Silvopastures: a Pantry and Pharmacy for Man and Beast

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Silvopastures: a Pantry and Pharmacy for Man and Beast

Silvopastures: a Pantry and Pharmacy for Man and Beast

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  • 1. Silvopastures: a Pantry and Pharmacy for Man and Beast Silvopasturing Conference NY Nov. 2011 ©Jerry Brunetti
  • 2. Phytochemistry of Plant Constituents • Amino Acids • Carbohydrates • Lipids • Polyphenols • Terpenes • Sterols • Alkaloids Over 80,000 Isolated Plant Compounds
  • 3. Plant Primary Compounds • Energy: Sugars, Cellulose, Hemi-cellulose, Fats (PUFA’s, Mono, EFA’s, Saturated), Starch, Fructans, Glucans, etc. • Protein: 50,000 Different Kinds (22 Amino Acids) • Minerals: Macro (Ca, Na, Cl, P, K, Mg, S); Micro (B, Cr, Se, I, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Cu, Mo, Vn, Si) • Vitamins: (A, D, E & K), B-Complex and Ascorbate
  • 4. Plant Secondary Metabolites •Terpenes: (Carotenoids, Essential Oils) 25,000 - Protect Chlorophyll from U.V. - Pest Resistance •Phenolics: (e.g. Tannins, Lignin) 8,000 -Builds Organic Matter -Protection from Environmental Extremes including Flavonoids •Alkaloids: 8,000 -Pest Resistance -Germination Rates, -Drought Tolerance
  • 5. Plant Secondary Metabolites as Defense • Grazing Animals (tannins, essential oils, alkaloids) • Ultra Violet Radiation • Bacteria, Fungi, Virus • Defense Against Competing Plants (walnuts) • Vulnerable Fruits & Younger Tissue are higher in PSM’s
  • 6. Plant Secondary Metabolites as Attractants Color to Attract Pollinators Perfume to Attract Pollinators Molecular Signals to Promote Colonization by Mycorrhizae and Rhizobia
  • 7. Pollinators • Hundreds of Thousands! – Bats, mosquitoes, mice, ants, opossums, bees, monkeys, beetles, flies, lizards, birds, butterflies, flying foxes – <6% are identified – Species of Pollinators • 1,500 Birds • 15,000 Wasps • 40,000 Bees • 20,000 Butterflies • 14,000 Flies • 200,000 Beetles • 165 Bats • 300 miscellaneous mammals
  • 8. Anti-Pest Exudates Root Volatiles • Attract enemies of root feeding pests Eg: Sesquiterpene B-caryophyllene attracts nematode (Hetero rhabditis megadis) attacks beetle larvae (diabrotica virgifera) Atmospheric Volatiles • Atmospheric volatiles warn neighbors gene expression • Produce repellents, intoxicants against enemies • Attract seed dispersers and pollinators
  • 9. UNIVERSTIY OF NEW HAMPSHIRE FORESTRY RESEARCH
  • 10. Rapid Changes in Tree Leaf Chemistry Induced by Damage: Evidence for Communication Between Plants Ian Baldwin; Jack Schultz: Science, July 15, 1983, Vol. 221 pp 277-279 Maple Leaf Poplar Leaf
  • 11. Elephant Feeding on Mopane Trees (Colophospermum mopane)
  • 12. Giraffes Feeding on Acacias
  • 13. Herbivores Consume Bulk as 3-7 Plants/Meal Herbivores “Nibble” on 50-100 Plants per Day
  • 14. Resource Rich Environments • Organic Matter, Nutrients, Water, Sunlight • Promote Plants with High Levels of Primary Compounds and Moderate Levels of Secondary Compounds • Positively Influence the Flavor, Color, Quality, of Meat & Milk
