Organic Farming History and Techniques

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Organic Farming History and Techniques

Organic Farming History and Techniques

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  • 1. 287E. Lichtfouse (ed.), Agroecology and Strategies for Climate Change, Sustainable Agriculture Reviews 8, DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-1905-7_12, © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012 Abstract Organic farming involves holistic production systems that avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides and genetically modified organisms, thereby mini- mizing their deleterious effect on environment. Agriculture area under organic farming ranges from 0.03% in India to 11.3% in Austria. Organic farming is benefi- cial for natural resources and the environment. Organic farming is a system that favors maximum use of organic materials and microbial fertilizers to improve soil health and to increase yield. Organic farming has a long history but show a recent and rapid rise. This article explains the development stages, techniques and status of organic farming worldwide. The sections are: the development and essential charac- teristics of organic farming; the basic concepts behind organic farming; historical background; developmental era of organic farming; methods of organic farming; relevance of organic farming in the Indian context; comparative account between organic farming and conventional farming; importance of organic farming in envi- ronmentally friendly approaches; working with natural cycles; relevance of organic crop production in food security; yield potential and trends of organic farming; rural economic linkage its scope and limitations; and legislation procedures adopted by various countries. Organisations and financial aspects of organic farming are briefly discussed. Keywords K.K. Behera (* Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Banasthali University, Banasthali, Rajasthan, 304022, India e-mail: kambaska@yahoo.co.in University Departments of Botany, Ranchi University, Ranchi, India Organic Farming History and Techniques Kambaska Kumar Behera, Afroz Alam, Sharad Vats, Hunuman Pd. Sharma, and Vinay Sharma
  • 2. 288 K.K. Behera et al. 1 Introduction Organic agriculture is one among the broad spectrum of production methods that are supportive of the environment. Agriculture remains the key sector for the economic development for most developing countries. It is critically important for ensuring food security, alleviating poverty and conserving the vital natural resources that the world’s present and future generations will be entirely dependent upon for their survival and well-being. The world populations will inevitably double by the middle of the twenty-first century, that we are soon to enter, that is in the space of just two generations. Over 90% of the developing nations, especially in Asia and to an ever greater extent will be in the urban areas which follow up the green revolution strategy (Rothschild 1998). Green revolution technologies such as greater use of synthetic agro chemicals like fertilizers and pesticides, adoption of nutrient responsive, high-yielding varieties of crops, greater exploitation of irrigation potentials etc. has boosted the production output in most of cases. Without proper choice and continues use of these high energy inputs is leading to decline in production and productivity of various crops as well as deterioration of soil health and environments. The most unfortunate impact on Green Revaluation Technology (GRT) not only on Indian Agriculture but also the whole world is as follows: 2. Development of nutrient imbalance/deficiencies 3. Damage the soil flora and fauna 4. Reduce the earth worm activity 5. Reduction in soil humus/organic matter 7. Reduction in productivity 8. Reduction in quality of the produce 9. Destruction of soil structure, aeration and water holding capacity All these problems of GRT lead to not only reduction in productivity but also deterioration of soil health as well as natural eco-system. Moreover, today the rural economy is now facing a challenge of over dependence on synthetic inputs face the market competition due to globalization of trade as per World Trade Organization (WTO). Thus apart from quantity, quality will be the important factor. Such as Agriculture gave birth to various new concepts of farming such as organic farming, natural farming, bio-dynamic Agriculture, do-nothing agriculture, eco-farming etc. The essential concept of the practices is “Give back to nature”, where the philoso- phy is to feed the soil rather them the crop to maintain the soil health. Therefore, for sustaining healthy ecosystem, there is need for adoption of an alternatives farming system like organic farming.
