Silvopastures: a Pantry and Pharmacy
for Man and Beast
Silvopasturing Conference NY
Nov. 2011 ©Jerry Brunetti
Phytochemistry of Plant Constituents
• Amino Acids
• Carbohydrates
• Lipids
• Polyphenols
• Terpenes
• Sterols
• Alkaloids...
Plant Primary Compounds
• Energy: Sugars, Cellulose, Hemi-cellulose, Fats
(PUFA’s, Mono, EFA’s, Saturated), Starch, Fructa...
Plant Secondary Metabolites
•Terpenes: (Carotenoids, Essential Oils) 25,000
- Protect Chlorophyll from U.V.
- Pest Resista...
Plant Secondary Metabolites as Defense
• Grazing Animals (tannins,
essential oils, alkaloids)
• Ultra Violet Radiation
• B...
Plant Secondary Metabolites as Attractants
Color to Attract
Pollinators
Perfume to Attract
Pollinators
Molecular Signals t...
Pollinators
• Hundreds of Thousands!
– Bats, mosquitoes, mice, ants, opossums, bees, monkeys,
beetles, flies, lizards, bir...
Anti-Pest Exudates
Root Volatiles
• Attract enemies of root feeding pests
Eg: Sesquiterpene B-caryophyllene attracts nemat...
UNIVERSTIY OF NEW HAMPSHIRE
FORESTRY RESEARCH
Rapid Changes in Tree Leaf Chemistry Induced
by Damage: Evidence for Communication
Between Plants
Ian Baldwin; Jack Schult...
Elephant Feeding on Mopane Trees (Colophospermum mopane)
Giraffes Feeding on
Acacias
Herbivores Consume Bulk as 3-7 Plants/Meal
Herbivores “Nibble” on 50-100 Plants per Day
Resource Rich Environments
• Organic Matter,
Nutrients, Water,
Sunlight
• Promote Plants with
High Levels of
Primary
Compo...
Resource Poor Environments
(Naturally Occurring)
• Lower Levels
of Primary
Compounds
• High Levels
of Secondary
Compounds
...
Resource Poor Environments
(Man-Made)
• Lower Levels of some/all
Primary Compounds
• Low Levels of Secondary
Compounds
• N...
•Attract Highly Specialized Herbivores
•Herbivores Attract Generalist Predators
• Predators Feed on Pests
•Hedgerows Creat...
British Hedgerows
2,000 years of Biodiversity
• 600 plant species
• 1500 insect species
• 65 bird species
• 20 mammal spec...
The Original Permaculturalist
CARBOHYDRATES
KIND OF
FOOD
REFUSE
%
WATER
%
PROTEIN
% FAT %
SUGARS,
STARCH,
ETC. %
CRUDE
FIBER % ASH %
FUEL
VALUE/ #
Calor...
Copper Content in mg/kg Dry Matter in Leaves & Grass
Sycamore Maple
(Nitrogen accumulator)
7.7
Field Maple 11.2
Birch 12.2...
Gemmotherapy
• Detoxification
• Drainage
Biological Activity of Bee Propolis in Health & Disease
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Volume 7, 2006, 22-31
•...
Filbert Common Paw Paw
Osage Orange
Persimmon Kentucky CoffeeTree
Nanking Cherry
Choke Cherry
Buffalo Berry
Sand Cherry
Pear
Apple
Plum
Apricot
Cornelius
Dogwood
Elderberry
Currants
Viburnum
Raspberries
Thornless
Blackberries
Persimmon
Grapes
Riparian Buffers
Silvo Pasturing
Oak Savannah
Environmental Stress Factors
1. Average Minimum Air Temp. (Wind Chill?)
2. Average Maximum Air Temp.
3. Radiant Heat Load ...
Temperature Thresholds
• At 72°F Milk Production Begins to Drop Slowly
• At 80°F Milk Production Begins to Drop Suddenly
H...
Hydraulic Lift & Redistribution
“Hydraulic Lift: Consequences of Water Efflux from the Roots of Plants”
Martin Caldwell, T...
Hydraulic Lift & Redistribution
“Hydraulic Lift: Consequences of Water Efflux from the Roots of Plants”
Martin Caldwell, T...
Flax Row
Flax Gel
Poplar Row
Poplar Sprout
Fuijoa Row
Fuijoa Flowering
Nettle Curly
ALFALFA Dandelion Lamb's Qtr Chicory Comfrey Plantain Leaf Burdock Cleavers Dock
Protein 20.97% 25.00% 31.70%...
Day Lily Day Lily Echinacea Wild Grape Wild Rasp Willow Hazlenut Mulberry Chinese
ALFALFA Leaf Blossom Leaf Leaf Leaf Leaf...
•
•
•
•
Mulberry
ALFALFA Leaf
Protein 20.97% 26.2
Digestable Protein 20.9
Soluble Protein 3.6
Protein Solubility 50.07% 13.7
Nitro...
Persimmons
•Great companion fruit to Mulberry
-Drops fruit from August- January
•Grows in all soils
•Fruit = 35% solids (a...
•
•
Honey Locust Pasture
(Gladitsia triacanthos)
Alabama Ag Experiment Station
Auburn, Alabama 1942-1945
• 48 trees per acre @...
