Pvb laminated glass & tempered glass


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Pvb laminated glass & tempered glass

  1. 1. 1 SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING AND DESIGN BACHELOR OF QUANTITY SURVEYING (HONOURS) QSB1513 – Building Material PVB Laminated Glass & Tempered Glass April Semester 2013 Submission Date: 11th July 2013 Name Student ID Yam Yih Hwan 0305861 Ng Jun Keat 0307587 Wong Ha Shiong 0309640 Lim Ai Pei 0307972 Low Rong Tzuoo 0308336 Fatin Atiqah Putri binti A Razak 0308496
  2. 2. 2 Table of Content Pages Cover Page 1 Introduction to Glass 3 - 4 Properties of Glass 3 - 4 Appropriate Usage & Application 5 Advantages & Disadvantages 6 - 7 Suitability & Sustainability 8 - 9 Aesthetical Value 9 - 10 Performance & Behaviour 10 - 11 Maintenance 11 References 12 - 14
  3. 3. 3 PVB Laminated Glass Laminated glass is made of one piece of plastic Poly Vinyl Butyral between two or more glasses. The PVB sticks with the glass, forms chemical as well as mechanical bonds. When laminated with annealed glass, the layer maintains the geometric integrity of the pane in case of breakage. The PVB is always in the thickness of 38mm or the multiple of 38mm. So the basic nomenclature of laminated glass is XY.Z where X & Y are the thickness of the 2 panes of glass a3 Z is the thickness of the PVB. Properties of Laminated Glass: • PVB thickness --0.38mm, 0.76mm, 1.14mm, 1.52mm • PVB colors --Clear, white, gray, purple, blue, green, yellow, orange, red • Refractive Index -- 1.48 • Visible Light Transmittance, Clear -- 89% • Shading Coefficient, Clear -- 0.92 • UV Screening, up to 380 nm -- 99% • Tensile Strength -- 3220 psi • Tensile Elongation -- 205% (JIS K6771) • Specific Gravity -- 1.07 • Specific Heat -- 0.47 Btu/lb°F • Thermal Conductivity (K value) -- 0.12 Btu/(ft2hr°F) • Coefficient of Thermal Expansion -- 2.6 x 10-4 in./in.°F • Emissivity -- 0.9
  4. 4. 4 Tempered Glass Tempered glass is made from normal annealed glass via a thermal tempering process in which the glass is subjected to heat till its softening point and then rapidly cooled. Properties of Tempered Glass: Density (approximate) -- 2.42-2.52 g/cubic cm Tensile Strength -- 120 to 200 N/sq .mm Compressive Strength -- 1000 N/sq.mm Modulus of Elasticity -- 70Gpa- Coefficient of linear expansion -- 9 x 10-^6 m/Mk U Value -- 5.7 W/sq .m.K for 6mm thick clear SF for 6 mm clear -- 81 % Shading coefficient of 6mm clear -- .93 Selectivity -- 1 Visible light transmission of 6mm clear -- 87 %
  5. 5. 5 Appropriate Usage & Application The benefits of using laminated glass. Ordinary window glass is brittle, easily to break, breaking into long sharp pieces which can cause serious and sometimes fatal injuries. The principal feature of laminated safety glass is its performance under impact. Laminated glass remains intact when broken, protecting people from injury. This is why many building codes worldwide require laminated glass for overhead glazing. Other than that, it also provide protection from weather and natural disasters. If broken, laminated glass remains in its frame, preventing interior damage, while reduced flying glass protects people both indoors and outdoors. Increase the security of your house. Burglars often break windows to get to door and window handles, and laminated glass can resist their intrusion. Laminated glass can be designed to withstand bullets and bomb blasts by using multiple or thick layers of glass and interlayer. Tempered glass is most commonly used in car windshields because of its special property of breaking into small, non-lethal pieces. Products made from tempered glass often also incorporate other technologies, especially in the building and automotive and transport sectors. When using frameless glass doors or sliding doors, tempered glass is used to ensure the maximum protection. Safety glass is typically used in the outside windows of many houses, especially the modern all glass façade house, because of its durability. When you need heat resistance and durability, tempered glass is used. Perhaps the most common appliance that uses tempered glass is the microwave oven. A microwave oven has to be able to sustain great amounts of heat.