  • 3. 289 2 The Features of Organic Farming Organic farming gives importance to environmental protection and helps to sustain practice crop rotation to enrich the soil with natural mineral resources. Organic farmers have to follow the norms set by the local organic farming associations and they are not allowed to cultivate genetically modified (GM) crops (Alistair 2007; 2010). The minerals for the crop known as crop nutrients are given using insoluble nutrient sources through soil microorganisms that increase nitrogen levels control fleas or parasite problems. Instead, these problems are controlled by moving the animals to new pastures and by using home remedies to control the plant and animal pests. Organic gardening, including vegetable gardening, is also a part of organic farming. Many flower and vegetable gardens are using composite manure 2001; Rai 2006). The basic concepts behind organic farming are: 1. It concentrates on building up the biological fertility of the soil so that the crops take the nutrients they need from steady turnover within the soil nutrients pro- duced in this way and are released in harmony with the need of the plants. an ecological balance within the system and by the use of bio-pesticides and vari- ous cultural techniques such as crop rotation, mixed cropping and cultivation. 3. Organic farmers recycle all wastes and manures within a farm, but the export of the products from the farm results in a steady drain of nutrients. 4. Enhancement of the environment in such a way that wild life flourishes. In a situation where conservation of energy and resources is considered to be important community or country would make every effort to recycles to all urban and industrial wastes back to agriculture and thus the system would be requiring only a small inputs of new resources to “Top Up” soil fertility (Table 1). India represents only 0.03% area (43,000 ha) out of total cultivated (143 million ha) area. Table 1 Area under organic farming in % of total agricultural area in important countries (Bhattacharya and Gehlot 2003) % of cultivated area % of cultivated area Austria 11.30 Australia 2.31 Switzerland 9.70 1.40 Italy 7.94 USA 0.23 Denmark 6.51 Japan 0.10 Sweden 6.30 0.06 United Kingdom 3.96 India 0.03 Germany 3.70
  • 4. 290 K.K. Behera et al. 2.1 Essential Characteristics of Organic Farming The most important characteristics are as follows: 1. Maximal but sustainable use of local resources. 2. Minimal use of purchased inputs, only as complementary to local resources. 3. Ensuring the basic biological functions of soil-water-nutrients-human continuum. 4. Maintaining a diversity of plant and animal species as a basis for ecological balance and economic stability. people. 6. Increasing crop and animal intensity in the form of polycultures, agroforestry systems, integrated crop/livestock systems etc. to minimize risks. Many scientists at different levels have elaborated the concept of organic farming but according to Lampkin (1990) Organic farming is a production system which avoids or largely excludes the use of synthetic compounded fertilizers, pesticides, growth regulators and live stock feed additives. According to national organic stan- dards board of the U.S. defines organic farming as an ecological production management system that promotes and enhances bio diversity, biological cycles and soil biological activity. Organic farming refers to organically grown crops which are not exposed to any chemicals right from the stage of seed treatments to the final post 2008). 2010) Organic farming “should sustain the health of soil, plant animal, human and planet”. It relies on ecological processes, biodiversity and cycles adapted to local conditions, rather than the use of inputs with adverse effects. Organic agriculture combines tradition, innovation and science to benefit the shared environment and promote fair relationships and a good quality of life for all involved. It relies on the four principles of health, ecology, fairness and care. Organic farming relies on crop rotation, crop residues, animal manures, legumes, green manures, off-farming organic wastes, agricultural cultivation, mineral bearing rocks and aspect of biological pest control to maintain soil productivity and tilth to supply plant nutrients and also to control insects, weeds and other pests (Lampkin 1990). In a broader sense it includes bio-fertilizers, bio diversity and biotechnology. 3 History of Organic Farming The concept of organic farming was started 1,000 years back when ancient farmers started cultivation near the river belt depending on natural resources only. There is brief mention of several organic inputs in Indian ancient literature like Rig-Veda, Ramayana, Mahabharata and Kautilya Arthasashthra etc. In fact, organic agriculture has its roots in traditional farming practices that evolved in countless villages and farming communities over the millennium.