  • 15. Resource Poor Environments (Naturally Occurring) • Lower Levels of Primary Compounds • High Levels of Secondary Compounds –Deter Feeding by Herbivores
  • 16. Resource Poor Environments (Man-Made) • Lower Levels of some/all Primary Compounds • Low Levels of Secondary Compounds • Negative Influence of Flavor, Color, Quality of Meat & Milk
  • 17. •Attract Highly Specialized Herbivores •Herbivores Attract Generalist Predators • Predators Feed on Pests •Hedgerows Create More Bio-Mass (a.k.a Dry Matter) For Every Level of Livestock (microbial to ruminant)
  • 18. British Hedgerows 2,000 years of Biodiversity • 600 plant species • 1500 insect species • 65 bird species • 20 mammal species Micro-Climate: Transpiration by Day Dew at night Position Hedgerows on Higher Ground -fertility moves down hill Australian Hedgerows: 50-100 meters wide
  • 19. The Original Permaculturalist
  • 20. CARBOHYDRATES KIND OF FOOD REFUSE % WATER % PROTEIN % FAT % SUGARS, STARCH, ETC. % CRUDE FIBER % ASH % FUEL VALUE/ # Calories Acorn, fresh 17.80 34.7 4.4 4.7 50.4 4.2 1.6 1265 Almond 47.00 4.9 21.4 54.4 13.8 3.0 2.5 2895 Beechnut 69.90 6.6 21.8 49.9 18.0 3.7 2740 Brazil Nut 49.35 4.7 17.4 65.0 5.7 3.9 3.3 3120 Butternut 86.40 4.5 27.9 61.2 3.4 3.0 3370 Chestnut, fresh 15.70 43.4 6.4 6.0 41.3 1.5 1.4 1140 Chestnut, dry 23.40 6.1 10.7 7.8 70.1 2.9 2.4 1840 Chestnut Flour …… 7.8 4.6 3.4 80.5 3.4 1780 Filbert 52.08 5.4 16.5 64.0 11.7 2.4 3100 Hazelnut Meal …… 2.7 11.7 65.6 17.8 2.2 3185 Hickory Nut 62.20 3.7 15.4 67.4 11.4 2.1 3345 Other foods for Comparison …… Beans Dried …… 12.6 22.5 1.8 55.2 4.4 3.5 1650 Potatoes 20.00 78.3 2.2 0.1 18.0 0.4 1.0 385 Apples 25.00 84.6 0.4 0.5 13.0 1.2 0.3 290 Average Composition of Nuts & Other Foods
  • 21. Copper Content in mg/kg Dry Matter in Leaves & Grass Sycamore Maple (Nitrogen accumulator) 7.7 Field Maple 11.2 Birch 12.2 Oak 12.0 Alder (Nitrogen accumulator) 13.6 Elder 12.0 Ash 18.2 Smooth Oat Grass 3.6 Cocksfoot 6.7 Crushed Barley 2.7
  • 22. Gemmotherapy • Detoxification • Drainage
  • 23. Biological Activity of Bee Propolis in Health & Disease Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention Volume 7, 2006, 22-31 • Anti-Bacterial • Anti-Viral • Anti-Fungal • Anti-Inflammatory • Anti-Parasitical • Anti-Tumor • Anti-Ulcer • Liver Protective • Brain Protective • Heart Protective • Immuno-Stimulant More than 300 compounds! Dependent Upon Geography and Time of Year
  • 24. Filbert Common Paw Paw Osage Orange Persimmon Kentucky CoffeeTree
  • 25. Nanking Cherry Choke Cherry Buffalo Berry Sand Cherry
  • 26. Pear Apple Plum Apricot
  • 27. Cornelius Dogwood Elderberry Currants Viburnum
  • 28. Raspberries Thornless Blackberries Persimmon Grapes
  • 29. Riparian Buffers
  • 30. Silvo Pasturing
  • 31. Oak Savannah
  • 32. Environmental Stress Factors 1. Average Minimum Air Temp. (Wind Chill?) 2. Average Maximum Air Temp. 3. Radiant Heat Load (Infra-red?) 4. Hours Above 89°F/29.5°C (Humidity?)