•
•
•
ALFALFA Burdock
Protein 20.97% 29.0
Digestable Protein 23.5
Soluble Protein 3.9
Protein Solubility 50.07% 13.4
Nitrogen/Su...
•Tonifying Properties
•Diuretic
•Expectorant
•Restorative
Properties for the
Liver, and
Kidneys
Nettle
ALFALFA Leaf
Protein 20.97% 25.7
Digestable Protein 20.4
Soluble Protein 4.3
Protein Solubility 50.07% 16.8
Nitroge...
•Cleanses the Blood
•Excellent Diuretic
•Tonifying
Properties
•Enhances Hepatic
Function
ALFALFA Dandelion
Protein 20.97% 25.00%
Digestable Protein
Soluble Protein
Protein Solubility 50.07% 24.40%
Nitrogen/Sulfu...
•
•
•
•
•
•
Willow
ALFALFA Leaf
Protein 20.97% 19.8
Digestable Protein 14.9
Soluble Protein 1.5
Protein Solubility 50.07% 7.5
Nitrogen...
Kiwi Willow Analysis
Dry Basis As Recd Dry Basis As Recd
% MOISTURE 21.7
% DRY MATTER 78.3
% PROTEIN 20.8 16.3
% AVAILABLE...
Mean faecal egg counts (FEC) as eggs/g of faeces for
undrenched lambs on the three forage treatments.
One of three rotatio...
Liveweight gain (LWG; g/day) and final dag score (units).
Salix humboltiana
Salix matsudana
Salix tangoio
Salix kinayanagi
www.hortresearch.co.nz/index/page/549
www.hortresearch.co...
Tannins (Phenolics)
• Makes By-Pass Protein
– EAA & BCAA Reproductive Efficiency
– Reduces Rumen Ammonia (less BUN/MUN)
– ...
Coping with Tannins
• Large increase by Parotid Glands (Salivary) in Monogastrics of
Proline-Rich Proteins (PRP) (Bind Tan...
Biodiverse Feedback Loop Systems
• Tall Fescue: Endophyte
(Alkaloid-Nitrogen Steroid) • Birdsfoot Trefoil: Condensed
Tanni...
Sheep on Rangeland
• Prefer
Sagebrush in
Morning
• Prefer Mixed
Shrubs and
Crested
Wheatgrass
Mid-Day
• Prefer Salt
Brush ...
Alkaloids
(Major Deterrent of Grazing)
Betalain Alkaloids (Red/Purple)
•Pokeberry (Phytolacca)
•Beets
Indole Alkaloids
•Yo...
Plant Defense & Animal Response
Tropical Pastures
Stylosanthes spp. Legume
– a-pinene and sticky resin
• Cattle tick immob...
Terpenes
• Monoterpenes
– Anti-microbial
– Anti-cancer
• Essential Oils
– Peppermint
– Thyme
– Oregano
– Citrus
• Small Vo...
Carotenes
(Terpenes)
•Alpha, beta, delta, gamma
•Orange/yellow pigments
•Dark green plants
Lycopene du Jour
Autumn Olive
•17x Lycopene of
Tomatoes
•Nitrogen Fixing
•Leaves are Fodder
•Chelates Lead & Zinc
•Nectar for Pollinators
•...
“It is unlikely that empirical studies, if undertaken, could show that
in randomly selected ecosystems, non-native species...
Who’s the Invasive Species???
Ben Mead’s Cows
Eating Japanese
Knotweed
Ben Mead’s Cows
Eating Nettle
Xanthophylls
(Oxygenated Carotenes)
•Lutein (kale, collards, spinach, egg yolk)
•Capsanthin (peppers)
•Cryptoxanthin
•Zeax...
Organic Milk’s Grass Pigments
(Danish Institute of Agricultural Research)
• 50% More Vitamin E
• 75% More Beta Carotene
• ...
The Benefits of Carotenoids
• Pro-Vitamin A (beta carotene): Animals cannot synthesize Vitamin A
– Normal Development of s...
“Antibiotic Properties of Essential Oils”
International Journal of Food Microbiology 5 (1987) 165-180
Plant Essential Oils...
Acinetobacter calcoacetica Aeromonas hydrophila Alcaligenes faecalis
Bacillus subtilis Baneckea natriegens
Brevibacterium ...
Test Results
• All 50 Plant E.O’s inhibited at least (1)
bacterium
• 41 plant E.O.’s inhibited (5) or more
bacterium
• 33 ...
Essential Oil Number of genera
Angelica 25
Bay 24
Cinnamon 23
Clove 23
Thyme 23
Almond (bitter) 23
Marjoram 22
Pimento 22
...
Effect of Various Essential Oils Isolated from
Douglas Fir Needles upon Sheep & Deer
Rumen Microbial Activity
Applied Micr...
TIME (HOURS)
Effect of
Essential
Oils From
Douglas Fir
Needles
A
Effect of
Essential
Oils From
Douglas Fir
Needles
Time Hours
A
Newman Turner
“Weed” Preferences to Supplement
Grasses & Legumes
Chicory 2 lbs
Burnet 4 lbs
Sheep’s Parsley 2 lbs
Kidney V...
Foraging Behavior:
Managing to Survive
in a World of Change
By Frederick D. Provenza
Farm as Farmacy
“We have seen the future
of medicine and the future
is food.”
Dr. Mitch Gaynor
New York Strang Center
for ...