  • 5. 291 3.1 Historical Perspective of Organic Farming describes that all dead things – rotting corpse or stinking garbage returned to earth are transformed into wholesome things that nourish life. Such is the alchemy of mentions of Kamadhenu,the celestial cow and its role on human life and soil fertility. animals. Brihad-Sanhita by Varahmihir described how to choose manures for differ- organic manure in Rig Veda 1, 161, 10. Similarly, Green Manure in Atharva Veda II the plant should be nourished by dung of goat, sheep, cow, water as well as meat. A reference of manure is also made in Vrksayurveda by Surpala (manuscript, third of what you take out from soils must be returned to it implying recycling as post-harvest residue. A number of studies have revealed the importance to organic farming systems in the present era for sustainable development of human existence. Worldwide concerned have been raised both developed and developing countries for personal health, safe environment, food security and fight against global warm- ing through organic farming, while others have cited the challenge of organic production and ability to use specialized skills (i.e. human capital) as drivers of conversion of organic agriculture (Midmore et al. 2001 2003 2001a; Lairon 2010). Ideological, philosophical, and religious beliefs can also motivate towards organic farming alongside concerns over profitability and market demand food quality and safety environmental protection and more broadly, 1998; Willer and Gillmor 1992; 1994; Rigby et al. 2001; Svensson 1991 2002; Kaltoft 1999). Broadly speaking, these motives include concern over the environmental impact of farming system, personal, family, or consumer health, safety and farm profitability 1986; Lockeretz and Madden 1987 1991; 1994 2001 US context include dissatisfaction with farm work, the decline of the family farm, financial problems associated with conventional farming, lifestyle and the desire to 2001; Sullivan et al. 1996). The conversion for tradition farming towards organic is by no means exhaustive, it does illustrate that the trends are multi-factorial. Based on the literature, we conclude that there are four broad themes underlie in organic farming: (1) profit/ economic/financial issues; (2) environmental concerns; (3) health and safety concerns and (4) ideological/philosophical motives. The relative importance of these four themes does not appear to be consistent across the various studies, suggesting varia- tion across countries, commodities, etc. Moreover, the relative importance of these
  • 6. 292 K.K. Behera et al. 1991) indicate that profitability is the most important factor in their decision to go for organic farming, while 56% of producers surveyed 2001) cite profitability as a very important factor for organic agriculture and stated that a shift has occurred in the ideological orientation of organic farming. Similar conclusions have been drawn in the European and US 2001a, b; Rundlof and Smith 2006). Organic farming practice is known since ages. The ancient Indian manuscripts also describe the importance of dead and decaying matter in nourishment of life and soil fertility, respectively. Importance of organic manure and recycling post-harvest residues has also been dealt in various sections of these literatures. Organic farming has been recognized worldwide for personal health, safe environment, food security and fight against global warming. Ideological, philosophical and religious beliefs have also triggered the use organic farming with a commercial outlook taking care of environment and quality product. 4 Developmental Era of Organic Farming The development of the organic farming era worldwide had gone through mainly three stages, Emergence, Development, and Growth in chronological sequence. 4.1 Era of Emergence (1924–1970) The beginning of organic farming could trace back to 1924 in Germany with Rudolf Steiner’s course on Social Scientific Basis of Agricultural Development, in which his theory considered the human being as part and parcel of a cosmic equilibrium that he/she must understand in order to live in harmony with the environment. Therefore, a balance must be struck between the spiritual and material side of life 1991 gave birth to biodynamic agriculture (Kahnt 1986). It was developed at the end of 1991; Kahnt 1986; Diercks 1986). In Switzerland in 1930, were at once economic, social and political as they envisioned autarchy of the farmer and a much more direct and less cluttered connection between the production and 1991 1996). 1996 in a method founded on maximum utilization of renewable resources (Gliessman 1990 organic-biological agriculture and its development in the Germanic speaking coun- 1996; Rigby et al. 2001
  • 7. 293 An Agricultural Testament summarized his research works of 25 years at Indore in India, where he - posting on a firm scientific basis and explained the relationship between the health of the soil, the health of plants and the health of animals (Du and Wang 2001). Rodale. J. I. began his research and practice on organic farming in the United States rebuilding natural soil fertility. By 1942, he published the magazine Organic Gardening 1989 inspired the formation of the Soil Association that was founded in 1946 in England. The Soil Association attempted to return humus and soil fertility to their basic place in the biological balance. It was founded on the theories propagated by Sir 2001). During 1950–1960s thanks to doctors and consumers whose awareness constantly grew with regard to food and its effect on health, organic fanning (lemaire-boucher) 2002 thoughts were to respect and emphasize the function of nature and soil in the agri- cultural production and to coordinate the relationship between human being and nature through increasing soil humus to get the yields without fertilizer and agri- cultural chemicals. The environmental and health issues exacerbated in the 1950s–1960s of the last centuries in Japan facilitated the development of natural agriculture. The essentials of natural agriculture became the important contents of Japanese agricultural, standard of organic agricultural products (Sheng et al.1995; Yu and Dai 1995). 4.2 Era of Development (1970–1990) The research and practice of organic agriculture expanded worldwide after the 1960s. In particular, the expansion and dual polarity of organic agriculture started with the oil crisis of 1973 and the growing sensitivity to agro-ecological issues. This was a time of new ideas, significant sociological transformations, protest move- ments and the proliferation of alternative life styles. The new thoughts in terms of using natural resources rationally, protecting the environment, realizing low input and high efficiency, ensuring food security, returning to the earth and maintaining a sustainable development of agriculture, such as organic, organic-biological, bio- dynamic, ecological, and natural agriculture were remarkably developed in their 1991; Rigby et al. 2001; Du and Wang 2001; May 2001 2002 1998).William Albrecht gave a definition of ecological agriculture in 1970, in which the ecological principle was introduced to the production system of 1989). In England the Soil Association created a logo