  6. 6. 6 PVB Laminated Glass Advantages Disadvantages Safety Laminated glass is safe as it is not easy to break with the interlayer of glass resisting against the force of the impact. Even if the glass breaks, it will not shatter into pieces of sharp fragments as they stick to the interlayer between the glasses. Cost Compared to normal glass and tempered glass, laminated glass is more expensive. Sound Laminated glass can greatly reduce sound. With 2 layers of glass and an interlayer in between, it is a very good barrier to sound as the sound is absorbed by the interlayer when it passes through the glass. Construction skills To maximize the sound and impact reduction quality of the laminated glass, good construction skill is needed as if the frame of the glass is constructed poorly and does not fit the glass nicely, the reduction is greatly reduced. UV Ray The laminated is very good at blocking out the UV rays that cause furniture and walls or other elements in a building to deteriorate. Strength Laminated glass is durable and is able to resist force of impact. It can maintain its strength for a long time and there is only a little wear and tear effect. As it is strong, it also provides benefits for security purpose.
  7. 7. 7 Tempered Glass Advantages Disadvantages Safety Tempered glass is safe as when it breaks, it also will not shatter into long sharp pieces. Instead, it breaks into small chucks which are less likely to cut someone. Shape One of the major disadvantages of tempered glass is that the glass has to be cut into desired shapes or holes in glass. It has to be drilled first before the process of toughening up the glass. This is because cutting will be hard or impossible after that glass was tempered. Heat Tempered glass is very resistance to heat due to the process of making it. The glass was heated to a very high degree. Tempered glass will not melt or break when directly apply fire on it. Toughness Due the process of making it, the bond of molecules in the glass is very strong and so makes the glass very tough and hard to break.
  8. 8. 8 Sustainability and Suitability Sustainability is based on a simple principle: Everything that we need for survival and well-being depends, either directly or indirectly, on our natural environment. Sustainability is important to making sure that we have and will continue to have, the water, materials, and resources to protect human health and our environment. (United States Environment Protection Agency, n.d., p. xx-xx) Both laminated glass and tampered glass are qualified to be call as sustainable materials because the main element used to main glass in silica that from natural sources. Laminated glass is made by one sheet of glass with one or more sheets of glass and/or plastics glazing sheet material joined together with one or more interlayers. The interlayer act as an adhesive and separator between the plies of glass or plastics glazing sheet materials. (Motinolab, 2013, p. xx- xx)Tempered glass is made by allowing the glass to undergo high heat, this change its property causing to break in to small pieces instead of sharp shards when I break. Research shows that laminated glass units are as strong as monolithic glass tiles of the same nominal thickness unless adverse environmental conditions exist. Laminate strength may be decreased versus monolithic glass when subjected to certain long-term loads such as snow loads or `high heat for extended periods of time.(Contact the Architectural Glazing Solutions Centre (AGSC), 2008, p. xx-xx) A fully tempered glass as required generally 4 to 5 times stronger than annealed glass and twice as strong as heat strengthened glass of similar thickness, size and type. For a fully tempered glass the minimum surface compression is 10000 psi and for a heat strengthened glass is 4000-7000 psi for 6 mm glass. ("Tempered Glass - AIS Glass Solutions", 2005, p. xx-xx) Sustainability of a fully tempered glass is used in most modern glass facade, where glass strength is required. A fully tempered glass is recommended for windows that are on high floors or skylights where people are required to stand on top for cleaning. Also areas where risk of thermal breakage or impact breakage is high, fully tempered glass should be used so as to avoid risk of injury. Glass strength is also required in point fixed glazing, bolted and patch the fittings.( "Tempered Glass - AIS Glass Solutions", 2005, p. xx-xx) Laminated glass does not break into small pieces but remains in its frame. It is able to provide multiple security, sound,
  9. 9. 9 safety, daylight, and energy benefits .Therefore it is suitable to be used as overhead applications such as glass floors, safety glass, sanitary glass and spall shield glass.