Silvopastures: a Pantry and Pharmacy for Man and Beast
Silvopastures: a Pantry and Pharmacy for Man and Beast
Silvopastures: a Pantry and Pharmacy for Man and Beast
Silvopastures: a Pantry and Pharmacy for Man and Beast
Silvopastures: a Pantry and Pharmacy for Man and Beast
Silvopastures: a Pantry and Pharmacy for Man and Beast
Silvopastures: a Pantry and Pharmacy for Man and Beast
Silvopastures: a Pantry and Pharmacy for Man and Beast
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Silvopastures: a Pantry and Pharmacy for Man and Beast

  1. 1. Silvopastures: a Pantry and Pharmacy for Man and Beast Silvopasturing Conference NY Nov. 2011 ©Jerry Brunetti
  2. 2. Phytochemistry of Plant Constituents • Amino Acids • Carbohydrates • Lipids • Polyphenols • Terpenes • Sterols • Alkaloids Over 80,000 Isolated Plant Compounds
  3. 3. Plant Primary Compounds • Energy: Sugars, Cellulose, Hemi-cellulose, Fats (PUFA’s, Mono, EFA’s, Saturated), Starch, Fructans, Glucans, etc. • Protein: 50,000 Different Kinds (22 Amino Acids) • Minerals: Macro (Ca, Na, Cl, P, K, Mg, S); Micro (B, Cr, Se, I, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Cu, Mo, Vn, Si) • Vitamins: (A, D, E & K), B-Complex and Ascorbate
  4. 4. Plant Secondary Metabolites •Terpenes: (Carotenoids, Essential Oils) 25,000 - Protect Chlorophyll from U.V. - Pest Resistance •Phenolics: (e.g. Tannins, Lignin) 8,000 -Builds Organic Matter -Protection from Environmental Extremes including Flavonoids •Alkaloids: 8,000 -Pest Resistance -Germination Rates, -Drought Tolerance
  5. 5. Plant Secondary Metabolites as Defense • Grazing Animals (tannins, essential oils, alkaloids) • Ultra Violet Radiation • Bacteria, Fungi, Virus • Defense Against Competing Plants (walnuts) • Vulnerable Fruits & Younger Tissue are higher in PSM’s
  6. 6. Plant Secondary Metabolites as Attractants Color to Attract Pollinators Perfume to Attract Pollinators Molecular Signals to Promote Colonization by Mycorrhizae and Rhizobia
  7. 7. Pollinators • Hundreds of Thousands! – Bats, mosquitoes, mice, ants, opossums, bees, monkeys, beetles, flies, lizards, birds, butterflies, flying foxes – <6% are identified – Species of Pollinators • 1,500 Birds • 15,000 Wasps • 40,000 Bees • 20,000 Butterflies • 14,000 Flies • 200,000 Beetles • 165 Bats • 300 miscellaneous mammals
  8. 8. Anti-Pest Exudates Root Volatiles • Attract enemies of root feeding pests Eg: Sesquiterpene B-caryophyllene attracts nematode (Hetero rhabditis megadis) attacks beetle larvae (diabrotica virgifera) Atmospheric Volatiles • Atmospheric volatiles warn neighbors gene expression • Produce repellents, intoxicants against enemies • Attract seed dispersers and pollinators
  9. 9. UNIVERSTIY OF NEW HAMPSHIRE FORESTRY RESEARCH
  10. 10. Rapid Changes in Tree Leaf Chemistry Induced by Damage: Evidence for Communication Between Plants Ian Baldwin; Jack Schultz: Science, July 15, 1983, Vol. 221 pp 277-279 Maple Leaf Poplar Leaf
  11. 11. Elephant Feeding on Mopane Trees (Colophospermum mopane)
  12. 12. Giraffes Feeding on Acacias
  13. 13. Herbivores Consume Bulk as 3-7 Plants/Meal Herbivores “Nibble” on 50-100 Plants per Day
  14. 14. Resource Rich Environments • Organic Matter, Nutrients, Water, Sunlight • Promote Plants with High Levels of Primary Compounds and Moderate Levels of Secondary Compounds • Positively Influence the Flavor, Color, Quality, of Meat & Milk
  15. 15. Resource Poor Environments (Naturally Occurring) • Lower Levels of Primary Compounds • High Levels of Secondary Compounds –Deter Feeding by Herbivores
  16. 16. Resource Poor Environments (Man-Made) • Lower Levels of some/all Primary Compounds • Low Levels of Secondary Compounds • Negative Influence of Flavor, Color, Quality of Meat & Milk