  • 8. 294 K.K. Behera et al. and in parallel introduced the notion of legally formulated specifications and quality controls that gave a legally binding guarantee for the consumers (Yussefi and Willer 2003; Soil Association 2001). The largest non-governmental organization of organic 1996). The major organic 2007; Greene 2001). These organizations played an important role in standardizing the production and market of organic products and promoting research and consumer’s awareness. The legislative action on organic farming started gradually in the different countries and regions as the guidelines for organic farming. In the United States the regulation on organic farm- in1979, respectively (Greene 2001). The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) made an investigation on a large scale on organic farming in the 69 organic farms of 23 states and published the Report and Recommendations on Organic Farming, in which the development status and potential remained as issues and the research directions were analyzed. In this report the definition and guideline for the organic farming were given, and an action plan for the development of organic farming was called for. The publication of this report was a milestone in legislation and development of organic farming in the United States (USDA 1980 the organic farming regulation was implemented in 1985 (Graf and Willer 2001; Dai 1999). The development of organic agriculture initiated the use of natural resources to protect the environment and to ensure food security with sustainable development of agriculture. Subsequently many organizations and Associations were created with legally formulated specifications and quality controls. All these organizations played a pivotal role and made valiant efforts to investigate large scale organic farming with precise scientific validation. 4.3 Era of Growth (Since 1990) The organic farming worldwide entered a new stage of growth in the 1990s. The trade organizations for organic products were founded, organic farming regulations were implemented and organic farming movement was promoted by both govern- 1999). The federal government of the United States published the regulation for organic food products in 1990 (Greene (2001 regulation 209191 on organic agriculture in 1991. This regulation became a law in 1993 and was granted in almost all European Union countries since 1994
  • 9. 295 2002 markets for organic products, published and implemented organic regulations in succession (Yussefi and Willer 2003 1996). The International Guidelines for the Production, Processing, Labeling and Marketing of Organically Produced Foods in 1999. This guide line is of importance to international harmonization of the organic 2001). Organic farming had rapidly developed worldwide during this stage. The main drivers of steady market and production growth were the commitment of many retail chains as well as favorable policy con- ditions. Together these had created conditions favoring a harmonious increase in supply and demand. The state support for organic farming research and legal frame work was increasingly gaining importance since the end of the 1990s. Organic agri- culture is holistic production management systems which promotes and enhances agro-ecosystem health, including biodiversity, biological cycles, and soil biological activity. It emphasizes the use of management practices in preference to the use of farm inputs, taking into account that regional conditions require locally adapted systems. This is accomplished by using, where possible, cultural, biological and mechanical methods, as opposed to using synthetic materials, to fulfils any specific function within the system terms, such as Organic, Biological, Biodynamic, and Ecological are recognized as organic farming in the EU regulations (Yussefi and Willer 2003 2002 2001). Although organic agriculture is one among the broad spectrum of methodologies which are based on the specific and precise standards with different names such as organic, biological, organic-biological, bio-dynamic, natural and ecological agriculture, there are some common followed 1986 Lockeretz 1996 2002 2001). These principles are summarized as follows: 1. Maintain long-term soil fertility though biological mechanism. 2. Recycle wastes of plant and animal origin in order to return nutrients to the land, thus minimizing the use of external inputs outside systems, and keep the nutrients cycle within the system. chemical ingredients and additives. 4. Using natural mechanism and rely on renewable resources to protect the natural resources. 5. Raise animals in restricted areas and guarantee the welfare of the animals. 6. Adapt local environment and diversified organization. The rapid growth of organic farming at global scale started during the end part of twentieth century, several trade organizations were founded, regulations were imple- mented and movements were promoted by both governmental and nongovernmental organizations. This led to rapid development of organic farming with co-ordinate and rational approach.