( "Exploring the High- Performance Benefits of Laminated Glass | Advertorial course provided by Solutia Inc. and Viracon | Originally published in the March 2006 issue of Architectural Record. | Architectural Record's Continuing Education Center", 2013, p. xx-xx) Aesthetic Value of Laminated and Tempered Glass Laminated glass and tempered glass have different properties. They are two different types of glass but can be used together in some applications. Laminated, tempered glass is a common marriage of the two types of glass. Separately, each type of glass has useful applications and their own unique aesthetic values. Aesthetic value is when the beauty or good taste of a material is appreciated, and also it is characterized by a heightened sensitivity to beauty. So how does the society differentiate the aesthetic of these two glasses and their price? Firstly, laminated glass is the only glass to provide durability, high-performance and multi-functional benefits while at the same time preserving the aesthetic appearance of the glass. Laminated glass is produced by bonding layers of glass together under pressure and heat, with a resin called PVB (polyvinyl butyral). The PVB keeps the glass from breaking apart easily and provides high sound insulation. Laminated glass furnishes solutions to many architectural design problems and offers increased protection from the effects of disasters such as hurricane, earthquake and hail storm etc. Secondly, tempered glass is physically and thermally stronger than regular glass. The greater contraction of the inner layer during manufacturing induces compressive stresses in the surface of the glass balanced by tensile stresses in the body of the glass. It is also heat-resistant, and breaks into little tiny pieces when it does break. This greatly reduces the risk of injury from broken glass. Thus, tempered glass is commonly used in frameless glass doors used in commercial settings. Passenger windows in vehicles are usually made of tempered glass. Tempered glass is also sometimes called toughened glass. In terms of aesthetic value, laminated glass has a higher aesthetic value as compared to tempered glass. This is due to the green tint in the laminated glass which gives it a unique yet aesthetical appearance when used. However, tempered glass is only transparent and pale in
  10. 10. 10 colour. Although it looks clean and pure, tempered glass does not look as good as laminated glass when being applied. In terms of costs, laminated glass is generally more expensive then tempered glass. Until recently, laminated glazing used to cost three to four times as much as tempered glass. It is mandatory for car manufacturers to use laminated glass in windshields. More companies are using laminated glass in side and rear windows. In conclusion, laminated glass has a higher aesthetic value than tempered glass. Thus, the price of laminated glass in the market is higher than that of tempered glass. Behavior & Performance Laminated Glass Tempered Glass Laminated glass is a type of safety glass that holds together when shattered and often used in exterior. Besides, tempered glass is one of two kinds of safety glass regularly used in applications in which standard glass could pose a potential danger and it five times stronger than standard glass. The similarities between them are safety glass, and they breaking in a way that minimizes the risk of injuries in the event that the glass breaks. Whereas, the comparisons between them are; tempered glass is make in a piece but laminated glass is make with layers. They use different type of glasses, laminated glazing used to cost three to four time as much as tempered glass, and lastly, laminated glass provides more security than tempered glass.
  11. 11. 11 The behaviors of tempered glass are; they have been heated to extremely high temperatures so that the crystals actually come closer together to create a "foggy" appearance. It also called toughened glass. It is very strong and is often used as safety glass, and it is stronger than other glasses. Tempered glass is created using chemical and thermal treatments. The performance of Tempered glass is easier to break. However, Interior designers still use it for their products in cars and buildings. When it breaks, it tends to crack into small, relatively harmless pieces. It is often used as safety glass because it is less likely than traditional glass to break into large shards that can cut people. The behaviors of laminated glass are the interlayer keeps the layers of glass bonded even when broken, and high strength prevents the glass from breaking up into large sharp pieces and quite difficult to penetrate laminated safety glass, and a multiple-layer of it to help stop bullets. The performances are, harder to break than tempered because when impacted, used to prevent sound or wind from entering a building. Used more often than tempered for residential windows and doors because it provides better security against break-ins. Maintenance To clean laminated glass, simply spray the surface with any non-abrasive glass cleaner. Wipe the surface clean with a soft cloth or squeegee. Laminated glass repair is possible for minor impact damage using a process that involves drilling into the fractured glass to reach the lamination layer. Special clear adhesive resin is injected under pressure and then cured with ultraviolet light. When done properly, the strength and clarity is sufficiently restored for most safety related purposes. Tempered glass, can be easily scratched or permanently damaged by improper cleaning. Protect all surfaces. It is especially important to not allow stucco or other concrete materials to set on the glass surface. These building materials are caustic and will permanently damage the glass surface. No hard objects should be left sitting on the surface of the table for any length of time in any weather conditions. This is because of potential different PH values between the hard object and the glass and the hard object may leave a permanent mark on the surface as it will have eroded the micro surface of the glass.