  17. 17. •Attract Highly Specialized Herbivores •Herbivores Attract Generalist Predators • Predators Feed on Pests •Hedgerows Create More Bio-Mass (a.k.a Dry Matter) For Every Level of Livestock (microbial to ruminant)
  18. 18. British Hedgerows 2,000 years of Biodiversity • 600 plant species • 1500 insect species • 65 bird species • 20 mammal species Micro-Climate: Transpiration by Day Dew at night Position Hedgerows on Higher Ground -fertility moves down hill Australian Hedgerows: 50-100 meters wide
  19. 19. The Original Permaculturalist
  20. 20. CARBOHYDRATES KIND OF FOOD REFUSE % WATER % PROTEIN % FAT % SUGARS, STARCH, ETC. % CRUDE FIBER % ASH % FUEL VALUE/ # Calories Acorn, fresh 17.80 34.7 4.4 4.7 50.4 4.2 1.6 1265 Almond 47.00 4.9 21.4 54.4 13.8 3.0 2.5 2895 Beechnut 69.90 6.6 21.8 49.9 18.0 3.7 2740 Brazil Nut 49.35 4.7 17.4 65.0 5.7 3.9 3.3 3120 Butternut 86.40 4.5 27.9 61.2 3.4 3.0 3370 Chestnut, fresh 15.70 43.4 6.4 6.0 41.3 1.5 1.4 1140 Chestnut, dry 23.40 6.1 10.7 7.8 70.1 2.9 2.4 1840 Chestnut Flour …… 7.8 4.6 3.4 80.5 3.4 1780 Filbert 52.08 5.4 16.5 64.0 11.7 2.4 3100 Hazelnut Meal …… 2.7 11.7 65.6 17.8 2.2 3185 Hickory Nut 62.20 3.7 15.4 67.4 11.4 2.1 3345 Other foods for Comparison …… Beans Dried …… 12.6 22.5 1.8 55.2 4.4 3.5 1650 Potatoes 20.00 78.3 2.2 0.1 18.0 0.4 1.0 385 Apples 25.00 84.6 0.4 0.5 13.0 1.2 0.3 290 Average Composition of Nuts & Other Foods
  21. 21. Copper Content in mg/kg Dry Matter in Leaves & Grass Sycamore Maple (Nitrogen accumulator) 7.7 Field Maple 11.2 Birch 12.2 Oak 12.0 Alder (Nitrogen accumulator) 13.6 Elder 12.0 Ash 18.2 Smooth Oat Grass 3.6 Cocksfoot 6.7 Crushed Barley 2.7
  22. 22. Gemmotherapy • Detoxification • Drainage
  23. 23. Biological Activity of Bee Propolis in Health & Disease Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention Volume 7, 2006, 22-31 • Anti-Bacterial • Anti-Viral • Anti-Fungal • Anti-Inflammatory • Anti-Parasitical • Anti-Tumor • Anti-Ulcer • Liver Protective • Brain Protective • Heart Protective • Immuno-Stimulant More than 300 compounds! Dependent Upon Geography and Time of Year
  24. 24. Filbert Common Paw Paw Osage Orange Persimmon Kentucky CoffeeTree
  25. 25. Nanking Cherry Choke Cherry Buffalo Berry Sand Cherry
  26. 26. Pear Apple Plum Apricot
  27. 27. Cornelius Dogwood Elderberry Currants Viburnum
  28. 28. Raspberries Thornless Blackberries Persimmon Grapes
  29. 29. Riparian Buffers
  30. 30. Silvo Pasturing
  31. 31. Oak Savannah
  32. 32. Environmental Stress Factors 1. Average Minimum Air Temp. (Wind Chill?) 2. Average Maximum Air Temp. 3. Radiant Heat Load (Infra-red?) 4. Hours Above 89°F/29.5°C (Humidity?)
  33. 33. Temperature Thresholds • At 72°F Milk Production Begins to Drop Slowly • At 80°F Milk Production Begins to Drop Suddenly Holsteins & Jerseys will seek shade at 84°F/27°C • Each Hot (>85°F/27°C) and Muggy (humidity>45%) Day Reduced Summer Long Steer Gains By 1 lb. (0.45 Kg) (Southern Plains Exp. Range, Woodward, OK)
  34. 34. Hydraulic Lift & Redistribution “Hydraulic Lift: Consequences of Water Efflux from the Roots of Plants” Martin Caldwell, Todd Dawson, James Richards
  35. 35. Hydraulic Lift & Redistribution “Hydraulic Lift: Consequences of Water Efflux from the Roots of Plants” Martin Caldwell, Todd Dawson, James Richards 9-18 Gallons per tree, per Night Water Harvested @ 6’(+) below & “Banked” for Following Day
  36. 36. Flax Row
  37. 37. Flax Gel
  38. 38. Poplar Row
  39. 39. Poplar Sprout
  40. 40. Fuijoa Row
  41. 41. Fuijoa Flowering