  • 10. 296 K.K. Behera et al. 5 Methods of Organic Farming The farming practice which involves the use of eco-friendly methods to grow crops and the exclusion of synthetic products, such as chemical fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides are described as organic farming. It is practiced on 32.2 million hectares of land over the world (Bhattacharya and Gehlot 2003). The International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements to setting standards and regulation of organic farming activities worldwide. A holistic approach towards growing crops, organic farming methods helps apply simple and eco-friendly techniques in farming. Use of compost fertilizers, crop rotation and biological pest control, are some of the features of organic farming methods. The farming methods that make use of the various traditional agricultural practices like minimum tillage, composting, crop rotation, biological pest control, etc., and exclude the application of synthetic fertilizers, insecticides, growth regulators and genetic modification of crop species, are included in organic farming methods. The use of modern technology in combination with organic farming practices helps in creating a balanced and sustainable environment for crop growth (Anonymous 2000). Organic farming methods take a integrated approach in growing crops rather than exploiting the available natural resources The use of organic farming methods is aimed at enhancing the productivity of crops without the use of any kind of synthetic materials and adopting a sustainable approach towards farming (Luttikholt 2007). Organic agriculture systems are based on four strongly interrelated principles under autonomous ecosystems management: mixed farming, crop rotation and organic cycle optimization. The common understanding of agricultural production in all types of organic agriculture is managing the production capacity of an agro-ecosystem. The process of extreme specialization propagated by the green revolution led to the destruction of mixed and diversified farming and ecological buffer systems. The function of this autonomous ecosystem management is to meet the need for food and fibres on the local ecological carrying capacity (Smukler et al. 2010). 5.1 Cultivation farming monoculture is practiced, which includes growing a single crop in a given 1996 2001). Though the motive behind cultivating a single crop is to reduce cost incurred in fertilizers, seeds and pesticides etc.; however, it creates problems in the long run. The reduc- tion in the fertility of the soil owing to the extraction of nutrients over a long period and soil erosion result from the practice of monoculture. Moreover, the pests become approach towards farming as compared to monoculture. In this method of farming,
  • 11. 297 a variety of crops are cultivated on a single piece of land. It helps attract different soil microbes. Some crops act as repellents to pest and these results in pest control, in an organic manner (Walker 1992; Gitay et al. 1996). In organic agriculture systems, one strives for appropriate diversification, which ideally means mixed farming, or the integration of crop and livestock production on the farm. In this way, cyclic processes and interactions in the agro-ecosystem can be optimized, like using crop residues in animal husbandry and manure for crop pro- duction. Diversification of species biotypes and land use as a means to optimize the stability of the agro-ecosystem is another way to indicate the mixed farming concept. The synergistic concept among plants, animals, soil and bio-sphere support this idea (James 1998; Albrecht and Mattheis 1998). 5.2 Fertility Organic farming has expanded rapidly in recent years and is seen as a sustainable alternative to intensive agricultural systems, developed over the last 50 years (Stockdale et al. 2001 only limited inputs of permitted fertilizers (Torstensson 1998 2003 manuring too, is a nice way to add nutrients to the soil. It is the practice of growing plants with prolific leaf growth like alfalfa and burying them in the soil before the cultivation of the main crop. The green manuring crops add organic matter to the soil that is necessary for plant growth (Berry et al. 2002 2003). 5.3 Crop Rotation Within the mixed farm setting, crop rotation takes place as the second principle of organic agriculture. Besides the classical rotation involving one crop per field per season, inter cropping, mixed cropping and relay cropping are other options to opti- mize interactions. In addition to plant functions, other important advantages such as weed suppression, reduction in soil-borne insects and diseases, complimentary nutrient supply, nutrient catching and soil covering can be mentioned (Wibberley 1996; Berzsenyi et al. 2000). 5.4 Organic Cycle Optimization Organic farming is considered a promising solution for reducing environmental burdens related to intensive agricultural management practices. These changes in agricultural practices led to numerous environmental problems like high consumption
  • 12. 298 K.K. Behera et al. of non-renewable energy resources, loss of biodiversity, pollution of the aquatic environment by the nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus as well as by pesticides 1997). Each field, farm, or region contains a given quantity of nutrients. Management 1). (i) This means that the nutrients should be recycled and used a number of times in different forms. the system so that “import” of nutrients can be restricted. The quantity of nutrients available to plants and animals can be increased within the system by activating the edaphon, resulting in increased weathering of parent material. 5.5 Pest Control Organic farming may contribute substantially to future agricultural production world- wide by improving soil quality and pest control, thereby reducing environmental NUTRIENT SUPPLY CROP RESIDUES FEED STRAW FOOD SEWAGE,SLUDGE, COMPOST etc. MANURES LIVESTOCK PEOPLE SOILS CROPS Fig. 1 Organic cycle of an organic farming system
  • 13. 299 impacts of conventional farming (Bengtsson et al. 2005). It is an important aspect in the growth of any crop. Organic pest control involves undertaking various activities to control pests without using chemical pesticides and insecticides. The growth of beneficial insects is encouraged by growing suitable plants which attract them. Beneficial insects are actually predators which control harmful insects. Disease resistant varieties are chosen for cultivation, in order to keep diseases at bay without having to spend money on costly pesticides. Special types of crops known as com- panion crops are grown to control pests (Mader et al. 2002; Oehl et al. 2004). These crops help in diverting or discouraging the growth of harmful pests. Biological pesticides such as neem extract are useful in controlling many different pests. The practice of crop rotation helps in disturbing the reproduction cycles of pests, thereby inhibiting their growth and protecting the crops (Iglesias et al. 2003). 6 Organic Farming in India: Relevance in Present Context In India, only 30% of total cultivable area is covered with fertilizer, where irriga- tion facilities are available and in the remaining 70% of arable land, which is areas often use organic manure as sources of nutrients are readily available either in their own farm or in their locality. hectare) for organic farming due to least utilization of chemical inputs, which can be exploited for organic production. India is an exporting country and does not import any organic products. The main market for exported products is the European Union. Recently India has is USA. There has been plenty of policy emphasis on organic farming and trade in the recent years in India. There are many states and private agencies involved in promotion of organic farming in India. These include-various ministries and department of the govern- ment at the central and state levels such as; Universities and Research centres Eco farms The central and state governments have also identified Agri-Export Zone for agricultural exports in general and organic products in some states: India helps for supply the organic products from small growers.