  12. 12. 12 References: 1. Do it yourself (n.d.). 5 common uses for Tempered Glass. Retrieved July 10, 2013, fromhttp://www.doityourself.com/stry/5-common-uses-for-tempered- glass#.Ud4Y3z8Ytq5 2. Glassolution (AIS) (n.d.). PVB Laminated Glass.Retrieved July 09, 2013, from http://www.aisglass.com/pvb_laminated.asp 3. Glassolution (AIS) (n.d.). Tempered Glass. Retrieved July 09, 2013, from http://www.aisglass.com/flat_tempered.asp 4. Du Pont. (n.d.). Why use laminated glass? | Explore these "Top 10" benefits. Retrieved July 10, 2013, from http://products.construction.com/swts_content_files/56424/E821291.pdf 5. Contact the Architectural Glazing Solutions Centre (AGSC) (2008). Retrieved July 10, 2013, from http://products.construction.com/swts_content_files/2214/637461.pdf 6. Exploring the High-Performance Benefits of Laminated Glass | Advertorial course provided by Solutia Inc. and Viracon | Originally published in the March 2006 issue of Architectural Record. | Architectural Record's Continuing Education Center. (2013). Retrieved July 10, 2013, from http://continuingeducation.construction.com/article.php?L=46&C=312 7. Motinolab (2013). What is laminated glass? | Safety Glazing Group Trade Association Group | Glass and Glazing Federation. Retrieved July 10, 2013, from http://www.ggf.org.uk/installer/what_is_laminated_glass 8. Tempered Glass - AIS Glass Solutions. (2005). Retrieved July 7, 2011, from http://www.aisglass.com/flat_tempered.asp
  13. 13. 13 9. Tempered Glass - AIS Glass Solutions. (n.d.). Retrieved July 7, 2011, from http://www.aisglass.com/flat_tempered.asp 10. United States Environment Protection Agency (n.d.). Sustainability Basic Information. Retrieved July 10, 2013, from http://www.epa.gov/sustainability/basicinfo.htm 11. University of Minnesota and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (n.d.).WINDOW TECHNOLOGIES: Glass. Windows for high performance commercial buildings. Retrieved July 10, 2013, from http://www.commercialwindows.org/laminates.php 12. Martina Eliášová (n.d.). 1E5 Advanced design of glass structures. Retrieved July 10, 2013, from http://steel.fsv.cvut.cz/suscos/PP/1E05_02_Structural%20glass.pdf 13. No author (n.d.) The free dictionary.Retrieved July 10, 2013, from http://www.thefreedictionary.com/aesthetic 14. Jay Leone (n.d.). Laminated vs tempered glass. Retrieved July 10, 2013, from http://www.ehow.com/about_5395196_laminated-vs-tempered-glass.html 15. Heather Lindsay (n.d.). Properties of tempered glass. Retrieved July 10, 2013, from http://www.ehow.com/facts_4844127_properties-tempered-glass.html 16. Fam, A. (2006). Construction and Building Materials . Structural performance of laminated and unlaminated tempered , 761- 768. 17. Unknown. (2013, Unknown Unknown). Tempered Glass vs. Laminated Glass for Residential Use. Retrieved July 10, 2013, from eHow.com: http://www.ehow.com/info_12150924_tempered-glass-vs-laminated-glass-residential- use.html
  14. 14. 14 18. Outside/in. (n.d.). Glass Care and Maintenance.Retrieved July 10, 2013, from http://outsideinfurniture.com/glass-care-and-maintenance/