is used. Perhaps the most common appliance that uses
tempered glass is the microwave oven. A microwave oven has to be able to sustain great
amounts of heat.
PVB Laminated Glass
Safety Laminated glass is safe as it is
not easy to break with the
interlayer of glass resisting
against the force of the impact.
Even if the glass breaks, it will
not shatter into pieces of sharp
fragments as they stick to the
interlayer between the glasses.
Cost Compared to normal glass and
tempered glass, laminated glass
is more expensive.
Sound Laminated glass can greatly
reduce sound. With 2 layers of
glass and an interlayer in
between, it is a very good barrier
to sound as the sound is
absorbed by the interlayer when
it passes through the glass.
To maximize the sound and
impact reduction quality of the
laminated glass, good
construction skill is needed as if
the frame of the glass is
constructed poorly and does not
fit the glass nicely, the reduction
is greatly reduced.
UV Ray The laminated is very good at
blocking out the UV rays that
cause furniture and walls or
other elements in a building to
Strength Laminated glass is durable and
is able to resist force of impact.
It can maintain its strength for a
long time and there is only a
little wear and tear effect. As it
is strong, it also provides
benefits for security purpose.
Safety Tempered glass is safe as when it
breaks, it also will not shatter into
long sharp pieces. Instead, it
breaks into small chucks which
are less likely to cut someone.
Shape One of the major disadvantages of
tempered glass is that the glass
has to be cut into desired shapes
or holes in glass. It has to be
drilled first before the process of
toughening up the glass. This is
because cutting will be hard or
impossible after that glass was
Heat Tempered glass is very resistance
to heat due to the process of
making it. The glass was heated
to a very high degree. Tempered
glass will not melt or break when
directly apply fire on it.
Toughness Due the process of making it, the
bond of molecules in the glass is
very strong and so makes the
glass very tough and hard to
Sustainability and Suitability
Sustainability is based on a simple principle: Everything that we need for survival and
well-being depends, either directly or indirectly, on our natural environment. Sustainability is
important to making sure that we have and will continue to have, the water, materials, and
resources to protect human health and our environment. (United States Environment Protection
Agency, n.d., p. xx-xx)
Both laminated glass and tampered glass are qualified to be call as sustainable materials
because the main element used to main glass in silica that from natural sources. Laminated glass
is made by one sheet of glass with one or more sheets of glass and/or plastics glazing sheet
material joined together with one or more interlayers. The interlayer act as an adhesive and
separator between the plies of glass or plastics glazing sheet materials. (Motinolab, 2013, p. xx-
xx)Tempered glass is made by allowing the glass to undergo high heat, this change its property
causing to break in to small pieces instead of sharp shards when I break.
Research shows that laminated glass units are as strong as monolithic glass tiles of the
same nominal thickness unless adverse environmental conditions exist. Laminate strength may
be decreased versus monolithic glass when subjected to certain long-term loads such as snow
loads or `high heat for extended periods of time.(Contact the Architectural Glazing Solutions
Centre (AGSC), 2008, p. xx-xx) A fully tempered glass as required generally 4 to 5 times
stronger than annealed glass and twice as strong as heat strengthened glass of similar thickness,
size and type. For a fully tempered glass the minimum surface compression is 10000 psi and for
a heat strengthened glass is 4000-7000 psi for 6 mm glass. ("Tempered Glass - AIS Glass
Solutions", 2005, p. xx-xx)
Sustainability of a fully tempered glass is used in most modern glass facade, where glass
strength is required. A fully tempered glass is recommended for windows that are on high floors
or skylights where people are required to stand on top for cleaning. Also areas where risk of
thermal breakage or impact breakage is high, fully tempered glass should be used so as to avoid
risk of injury. Glass strength is also required in point fixed glazing, bolted and patch the
fittings.( "Tempered Glass - AIS Glass Solutions", 2005, p. xx-xx) Laminated glass does not
break into small pieces but remains in its frame. It is able to provide multiple security, sound,
safety, daylight, and energy benefits .Therefore it is suitable to be used as overhead applications
such as glass floors, safety glass, sanitary glass and spall shield glass.( "Exploring the High-
Performance Benefits of Laminated Glass | Advertorial course provided by Solutia Inc. and
Viracon | Originally published in the March 2006 issue of Architectural Record. | Architectural
Record's Continuing Education Center", 2013, p. xx-xx)
Aesthetic Value of Laminated and Tempered Glass
Laminated glass and tempered glass have different properties. They are two different
types of glass but can be used together in some applications. Laminated, tempered glass is a
common marriage of the two types of glass. Separately, each type of glass has useful
applications and their own unique aesthetic values. Aesthetic value is when the beauty or good
taste of a material is appreciated, and also it is characterized by a heightened sensitivity to beauty.