  • 14. 300 K.K. Behera et al. organic cotton and agro products to sell them to Indian & foreign buyers to help the rural marginal farmers. Ion Exchange, Mumbai; a private company is engaged for export and domestic marketing of organic products in India. found to be 2–3 times higher both in case of maize and wheat due to higher pro- duction and also for higher price were obtained by organic produce. and wheat because of 25–30% price premium on organic produce and lower cost of production and marketing. In Maharashtra; popularization of organic cotton production was due to high cost benefit ratio of organic cotton 1:1.63 as against 1:1.47 for conventional cotton. In Gujarat; organic production of chickoo, banana and coconut had higher profitability. In Karnataka; groundnut, jowar, cotton, coconut and banana were grown as organic. The major problems faced by organic farmers were found to be initial lower yields, no price incentives, no separate markets for organic produce, besides lack of and high costs of certification (Table 2). Table 2 Organic farming i. It is based on economical orientation, heavy mechanization, specialization and misappropriates development of enterprises with unstable market oriented programme i. It is based on ecological orientation, efficient input use efficiency, diversification and balanced enterprise combination with stability ii. Supplementing nutrients through fertilizers, weed control by herbicides, plant protection measures by chemicals and rarely combination with livestock crop rotation and cultural practices, plant protec- tion by non-polluting substances and better combination of livestock iii. Based on philosophy of to feed the crop/ plants and slogan of organic farming environment but extract more through technical manipulation, excessive fertilization and no correction of nutrient imbalances conditions for plants and animals and deficiencies need to be corrected v. Low input : output ratio with considerable pollution vi. Economic motivation of natural resources without considering principles of natural up gradation vi. Maximum consideration of all natural resources through adopting holistic approaches
  • 15. 301 7 Environmentally Friendly Production System Since one of the key aspects of organic farming is to forsake the use of synthetic chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and feed additives, in contrast to other agricultural production approaches, organic farming is conducive to protection of surface and underground water from these pollutants. Organic farming benefits the environment through protection of wildlife habitats, conservation of landscapes, and reduction of environmental pollution. It is well documented that organic agriculture contributes to long-term conservation of soil, water, air and protection of wild life, their habi- tats, and their genetic diversity (Redman 1992; Van Mansvelt and Mulder 1993; Lampkin 1997). Reganold et al. (2001) assessed the environmental impact of organic and conventional apple production systems by using a rating index employed by scientists and growers to determine the potential adverse impact of pesticides and fruit thinners (Reed 1995). The results show that the total environmental impact rating of the conventional system was 6.2 times that of the organic system. Organic farming also aims to maintain and improve soil fertility over the long run. It may be expected to produce a satisfactory and high quality crop with minimal use of resources. An organic farming system requires the use of catch crops, the recycling of crop residues, and the use of animal manure and the use of organic rather than artificial fertilizer. All these measures are assumed to promote accumulation of 2001). Organic farming prohibits the use of pesticides and artificial fertilizers and encourages sympathetic habitat management, such as nitrogen-building leys to increase soil fertility (Lampkin 1990). Organic matter has profound impacts on soil quality, such as enhancing soil structure and fertility and increasing water infiltration and storage. If the soil organic matter con- tent drops below3.5%, the soil suffers an increased risk of erosion (Brady and Weil 1999; Redman 1992). Stolze et al. (2000) concluded that organic farming performs better than conventional farming with regard to soil organic matter. A major objec- tive of organic farming is to encourage a higher level of biological activity in the soil, in order to sustain its quality and thereby promote metabolic interactions between the soil and plants. Axelsen and Elmholt (1998) estimated that a transition to 100% organic farming in Denmark would increase microbial biomass by 77%, the population of springtails by 37%, and the density of earthworms by 154% as a - nificantly increase biological activity of the soil. Microbial biomass in soil was higher in organic farming systems receiving higher amounts of organic inputs (Gunapala and Scow 1998; Bossio and Scow 1998; Lundquist et al. 1999). In a long-term field trial in northwestern Switzerland, the effects of organic and conven- tional land use managements on earthworm populations and on soil erodibility were investigated. The study result shows that earthworm biomass and density, as well as the population diversity were significantly greater in the organic plots than in the conventional plots. Likewise, the aggregate stability of the organic plots, when determined by means of percolation, was significantly better. Therefore, erosion susceptibility is greater on plots farmed conventionally (Siegrist et al. 1998).