  42. 42. Nettle Curly ALFALFA Dandelion Lamb's Qtr Chicory Comfrey Plantain Leaf Burdock Cleavers Dock Protein 20.97% 25.00% 31.70% 19.5 23.7 19.6 25.7 29.0 11.7 32.7 Digestable Protein 14.7 18.5 14.7 20.4 23.5 7.3 26.9 Soluble Protein 4.7 2.7 2.9 4.3 3.9 1.2 1.6 Protein Solubility 50.07% 24.40% 18.10% 24.2 11.4 15.0 16.8 13.4 9.9 4.9 Nitrogen/Sulfur Ratio 11:1 10:1 12:1 8:1 14:1 6:1 4:1 5:1 7:1 15:1 Acid Detergent Fiber 32.10% 19.20% 15.00% 32.8 29.8 34.1 22.6 25.1 40.6 19.5 Neutral Detergent Fiber 43.61% 30.00% 21.90% 46.8 42.2 45.8 34.4 36.5 49.1 44.7 Relative Feed Value 136.20% 229.00% 329.00% 126 145 127 193 177 108 153 TDN (est.) Total Digestible Nutients 63.89% 80.90% 85.60% 63.5 66.8 64.4 74.5 71.8 57.1 77.8 ME (mcal/lb) 1.33 1.41 1.04 1.10 1.06 1.22 1.18 0.94 1.28 Est. Net Energy (therms/cwt) 69.9 74.3 54.0 57.0 54.7 64 61.6 48 67.1 NE/Lact (mcal/lb) 0.65 0.85 0.9 0.65 0.69 0.66 0.77 0.75 0.58 0.81 NE/Maint (mcal/lb) 0.895 0.959 0.648 0.697 0.661 0.806 0.768 0.551 0.853 NE/Gain (mcal/lb) 0.6 0.655 0.383 0.426 0.394 0.523 0.490 0.295 0.564 Calcium 1.58% 1.04% 1.10% 0.89 2.73 1.84 4.38 2.10 1.3 0.83 Phosphorous 0.37% 0.33% 0.39% 0.31 0.20 0.26 0.41 0.34 0.39 0.37 Potassium 2.05% 4.46% 7.66% 3.59 3.94 2.97 3.01 3.28 2.46 3.53 Magnesium 0.46% 0.26% 0.55% 0.26 0.39 0.17 0.39 0.43 0.25 0.64 Sodium 759ppm 0.04 0.04 0.011 0.005 0.028 0.014 0.020 Sulfur - total 0.31% 0.41% 0.43% 0.37 0.27 0.53 0.94 0.90 0.26 0.35 ppm Iron 171 657 91 195 176 83 349 149 70 111 ppm Copper 15 15 8 14 29 12 11 26 13 13 ppm Zinc 30 34 46 43 46 44 40 32 127 38 ppm Manganese 23 35 138 36 192 30 36 47 66 36 ppm Boron 50 30 44 28 42 29 67 32 15 31
  43. 43. Day Lily Day Lily Echinacea Wild Grape Wild Rasp Willow Hazlenut Mulberry Chinese ALFALFA Leaf Blossom Leaf Leaf Leaf Leaf Leaf Leaf Chstnt Lf Protein 20.97% 20.6 23.4 15.7 22.1 15.2 19.8 14.1 26.2 21.8 Digestable Protein 15.7 18.3 11.1 17.1 10.6 14.9 9.6 20.9 16.7 Soluble Protein 5.4 14.8 1.8 1.2 0.4 1.5 0.7 3.6 14.7 Protein Solubility 50.07% 26.4 63.0 11.4 5.6 2.8 7.5 4.9 13.7 67.7 Nitrogen/Sulfur Ratio 11:1 19:1 20:1 12:1 14:1 16:1 7:1 14:1 17:1 11:1 Acid Detergent Fiber 32.10% 28.2 17.0 20 19.5 22.6 24.9 20.2 21.5 41.2 Neutral Detergent Fiber 43.01% 35.7 23.5 29.3 34.6 43.1 37.6 42.3 34.2 70.9 Relative Feed Value 136.20% 175 299 233 198 154 172 161 197 75 TDN (est.) 63.89% 70.9 83.4 77.3 77.8 74.5 72 77.1 75.7 54.6 ME (mcal/lb) 1.16 1.37 1.27 1.28 1.22 1.18 1.27 1.24 0.9 Est. Net Energy (therms/cwt) 60.7 72.2 66.6 67.1 64 61.8 66.4 65.1 45.7 NE/Lact (mcal/lb) 0.65 0.74 0.87 0.81 0.81 0.77 0.75 0.8 0.79 0.55 NE/Maint (mcal/lb) 0.756 0.929 0.845 0.853 0.806 0.771 0.842 0.823 0.513 NE Gain (mcal/lb) 0.479 0.629 0.557 0.564 0.523 0.493 0.555 0.538 0.259 Calcium 1.58% 0.81 0.39 2.57 1.91 0.85 1.45 1.44 3.09 1.37 Phosphorous 0.37% 0.25 0.43 0.25 0.32 0.16 0.23 0.12 0.26 0.2 Potassium 2.05% 2.24 2.17 2.22 0.95 1.6 1.71 0.75 1.85 0.84 Magnesium 0.46% 0.20 0.17 0.88 0.25 0.29 0.27 0.31 0.34 0.37 Sodium 759ppm 0.025 0.05 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.011 0.04 0.016 0.015 Sulfur - total 0.31% 0.17 0.19 0.21 0.25 0.15 0.44 0.16 0.24 0.31 ppm Iron 171 203 86 131 502 100 117 118 154 120 ppm Copper 15 10 22 21 16 18 13 19 12 15 ppm Zinc 30 25 66 32 32 35 105 27 36 61 ppm Manganese 23 54 40 132 89 210 101 373 63 160 ppm Boron 50 49 16 66 31 23 34 28 36 72
  44. 44. • • • •
  45. 45. Mulberry ALFALFA Leaf Protein 20.97% 26.2 Digestable Protein 20.9 Soluble Protein 3.6 Protein Solubility 50.07% 13.7 Nitrogen/Sulfur Ratio 11:1 17:1 Acid Detergent Fiber 32.10% 21.5 Neutral Detergent Fiber 43.01% 34.2 Relative Feed Value 136.20% 197 TDN (est.) 63.89% 75.7 ME (mcal/lb) 1.24 Est. Net Energy (therms/cwt) 65.1 NE/Lact (mcal/lb) 0.65 0.79 NE/Maint (mcal/lb) 0.823 NE Gain (mcal/lb) 0.538 Calcium 1.58% 3.09 Phosphorous 0.37% 0.26 Potassium 2.05% 1.85 Magnesium 0.46% 0.34 Sodium 759ppm 0.016 Sulfur - total 0.31% 0.24 ppm Iron 171 154 ppm Copper 15 12 ppm Zinc 30 36 ppm Manganese 23 63 ppm Boron 50 36
  46. 46. Persimmons •Great companion fruit to Mulberry -Drops fruit from August- January •Grows in all soils •Fruit = 35% solids (apple = 13%) •Fruit = 32% sugars (apple = 10%) •Fruit rich in proteolytic enzymes (papain, bromelain), potassium, calcium, phosphorus, vitamin C, beta- carotene
  47. 47. • •