So how does the society differentiate the aesthetic of these two glasses and their price?
Firstly, laminated glass is the only glass to provide durability, high-performance and
multi-functional benefits while at the same time preserving the aesthetic appearance of the glass.
Laminated glass is produced by bonding layers of glass together under pressure and heat, with a
resin called PVB (polyvinyl butyral). The PVB keeps the glass from breaking apart easily and
provides high sound insulation. Laminated glass furnishes solutions to many architectural design
problems and offers increased protection from the effects of disasters such as hurricane,
earthquake and hail storm etc.
Secondly, tempered glass is physically and thermally stronger than regular glass. The
greater contraction of the inner layer during manufacturing induces compressive stresses in the
surface of the glass balanced by tensile stresses in the body of the glass. It is also heat-resistant,
and breaks into little tiny pieces when it does break. This greatly reduces the risk of injury from
broken glass. Thus, tempered glass is commonly used in frameless glass doors used in
commercial settings. Passenger windows in vehicles are usually made of tempered
glass. Tempered glass is also sometimes called toughened glass.
In terms of aesthetic value, laminated glass has a higher aesthetic value as compared to
tempered glass. This is due to the green tint in the laminated glass which gives it a unique yet
aesthetical appearance when used. However, tempered glass is only transparent and pale in
colour. Although it looks clean and pure, tempered glass does not look as good as laminated
glass when being applied.
In terms of costs, laminated glass is generally more expensive then tempered glass. Until
recently, laminated glazing used to cost three to four times as much as tempered glass. It is
mandatory for car manufacturers to use laminated glass in windshields. More companies are
using laminated glass in side and rear windows.
In conclusion, laminated glass has a higher aesthetic value than tempered glass. Thus, the price
of laminated glass in the market is higher than that of tempered glass.
Behavior & Performance
Laminated Glass Tempered Glass
Laminated glass is a type of safety glass that holds together when shattered and often used
in exterior. Besides, tempered glass is one of two kinds of safety glass regularly used in
applications in which standard glass could pose a potential danger and it five times stronger than
The similarities between them are safety glass, and they breaking in a way that minimizes
the risk of injuries in the event that the glass breaks. Whereas, the comparisons between them are;
tempered glass is make in a piece but laminated glass is make with layers. They use different
type of glasses, laminated glazing used to cost three to four time as much as tempered glass, and
lastly, laminated glass provides more security than tempered glass.
The behaviors of tempered glass are; they have been heated to extremely high
temperatures so that the crystals actually come closer together to create a "foggy" appearance. It
also called toughened glass. It is very strong and is often used as safety glass, and it is stronger
than other glasses. Tempered glass is created using chemical and thermal treatments. The
performance of Tempered glass is easier to break. However, Interior designers still use it for
their products in cars and buildings. When it breaks, it tends to crack into small, relatively
harmless pieces. It is often used as safety glass because it is less likely than traditional glass to
break into large shards that can cut people.
The behaviors of laminated glass are the interlayer keeps the layers of glass bonded even
when broken, and high strength prevents the glass from breaking up into large sharp pieces and
quite difficult to penetrate laminated safety glass, and a multiple-layer of it to help stop
bullets. The performances are, harder to break than tempered because when impacted, used to
prevent sound or wind from entering a building. Used more often than tempered for residential
windows and doors because it provides better security against break-ins.
To clean laminated glass, simply spray the surface with any non-abrasive glass cleaner.
Wipe the surface clean with a soft cloth or squeegee. Laminated glass repair is possible for minor
impact damage using a process that involves drilling into the fractured glass to reach the
lamination layer. Special clear adhesive resin is injected under pressure and then cured with
ultraviolet light. When done properly, the strength and clarity is sufficiently restored for most
safety related purposes.
Tempered glass, can be easily scratched or permanently damaged by improper cleaning.
Protect all surfaces. It is especially important to not allow stucco or other concrete materials to
set on the glass surface. These building materials are caustic and will permanently damage the
glass surface. No hard objects should be left sitting on the surface of the table for any length of
time in any weather conditions. This is because of potential different PH values between the hard
object and the glass and the hard object may leave a permanent mark on the surface as it will
have eroded the micro surface of the glass.
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