  • 33. Temperature Thresholds • At 72°F Milk Production Begins to Drop Slowly • At 80°F Milk Production Begins to Drop Suddenly Holsteins & Jerseys will seek shade at 84°F/27°C • Each Hot (>85°F/27°C) and Muggy (humidity>45%) Day Reduced Summer Long Steer Gains By 1 lb. (0.45 Kg) (Southern Plains Exp. Range, Woodward, OK)
  • 34. Hydraulic Lift & Redistribution “Hydraulic Lift: Consequences of Water Efflux from the Roots of Plants” Martin Caldwell, Todd Dawson, James Richards
  • 35. Hydraulic Lift & Redistribution “Hydraulic Lift: Consequences of Water Efflux from the Roots of Plants” Martin Caldwell, Todd Dawson, James Richards 9-18 Gallons per tree, per Night Water Harvested @ 6’(+) below & “Banked” for Following Day
  • 36. Flax Row
  • 37. Flax Gel
  • 38. Poplar Row
  • 39. Poplar Sprout
  • 40. Fuijoa Row
  • 41. Fuijoa Flowering
  • 42. Nettle Curly ALFALFA Dandelion Lamb's Qtr Chicory Comfrey Plantain Leaf Burdock Cleavers Dock Protein 20.97% 25.00% 31.70% 19.5 23.7 19.6 25.7 29.0 11.7 32.7 Digestable Protein 14.7 18.5 14.7 20.4 23.5 7.3 26.9 Soluble Protein 4.7 2.7 2.9 4.3 3.9 1.2 1.6 Protein Solubility 50.07% 24.40% 18.10% 24.2 11.4 15.0 16.8 13.4 9.9 4.9 Nitrogen/Sulfur Ratio 11:1 10:1 12:1 8:1 14:1 6:1 4:1 5:1 7:1 15:1 Acid Detergent Fiber 32.10% 19.20% 15.00% 32.8 29.8 34.1 22.6 25.1 40.6 19.5 Neutral Detergent Fiber 43.61% 30.00% 21.90% 46.8 42.2 45.8 34.4 36.5 49.1 44.7 Relative Feed Value 136.20% 229.00% 329.00% 126 145 127 193 177 108 153 TDN (est.) Total Digestible Nutients 63.89% 80.90% 85.60% 63.5 66.8 64.4 74.5 71.8 57.1 77.8 ME (mcal/lb) 1.33 1.41 1.04 1.10 1.06 1.22 1.18 0.94 1.28 Est. Net Energy (therms/cwt) 69.9 74.3 54.0 57.0 54.7 64 61.6 48 67.1 NE/Lact (mcal/lb) 0.65 0.85 0.9 0.65 0.69 0.66 0.77 0.75 0.58 0.81 NE/Maint (mcal/lb) 0.895 0.959 0.648 0.697 0.661 0.806 0.768 0.551 0.853 NE/Gain (mcal/lb) 0.6 0.655 0.383 0.426 0.394 0.523 0.490 0.295 0.564 Calcium 1.58% 1.04% 1.10% 0.89 2.73 1.84 4.38 2.10 1.3 0.83 Phosphorous 0.37% 0.33% 0.39% 0.31 0.20 0.26 0.41 0.34 0.39 0.37 Potassium 2.05% 4.46% 7.66% 3.59 3.94 2.97 3.01 3.28 2.46 3.53 Magnesium 0.46% 0.26% 0.55% 0.26 0.39 0.17 0.39 0.43 0.25 0.64 Sodium 759ppm 0.04 0.04 0.011 0.005 0.028 0.014 0.020 Sulfur - total 0.31% 0.41% 0.43% 0.37 0.27 0.53 0.94 0.90 0.26 0.35 ppm Iron 171 657 91 195 176 83 349 149 70 111 ppm Copper 15 15 8 14 29 12 11 26 13 13 ppm Zinc 30 34 46 43 46 44 40 32 127 38 ppm Manganese 23 35 138 36 192 30 36 47 66 36 ppm Boron 50 30 44 28 42 29 67 32 15 31