  48. 48. Honey Locust Pasture (Gladitsia triacanthos) Alabama Ag Experiment Station Auburn, Alabama 1942-1945 • 48 trees per acre @ 60 lbs pods/tree = 3,000 lbs pods/acre – Equivalent to 50 bu. Corn or 100 bu. Oats – Pod sugar content @ 29-39% (sugar beets) – Protein at 13% • 2.5 tons of hay/acre as understory crop
  49. 49. • • •
  50. 50. ALFALFA Burdock Protein 20.97% 29.0 Digestable Protein 23.5 Soluble Protein 3.9 Protein Solubility 50.07% 13.4 Nitrogen/Sulfur Ratio 11:1 5:1 Acid Detergent Fiber 32.10% 25.1 Neutral Detergent Fiber 43.61% 36.5 Relative Feed Value 136.20% 177 TDN (est.) Total Digestible Nutients 63.89% 71.8 ME (mcal/lb) 1.18 Est. Net Energy (therms/cwt) 61.6 NE/Lact (mcal/lb) 0.65 0.75 NE/Maint (mcal/lb) 0.768 NE/Gain (mcal/lb) 0.490 Calcium 1.58% 2.10 Phosphorous 0.37% 0.34 Potassium 2.05% 3.28 Magnesium 0.46% 0.43 Sodium 759ppm 0.028 Sulfur - total 0.31% 0.90 ppm Iron 171 149 ppm Copper 15 26 ppm Zinc 30 32 ppm Manganese 23 47 ppm Boron 50 32 Alfalfa Versus Burdock
  51. 51. •Tonifying Properties •Diuretic •Expectorant •Restorative Properties for the Liver, and Kidneys
  52. 52. Nettle ALFALFA Leaf Protein 20.97% 25.7 Digestable Protein 20.4 Soluble Protein 4.3 Protein Solubility 50.07% 16.8 Nitrogen/Sulfur Ratio 11:1 4:1 Acid Detergent Fiber 32.10% 22.6 Neutral Detergent Fiber 43.61% 34.4 Relative Feed Value 136.20% 193 TDN (est.) Total Digestible Nutients 63.89% 74.5 ME (mcal/lb) 1.22 Est. Net Energy (therms/cwt) 64 NE/Lact (mcal/lb) 0.65 0.77 NE/Maint (mcal/lb) 0.806 NE/Gain (mcal/lb) 0.523 Calcium 1.58% 4.38 Phosphorous 0.37% 0.41 Potassium 2.05% 3.01 Magnesium 0.46% 0.39 Sodium 759ppm 0.005 Sulfur - total 0.31% 0.94 ppm Iron 171 349 ppm Copper 15 11 ppm Zinc 30 40 ppm Manganese 23 36 ppm Boron 50 67
  53. 53. •Cleanses the Blood •Excellent Diuretic •Tonifying Properties •Enhances Hepatic Function
  54. 54. ALFALFA Dandelion Protein 20.97% 25.00% Digestable Protein Soluble Protein Protein Solubility 50.07% 24.40% Nitrogen/Sulfur Ratio 11:1 10:1 Acid Detergent Fiber 32.10% 19.20% Neutral Detergent Fiber 43.61% 30.00% Relative Feed Value 136.20% 229.00% TDN (est.) Total Digestible Nutients 63.89% 80.90% ME (mcal/lb) 1.33 Est. Net Energy (therms/cwt) 69.9 NE/Lact (mcal/lb) 0.65 0.85 NE/Maint (mcal/lb) 0.895 NE/Gain (mcal/lb) 0.6 Calcium 1.58% 1.04% Phosphorous 0.37% 0.33% Potassium 2.05% 4.46% Magnesium 0.46% 0.26% Sodium 759ppm Sulfur - total 0.31% 0.41% ppm Iron 171 657 ppm Copper 15 15 ppm Zinc 30 34 ppm Manganese 23 35 ppm Boron 50 30
  55. 55. • • • • • •
  56. 56. Willow ALFALFA Leaf Protein 20.97% 19.8 Digestable Protein 14.9 Soluble Protein 1.5 Protein Solubility 50.07% 7.5 Nitrogen/Sulfur Ratio 11:1 7:1 Acid Detergent Fiber 32.10% 24.9 Neutral Detergent Fiber 43.01% 37.6 Relative Feed Value 136.20% 172 TDN (est.) 63.89% 72 ME (mcal/lb) 1.18 Est. Net Energy (therms/cwt) 61.8 NE/Lact (mcal/lb) 0.65 0.75 NE/Maint (mcal/lb) 0.771 NE Gain (mcal/lb) 0.493 Calcium 1.58% 1.45 Phosphorous 0.37% 0.23 Potassium 2.05% 1.71 Magnesium 0.46% 0.27 Sodium 759ppm 0.011 Sulfur - total 0.31% 0.44 ppm Iron 171 117 ppm Copper 15 13 ppm Zinc 30 105 ppm Manganese 23 101 ppm Boron 50 34
  57. 57. Kiwi Willow Analysis Dry Basis As Recd Dry Basis As Recd % MOISTURE 21.7 % DRY MATTER 78.3 % PROTEIN 20.8 16.3 % AVAILABLE PROTEIN 20.8 16.3 % DIGESTIBLE PROTEIN 15.8 12.4 % ACID DETERGENT FIBER 32.9 25.7 % NEUTRAL DET. FIBER 40.4 31.7 RFV 146 %TDN 63.5 49.8 ME (MCAL/LB) 1.043 0.817 EST. NET ENERGY (T/CWT) 53.9 42.3 NE/LACT (MCAL/LB) 0.653 0.512 NE/MAINT (MCAL/LB) 0.648 0.508 NE/GAIN (MCAL/LB) 0.383 0.300 %NDFD 48 Hr, % NDF 39.2 30.7 % CALCIUM 1.42 1.11 % PHOSPHORUS 0.41 0.32 % POTASSIUM 1.53 1.20 % MAGNESIUM 0.16 0.13 IRON PPM 151 119 COPPER PPM 11 9 ZINC PPM 49 38 MANGANESE PPM 29 23 % FAT 3.1 2.5 % ASH 7.4 5.8 % SUGAR 10.8 8.4 RFQ 142 % TDN- Univ. Wis. UW 62.3 48.8 NE/LACT (MCAL/LB) UW 0.639 0.501 MILK LBS./TON OF DM 2,839 % IVTD 74.2 58.2 NSCa 28.2 22.1 4,500 Cuttings/Ha 1,800 Cuttings/ Acre 43,000 SF/AC ÷ 1800 = (1) per 25 square feet 1.5 meter pollard height 6 tons edible dry matter/acre