  • 16. 302 K.K. Behera et al. Organic farming is a concept for following the rule of nature. It is also operates on the natural principles of sustainability. Soil is one of the most important natural resources, which needs proper management for organic production requirement. manures and green manures, no addition of synthetic substances, proper manage- ment of air and water, providing drainage, following integrated pest control, using biological methods of disease and pest control. Using traps, use of predators, increasing the population of beneficial plants and animals, addition of organic mate- rial in the soil, using legume, use of bio fertilizers, modifying cropping systems, use of cover crops, catch crops and establish proper soil-crop-animal-human being system. Such a system should follow an integrated system approach so as to make the entire production system biologically active, ecologically sound and economically viable. In short locally available natural material should be used to increase soil productivity by improving soil environment. Organic farming is considered a promising solution for reducing environmental burdens related to intensive agricultural management practices. Organic agriculture combines tradition, innovation and science to benefit the shared environment and promote fair relationships and a good quality of life for all involved. The main strengths lie in better resource conservation, since the farm relies mainly on internal resources and limits the input of external auxiliary materials. This results in less fossil and mineral resources being consumed. A further important effect is the very restrictive use of pesticides, leading to markedly lower eco-toxicity potentials on the one hand and higher biodiversity potentials on the other. 7.1 Quality Product In the consumer’s mind, organic produce must be better and healthier than that pro- duced under conventional farming system. This image is also the main motive for consumers who are willing to pay premium prices for purchasing organic food. Organic agriculture can be viewed as an attempt to overcome at the individual, as much as the collective, level the “risky freedoms,” such as contamination of food supplies with pesticides, pollution, and radioactive fallout etc., associated with pro- cessed food and a chemically based agriculture (Lockie et al. 2000 - tific point of view, however, it is difficult to provide or substantiate the supposed health benefits, since food quality is composed of various partial aspects and with- - ment for organic farming (Adam 2001; Koepf et al. 1976). Several investigations have clearly shown that the type of fertilizations, contrary to the principle of organic 1981; Evers 1989a, b, c is not dependent on the principle difference between inorganic fertilization and organic manuring. Side-effects caused by synthetic pesticides and drug feeding are not found in organic farming, which is a positive result. The use of herbicides has
  • 17. 303 been documented to increase cyanide, potassium nitrate, and other toxins in 2000; Uzogara 2000 also result in increased concentrations of secondary plant metabolites and of myco- toxins of field fungi. Eltun (1996) reported higher concentrations of deoxynivalenol and nivalenol in grain samples from organic than from conventional farming. samples grown conventionally. The exclusion of pesticides does not necessarily mean that crop products do not contain unwanted substances. The evaluation of food quality by taking into account the criteria, such as appearance and nutritional value exclusively is not satisfying. Today we have to consider ethical criteria such as environmental, social, and political dimensions of food production, processing, and packaging. Regarding the latter, more or less discussions have been mentioned Vogtmann 1996). There appears to be a common perception amongst consumers that organic reports, which compare the quality of organic food with foods grown convention- ally, under comparable and controlled conditions, in terms of their nutrient com- position or their effects on humans and animals. Adverse effect of chemicals, used in conventional framing, on mankind cannot be overlooked. Unintentional con- sumption of pesticides or chemical containing food has imposed severe health risks. This has made organic farming an alternative and better source of food production. 7.2 Appearance produced food sometimes fails to match the perfection achieved through conven- tional farming, especially for fruit and vegetables. It is widely believed that organically produced food tastes better than conventional, but conclusive scien- tific evidence to prove that this is the case is hard to come by. Lindner (1985) using a panel of 30–50 consumers who were deliberately not informed about the basis of the comparison, found that vegetables produced organically under care- study, a panel of trained tasters found no significant differences (Lindner 1985). Duden (1987) has also found taste differences in favor of organically produced tomatoes and potatoes respectively. It is also demonstrated that in all aspects of fruit quality, the organic fruit was at least equal to fruit produced in the conven- tional farming system, and was higher in some important variables (taste, firm- ness, dietary fiber, phenolic compounds, vitality index) (Weibel et al. 1998; Reganold et al. 2001).