  • 43. Day Lily Day Lily Echinacea Wild Grape Wild Rasp Willow Hazlenut Mulberry Chinese ALFALFA Leaf Blossom Leaf Leaf Leaf Leaf Leaf Leaf Chstnt Lf Protein 20.97% 20.6 23.4 15.7 22.1 15.2 19.8 14.1 26.2 21.8 Digestable Protein 15.7 18.3 11.1 17.1 10.6 14.9 9.6 20.9 16.7 Soluble Protein 5.4 14.8 1.8 1.2 0.4 1.5 0.7 3.6 14.7 Protein Solubility 50.07% 26.4 63.0 11.4 5.6 2.8 7.5 4.9 13.7 67.7 Nitrogen/Sulfur Ratio 11:1 19:1 20:1 12:1 14:1 16:1 7:1 14:1 17:1 11:1 Acid Detergent Fiber 32.10% 28.2 17.0 20 19.5 22.6 24.9 20.2 21.5 41.2 Neutral Detergent Fiber 43.01% 35.7 23.5 29.3 34.6 43.1 37.6 42.3 34.2 70.9 Relative Feed Value 136.20% 175 299 233 198 154 172 161 197 75 TDN (est.) 63.89% 70.9 83.4 77.3 77.8 74.5 72 77.1 75.7 54.6 ME (mcal/lb) 1.16 1.37 1.27 1.28 1.22 1.18 1.27 1.24 0.9 Est. Net Energy (therms/cwt) 60.7 72.2 66.6 67.1 64 61.8 66.4 65.1 45.7 NE/Lact (mcal/lb) 0.65 0.74 0.87 0.81 0.81 0.77 0.75 0.8 0.79 0.55 NE/Maint (mcal/lb) 0.756 0.929 0.845 0.853 0.806 0.771 0.842 0.823 0.513 NE Gain (mcal/lb) 0.479 0.629 0.557 0.564 0.523 0.493 0.555 0.538 0.259 Calcium 1.58% 0.81 0.39 2.57 1.91 0.85 1.45 1.44 3.09 1.37 Phosphorous 0.37% 0.25 0.43 0.25 0.32 0.16 0.23 0.12 0.26 0.2 Potassium 2.05% 2.24 2.17 2.22 0.95 1.6 1.71 0.75 1.85 0.84 Magnesium 0.46% 0.20 0.17 0.88 0.25 0.29 0.27 0.31 0.34 0.37 Sodium 759ppm 0.025 0.05 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.011 0.04 0.016 0.015 Sulfur - total 0.31% 0.17 0.19 0.21 0.25 0.15 0.44 0.16 0.24 0.31 ppm Iron 171 203 86 131 502 100 117 118 154 120 ppm Copper 15 10 22 21 16 18 13 19 12 15 ppm Zinc 30 25 66 32 32 35 105 27 36 61 ppm Manganese 23 54 40 132 89 210 101 373 63 160 ppm Boron 50 49 16 66 31 23 34 28 36 72
  • 44. • • • •
  • 45. Mulberry ALFALFA Leaf Protein 20.97% 26.2 Digestable Protein 20.9 Soluble Protein 3.6 Protein Solubility 50.07% 13.7 Nitrogen/Sulfur Ratio 11:1 17:1 Acid Detergent Fiber 32.10% 21.5 Neutral Detergent Fiber 43.01% 34.2 Relative Feed Value 136.20% 197 TDN (est.) 63.89% 75.7 ME (mcal/lb) 1.24 Est. Net Energy (therms/cwt) 65.1 NE/Lact (mcal/lb) 0.65 0.79 NE/Maint (mcal/lb) 0.823 NE Gain (mcal/lb) 0.538 Calcium 1.58% 3.09 Phosphorous 0.37% 0.26 Potassium 2.05% 1.85 Magnesium 0.46% 0.34 Sodium 759ppm 0.016 Sulfur - total 0.31% 0.24 ppm Iron 171 154 ppm Copper 15 12 ppm Zinc 30 36 ppm Manganese 23 63 ppm Boron 50 36