  58. 58. Mean faecal egg counts (FEC) as eggs/g of faeces for undrenched lambs on the three forage treatments. One of three rotations in Browse block 2400 trees/acre
  59. 59. Liveweight gain (LWG; g/day) and final dag score (units).
  60. 60. Salix humboltiana Salix matsudana Salix tangoio Salix kinayanagi www.hortresearch.co.nz/index/page/549 www.hortresearch.co.nz/projects/fodder www.hortresearch.co.nz/wprc “Tree Grower” “Growing Today” “The Dominion Post” (Jan. & Feb. 2007)
  61. 61. Tannins (Phenolics) • Makes By-Pass Protein – EAA & BCAA Reproductive Efficiency – Reduces Rumen Ammonia (less BUN/MUN) – Enhances Immunity • Resistance Against Internal Parasites • Alleviates Bloat (binds to proteins in rumen) • Reduces Methane Production • Meat is lighter in color • Meat is higher in anti-oxidants • Meat is higher in Omega 3 • Meat is lower in “gamey” flavor
  62. 62. Coping with Tannins • Large increase by Parotid Glands (Salivary) in Monogastrics of Proline-Rich Proteins (PRP) (Bind Tannins) – Binds tannins provided there’s enough energy (carbohydrate) to keep polypeptide chain adhesive to tannins – Humans can consume high tannin sorghum and red wine • Endocrine adaptation occurs in ruminants – Glycerol released from adipose tissue
  63. 63. Biodiverse Feedback Loop Systems • Tall Fescue: Endophyte (Alkaloid-Nitrogen Steroid) • Birdsfoot Trefoil: Condensed Tannins Binds nitrogen in Rumen Alfalfa: Saponins Binds Steroids in GI Tract Okunda, T. et. al. “Effects of Interaction of Tannins and Coexisting Substances; Formation and Solubilization of Precipitates with Alkaloids.” J. Pharm. Soc. Japan 102:854-858
  64. 64. Sheep on Rangeland • Prefer Sagebrush in Morning • Prefer Mixed Shrubs and Crested Wheatgrass Mid-Day • Prefer Salt Brush in Evening Gade & Provenza “Nutrition of sheep grazing crested wheatgrass versus wheat grass shrub pastures during winter.” J. Range Management 39:527-530
  65. 65. Alkaloids (Major Deterrent of Grazing) Betalain Alkaloids (Red/Purple) •Pokeberry (Phytolacca) •Beets Indole Alkaloids •Yohimbe •Cinchona: Quinone • Bitter in Taste (The Bitters) • Antidote to Excessive Tannin Intake • Synthesized in Roots • Common Alkaloids -Nicotine (Insecticide) -Caffeine (Slug-o-cide) -Morphine -Cocaine
  66. 66. Plant Defense & Animal Response Tropical Pastures Stylosanthes spp. Legume – a-pinene and sticky resin • Cattle tick immobilized by resin, killed by a-pinene “Insects and Plant Surface” by Sutherst, R.W. and Wilson, L.J. (1986) pp. 185-194
  67. 67. Terpenes • Monoterpenes – Anti-microbial – Anti-cancer • Essential Oils – Peppermint – Thyme – Oregano – Citrus • Small Volatile Molecules
  68. 68. Carotenes (Terpenes) •Alpha, beta, delta, gamma •Orange/yellow pigments •Dark green plants
  69. 69. Lycopene du Jour
  70. 70. Autumn Olive •17x Lycopene of Tomatoes •Nitrogen Fixing •Leaves are Fodder •Chelates Lead & Zinc •Nectar for Pollinators •Wildlife Food & Habitat
  71. 71. “It is unlikely that empirical studies, if undertaken, could show that in randomly selected ecosystems, non-native species, especially plants, are more important factors in extinction than are native species and many other contributing causes and conditions.” Mark Sagoff, PhD Senior Research Scholar Institute for Philosophy and Public Policy at the University of Maryland “The overall pattern almost always is that there’s some net increase in diversity, that seems to be because these native communities of species don’t completely fill all the niches. The exotics can fit in there.” Dr. James Brown, Ecologist at the University of New Mexico in “Friendly Invaders” Who’s a Native- Who’s a Foreigner???