  • 46. Persimmons •Great companion fruit to Mulberry -Drops fruit from August- January •Grows in all soils •Fruit = 35% solids (apple = 13%) •Fruit = 32% sugars (apple = 10%) •Fruit rich in proteolytic enzymes (papain, bromelain), potassium, calcium, phosphorus, vitamin C, beta- carotene
  • 47. • •
  • 48. Honey Locust Pasture (Gladitsia triacanthos) Alabama Ag Experiment Station Auburn, Alabama 1942-1945 • 48 trees per acre @ 60 lbs pods/tree = 3,000 lbs pods/acre – Equivalent to 50 bu. Corn or 100 bu. Oats – Pod sugar content @ 29-39% (sugar beets) – Protein at 13% • 2.5 tons of hay/acre as understory crop
  • 49. • • •
  • 50. ALFALFA Burdock Protein 20.97% 29.0 Digestable Protein 23.5 Soluble Protein 3.9 Protein Solubility 50.07% 13.4 Nitrogen/Sulfur Ratio 11:1 5:1 Acid Detergent Fiber 32.10% 25.1 Neutral Detergent Fiber 43.61% 36.5 Relative Feed Value 136.20% 177 TDN (est.) Total Digestible Nutients 63.89% 71.8 ME (mcal/lb) 1.18 Est. Net Energy (therms/cwt) 61.6 NE/Lact (mcal/lb) 0.65 0.75 NE/Maint (mcal/lb) 0.768 NE/Gain (mcal/lb) 0.490 Calcium 1.58% 2.10 Phosphorous 0.37% 0.34 Potassium 2.05% 3.28 Magnesium 0.46% 0.43 Sodium 759ppm 0.028 Sulfur - total 0.31% 0.90 ppm Iron 171 149 ppm Copper 15 26 ppm Zinc 30 32 ppm Manganese 23 47 ppm Boron 50 32 Alfalfa Versus Burdock
  • 51. •Tonifying Properties •Diuretic •Expectorant •Restorative Properties for the Liver, and Kidneys
  • 52. Nettle ALFALFA Leaf Protein 20.97% 25.7 Digestable Protein 20.4 Soluble Protein 4.3 Protein Solubility 50.07% 16.8 Nitrogen/Sulfur Ratio 11:1 4:1 Acid Detergent Fiber 32.10% 22.6 Neutral Detergent Fiber 43.61% 34.4 Relative Feed Value 136.20% 193 TDN (est.) Total Digestible Nutients 63.89% 74.5 ME (mcal/lb) 1.22 Est. Net Energy (therms/cwt) 64 NE/Lact (mcal/lb) 0.65 0.77 NE/Maint (mcal/lb) 0.806 NE/Gain (mcal/lb) 0.523 Calcium 1.58% 4.38 Phosphorous 0.37% 0.41 Potassium 2.05% 3.01 Magnesium 0.46% 0.39 Sodium 759ppm 0.005 Sulfur - total 0.31% 0.94 ppm Iron 171 349 ppm Copper 15 11 ppm Zinc 30 40 ppm Manganese 23 36 ppm Boron 50 67
  • 53. •Cleanses the Blood •Excellent Diuretic •Tonifying Properties •Enhances Hepatic Function
  • 54. ALFALFA Dandelion Protein 20.97% 25.00% Digestable Protein Soluble Protein Protein Solubility 50.07% 24.40% Nitrogen/Sulfur Ratio 11:1 10:1 Acid Detergent Fiber 32.10% 19.20% Neutral Detergent Fiber 43.61% 30.00% Relative Feed Value 136.20% 229.00% TDN (est.) Total Digestible Nutients 63.89% 80.90% ME (mcal/lb) 1.33 Est. Net Energy (therms/cwt) 69.9 NE/Lact (mcal/lb) 0.65 0.85 NE/Maint (mcal/lb) 0.895 NE/Gain (mcal/lb) 0.6 Calcium 1.58% 1.04% Phosphorous 0.37% 0.33% Potassium 2.05% 4.46% Magnesium 0.46% 0.26% Sodium 759ppm Sulfur - total 0.31% 0.41% ppm Iron 171 657 ppm Copper 15 15 ppm Zinc 30 34 ppm Manganese 23 35 ppm Boron 50 30
  • 55. • • • • • •
  • 56. Willow ALFALFA Leaf Protein 20.97% 19.8 Digestable Protein 14.9 Soluble Protein 1.5 Protein Solubility 50.07% 7.5 Nitrogen/Sulfur Ratio 11:1 7:1 Acid Detergent Fiber 32.10% 24.9 Neutral Detergent Fiber 43.01% 37.6 Relative Feed Value 136.20% 172 TDN (est.) 63.89% 72 ME (mcal/lb) 1.18 Est. Net Energy (therms/cwt) 61.8 NE/Lact (mcal/lb) 0.65 0.75 NE/Maint (mcal/lb) 0.771 NE Gain (mcal/lb) 0.493 Calcium 1.58% 1.45 Phosphorous 0.37% 0.23 Potassium 2.05% 1.71 Magnesium 0.46% 0.27 Sodium 759ppm 0.011 Sulfur - total 0.31% 0.44 ppm Iron 171 117 ppm Copper 15 13 ppm Zinc 30 105 ppm Manganese 23 101 ppm Boron 50 34
  • 57. Kiwi Willow Analysis Dry Basis As Recd Dry Basis As Recd % MOISTURE 21.7 % DRY MATTER 78.3 % PROTEIN 20.8 16.3 % AVAILABLE PROTEIN 20.8 16.3 % DIGESTIBLE PROTEIN 15.8 12.4 % ACID DETERGENT FIBER 32.9 25.7 % NEUTRAL DET. FIBER 40.4 31.7 RFV 146 %TDN 63.5 49.8 ME (MCAL/LB) 1.043 0.817 EST. NET ENERGY (T/CWT) 53.9 42.3 NE/LACT (MCAL/LB) 0.653 0.512 NE/MAINT (MCAL/LB) 0.648 0.508 NE/GAIN (MCAL/LB) 0.383 0.300 %NDFD 48 Hr, % NDF 39.2 30.7 % CALCIUM 1.42 1.11 % PHOSPHORUS 0.41 0.32 % POTASSIUM 1.53 1.20 % MAGNESIUM 0.16 0.13 IRON PPM 151 119 COPPER PPM 11 9 ZINC PPM 49 38 MANGANESE PPM 29 23 % FAT 3.1 2.5 % ASH 7.4 5.8 % SUGAR 10.8 8.4 RFQ 142 % TDN- Univ. Wis. UW 62.3 48.8 NE/LACT (MCAL/LB) UW 0.639 0.501 MILK LBS./TON OF DM 2,839 % IVTD 74.2 58.2 NSCa 28.2 22.1 4,500 Cuttings/Ha 1,800 Cuttings/ Acre 43,000 SF/AC ÷ 1800 = (1) per 25 square feet 1.5 meter pollard height 6 tons edible dry matter/acre
  • 58. Mean faecal egg counts (FEC) as eggs/g of faeces for undrenched lambs on the three forage treatments. One of three rotations in Browse block 2400 trees/acre
  • 59. Liveweight gain (LWG; g/day) and final dag score (units).