  72. 72. Who’s the Invasive Species???
  73. 73. Ben Mead’s Cows Eating Japanese Knotweed Ben Mead’s Cows Eating Nettle
  74. 74. Xanthophylls (Oxygenated Carotenes) •Lutein (kale, collards, spinach, egg yolk) •Capsanthin (peppers) •Cryptoxanthin •Zeaxanthin
  75. 75. Organic Milk’s Grass Pigments (Danish Institute of Agricultural Research) • 50% More Vitamin E • 75% More Beta Carotene • 200-300% More Lutein & Zeaxanthine
  76. 76. The Benefits of Carotenoids • Pro-Vitamin A (beta carotene): Animals cannot synthesize Vitamin A – Normal Development of skin, mucosa – Vision, Reproduction, resistance to bacterial/fungal disease • Endocrine Function – Gonadal Development/Maturation – Fertilization, Hatching, Growth • Protein Stability & Enzyme Function • Cell Membrane Permeability • Olfactory & Chemoreception • Oxygen Reservoirs (Oxygenation of Cells) • Mitochondria: Cross membrane calcium transfer • Anti-Oxidant: Absorb/reflect U.V. radiation and quench singlet oxygen • Immune Enhancement – N.K. Cell activity – Generate Wound/Healing – Slow Down Tumor Growth • Appetite Stimulation
  77. 77. “Antibiotic Properties of Essential Oils” International Journal of Food Microbiology 5 (1987) 165-180 Plant Essential Oils Tested for Antibacterial Properties Almond (bitter) Caraway Fennel Melissa Rosemary Almond (sweet) Cardamom Geranium Mint (apple) Sage Angelica Celery Ginger Nutmeg St Johns Wort Anise Cinnamon Laurel Orange Sassafras Basil Citronella Lavender Orange (bitter) Spike Bay Clove Lemon Parsley Star Anise Bergamot Coriander Lime Pepper Thuja Calamus Dill Lovage Peppermint Thyme Chamomile Estragon Mandarin Pimento Valerian Cananga Eucalyptus Marjoram Rose Verbena
  78. 78. Acinetobacter calcoacetica Aeromonas hydrophila Alcaligenes faecalis Bacillus subtilis Baneckea natriegens Brevibacterium linens Brocothrix thermospacta Citrobacter freundi Clostridium sporogenes Enterobacter aerogenes Erwinia carotovora Escherichia coli Flavobacterium suaveolens Klebsiella pneumoniae Lactobacillus plantarum Leuconostoc cremoris Micrococcus luteus Moraxella sp Proteus vulgaris Pseudomonas aeruginosa Salmonella pullorum Serratia marcescens Staphylococcus aureus Streptococcus faecalis Yersinia entercolitica Test Bacteria (25)
  79. 79. Test Results • All 50 Plant E.O’s inhibited at least (1) bacterium • 41 plant E.O.’s inhibited (5) or more bacterium • 33 plant E.O.’s inhibited (10) or more bacterium • 10 plant E.O.’s inhibited (20) or more bacterium
  80. 80. Essential Oil Number of genera Angelica 25 Bay 24 Cinnamon 23 Clove 23 Thyme 23 Almond (bitter) 23 Marjoram 22 Pimento 22 Geranium 21 Lovage 20
  81. 81. Effect of Various Essential Oils Isolated from Douglas Fir Needles upon Sheep & Deer Rumen Microbial Activity Applied Microbiology, July 1967, p. 777-784
  82. 82. TIME (HOURS) Effect of Essential Oils From Douglas Fir Needles A
  83. 83. Effect of Essential Oils From Douglas Fir Needles Time Hours A
  84. 84. Newman Turner “Weed” Preferences to Supplement Grasses & Legumes Chicory 2 lbs Burnet 4 lbs Sheep’s Parsley 2 lbs Kidney Vetch 1 lb Plantain 1 lb Dandelion 1 lb Fennel ½ lb
  85. 85. Foraging Behavior: Managing to Survive in a World of Change By Frederick D. Provenza
  86. 86. Farm as Farmacy “We have seen the future of medicine and the future is food.” Dr. Mitch Gaynor New York Strang Center for Cancer Prevention
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