  • 60. Salix humboltiana Salix matsudana Salix tangoio Salix kinayanagi www.hortresearch.co.nz/index/page/549 www.hortresearch.co.nz/projects/fodder www.hortresearch.co.nz/wprc “Tree Grower” “Growing Today” “The Dominion Post” (Jan. & Feb. 2007)
  • 61. Tannins (Phenolics) • Makes By-Pass Protein – EAA & BCAA Reproductive Efficiency – Reduces Rumen Ammonia (less BUN/MUN) – Enhances Immunity • Resistance Against Internal Parasites • Alleviates Bloat (binds to proteins in rumen) • Reduces Methane Production • Meat is lighter in color • Meat is higher in anti-oxidants • Meat is higher in Omega 3 • Meat is lower in “gamey” flavor
  • 62. Coping with Tannins • Large increase by Parotid Glands (Salivary) in Monogastrics of Proline-Rich Proteins (PRP) (Bind Tannins) – Binds tannins provided there’s enough energy (carbohydrate) to keep polypeptide chain adhesive to tannins – Humans can consume high tannin sorghum and red wine • Endocrine adaptation occurs in ruminants – Glycerol released from adipose tissue
  • 63. Biodiverse Feedback Loop Systems • Tall Fescue: Endophyte (Alkaloid-Nitrogen Steroid) • Birdsfoot Trefoil: Condensed Tannins Binds nitrogen in Rumen Alfalfa: Saponins Binds Steroids in GI Tract Okunda, T. et. al. “Effects of Interaction of Tannins and Coexisting Substances; Formation and Solubilization of Precipitates with Alkaloids.” J. Pharm. Soc. Japan 102:854-858
  • 64. Sheep on Rangeland • Prefer Sagebrush in Morning • Prefer Mixed Shrubs and Crested Wheatgrass Mid-Day • Prefer Salt Brush in Evening Gade & Provenza “Nutrition of sheep grazing crested wheatgrass versus wheat grass shrub pastures during winter.” J. Range Management 39:527-530
  • 65. Alkaloids (Major Deterrent of Grazing) Betalain Alkaloids (Red/Purple) •Pokeberry (Phytolacca) •Beets Indole Alkaloids •Yohimbe •Cinchona: Quinone • Bitter in Taste (The Bitters) • Antidote to Excessive Tannin Intake • Synthesized in Roots • Common Alkaloids -Nicotine (Insecticide) -Caffeine (Slug-o-cide) -Morphine -Cocaine
  • 66. Plant Defense & Animal Response Tropical Pastures Stylosanthes spp. Legume – a-pinene and sticky resin • Cattle tick immobilized by resin, killed by a-pinene “Insects and Plant Surface” by Sutherst, R.W. and Wilson, L.J. (1986) pp. 185-194
  • 67. Terpenes • Monoterpenes – Anti-microbial – Anti-cancer • Essential Oils – Peppermint – Thyme – Oregano – Citrus • Small Volatile Molecules
  • 68. Carotenes (Terpenes) •Alpha, beta, delta, gamma •Orange/yellow pigments •Dark green plants
  • 69. Lycopene du Jour
  • 70. Autumn Olive •17x Lycopene of Tomatoes •Nitrogen Fixing •Leaves are Fodder •Chelates Lead & Zinc •Nectar for Pollinators •Wildlife Food & Habitat
  • 71. “It is unlikely that empirical studies, if undertaken, could show that in randomly selected ecosystems, non-native species, especially plants, are more important factors in extinction than are native species and many other contributing causes and conditions.” Mark Sagoff, PhD Senior Research Scholar Institute for Philosophy and Public Policy at the University of Maryland “The overall pattern almost always is that there’s some net increase in diversity, that seems to be because these native communities of species don’t completely fill all the niches. The exotics can fit in there.” Dr. James Brown, Ecologist at the University of New Mexico in “Friendly Invaders” Who’s a Native- Who’s a Foreigner???
  • 72. Who’s the Invasive Species???
  • 73. Ben Mead’s Cows Eating Japanese Knotweed Ben Mead’s Cows Eating Nettle
  • 74. Xanthophylls (Oxygenated Carotenes) •Lutein (kale, collards, spinach, egg yolk) •Capsanthin (peppers) •Cryptoxanthin •Zeaxanthin
  • 75. Organic Milk’s Grass Pigments (Danish Institute of Agricultural Research) • 50% More Vitamin E • 75% More Beta Carotene • 200-300% More Lutein & Zeaxanthine
  • 76. The Benefits of Carotenoids • Pro-Vitamin A (beta carotene): Animals cannot synthesize Vitamin A – Normal Development of skin, mucosa – Vision, Reproduction, resistance to bacterial/fungal disease • Endocrine Function – Gonadal Development/Maturation – Fertilization, Hatching, Growth • Protein Stability & Enzyme Function • Cell Membrane Permeability • Olfactory & Chemoreception • Oxygen Reservoirs (Oxygenation of Cells) • Mitochondria: Cross membrane calcium transfer • Anti-Oxidant: Absorb/reflect U.V. radiation and quench singlet oxygen • Immune Enhancement – N.K. Cell activity – Generate Wound/Healing – Slow Down Tumor Growth • Appetite Stimulation
  • 77. “Antibiotic Properties of Essential Oils” International Journal of Food Microbiology 5 (1987) 165-180 Plant Essential Oils Tested for Antibacterial Properties Almond (bitter) Caraway Fennel Melissa Rosemary Almond (sweet) Cardamom Geranium Mint (apple) Sage Angelica Celery Ginger Nutmeg St Johns Wort Anise Cinnamon Laurel Orange Sassafras Basil Citronella Lavender Orange (bitter) Spike Bay Clove Lemon Parsley Star Anise Bergamot Coriander Lime Pepper Thuja Calamus Dill Lovage Peppermint Thyme Chamomile Estragon Mandarin Pimento Valerian Cananga Eucalyptus Marjoram Rose Verbena
  • 78. Acinetobacter calcoacetica Aeromonas hydrophila Alcaligenes faecalis Bacillus subtilis Baneckea natriegens Brevibacterium linens Brocothrix thermospacta Citrobacter freundi Clostridium sporogenes Enterobacter aerogenes Erwinia carotovora Escherichia coli Flavobacterium suaveolens Klebsiella pneumoniae Lactobacillus plantarum Leuconostoc cremoris Micrococcus luteus Moraxella sp Proteus vulgaris Pseudomonas aeruginosa Salmonella pullorum Serratia marcescens Staphylococcus aureus Streptococcus faecalis Yersinia entercolitica Test Bacteria (25)
  • 79. Test Results • All 50 Plant E.O’s inhibited at least (1) bacterium • 41 plant E.O.’s inhibited (5) or more bacterium • 33 plant E.O.’s inhibited (10) or more bacterium • 10 plant E.O.’s inhibited (20) or more bacterium
  • 80. Essential Oil Number of genera Angelica 25 Bay 24 Cinnamon 23 Clove 23 Thyme 23 Almond (bitter) 23 Marjoram 22 Pimento 22 Geranium 21 Lovage 20
  • 81. Effect of Various Essential Oils Isolated from Douglas Fir Needles upon Sheep & Deer Rumen Microbial Activity Applied Microbiology, July 1967, p. 777-784
  • 82. TIME (HOURS) Effect of Essential Oils From Douglas Fir Needles A
  • 83. Effect of Essential Oils From Douglas Fir Needles Time Hours A
  • 84. Newman Turner “Weed” Preferences to Supplement Grasses & Legumes Chicory 2 lbs Burnet 4 lbs Sheep’s Parsley 2 lbs Kidney Vetch 1 lb Plantain 1 lb Dandelion 1 lb Fennel ½ lb
  • 85. Foraging Behavior: Managing to Survive in a World of Change By Frederick D. Provenza
  • 86. Farm as Farmacy “We have seen the future of medicine and the future is food.” Dr. Mitch Gaynor New York Strang Center for Cancer Prevention