  • 18. 304 K.K. Behera et al. 7.3 Nutritional Value metals, etc., while beneficial nutrients encompass protein, vitamins, trace elements, etc. Organic food shall come from an organic production system with sound envi- ronment. During the production, processing, and handling of organic food, only natural substances and operational methods with minimum pollution to environ- 2000). In contrast to conventional produce, organically produced products should be environmental- safe and healthier, and the risk of produce grown organically being contaminated with pesticide residues is much smaller than with conventionally produced crops. Schupbach’s experiment implies that there are in fact differences between organic and conventional produces as far as pesticide residues concerned. When food genu- inely produced using organic methods are tested, the result is much more clear-cut (Schupbach 1986). compared nitrate levels in vegetables from organic and conventional production - tion lower in organically produced vegetables, but the ratio of protein-nitrogen to nitrate-nitrogen is much higher (Temperli et al. 1982; Vogtmann et al. 1984). Twenty-nine valid studies that compared the nutrient contents of organic and non- organic foods showed significantly higher amounts of minerals, vitamins, and dry matter in organic food (Adam 2001). The presence or absence of harmful substances in food is still only one side of the issue of nutritional value. Various studies have shown increased use of nitrogen fertilizers result in not only higher levels of nitrate, but also higher levels of free amino acids, oxalates and other undesirable compounds, as well as in lower levels are also affected by levels of fertilizer use, and so are trace elements. The use of organic manure and appropriate soil management practices in organic agriculture means that a much wider and more balanced range of nutrients are available to crops directly by the plant (see, Schuphan 1975 reveal better-tasting properties or improved nutritional value, but have consistently farmed food seems to be better for children, although rodents apparently favor organic food (Trewavas 2001; Woese et al. 1997). - cific fungicides) definitely contribute to European cancer rates and threaten food and failure to use effective fungicides on organic farms has led to these farms acting as repositories of disease (Lovejoy 1994; Kirchmann and Thorvaldsson 2000;
  • 19. 305 Zwankhuizen et al. 1998; Eltun 1996). All the above quality characteristics can be measured quantitatively thus providing a basis for comparison. But subjective values will also play a major role in the consumer’s perception of quality. The main reason of consumer’s increasing recognition of and interests in organic food is due to con- sumer’s identification that comparing with conventional farming approaches, organic plays a significant role in environmental protection and farming sustainability. 8 Working with Natural Cycles In organic farming, the agro-ecosystem is considered as a whole. All living organ- isms within the ‘farm ecosystem’ are considered to be in a dynamic equilibrium with each other. This concept applies to crops, pests and their natural enemies, as well as to farm animals, wildlife or microorganisms in compost and soil. It is applied regardless of the underlying mechanisms (predator–prey relationship; parasite-host relationship; competition for substrate, light, space etc.) (Roger 1987; Oram 2003). The equilibrium can be influenced by appropriate management practices, which are themselves part of the natural cycles (indirect control). This is preferable to direct control of pests or diseases, which represents an intervention from outside the agro 1999; Gabriel et al. 2006). In other words, the difference is whether the farmer lets and helps nature find a new equilibrium between pests and beneficial, their health are also considered in the context of the entire farm ecosystem and the same conclusions apply. Another implication of the principle is that all measures taken should have as little impact on natural cycles as possible. This applies particu- larly to effects of crop protection measures on non-target organisms, and to the side-effects of veterinary drugs on animals, and on the environment after excretion. This principle also emphasizes the importance of the flow of materials within the ‘farm ecosystem’, which is also the unit that is subject to inspection and certifica- tion. Materials originating from outside the farm are called ‘off-farm inputs’ or simply ‘inputs’. The use of inputs always means an open cycle on the farm and should be minimized (although it can never be zero). If inputs have to be used, they should preferably come from other organic farms, thus closing the cycle on a wider scale (Thorup-Kristensen et al. 2003; Zehnder et al. 2007). 8.1 Soil Fertility Organic farming also aims to maintain and improve soil fertility over the long run. It may be expected to produce a satisfactory and high quality crop with minimal use of resources. An organic farming system requires the use of catch crops, the recy- cling of crop residues, the use of animal manure, and the use of organic rather than artificial fertilizer. All these measures are assumed to promote accumulation of
  • 20. 306 K.K. Behera et al. 2001). Organic farming prohibits the use of pesticides and artificial fertilizers and encourages sympathetic habitat management, such as nitrogen building leys to increase soil fertility (Lampkin 1990). Organic matter has profound impacts on soil quality, such as enhancing soil structure and fertility and increasing water infiltration and storage. If the soil organic matter con- tent drops below 3.5%, the soil suffers an increased risk of erosion (Brady and Weil 1999; Redman 1992). Stolze et al. (2000) concluded that organic farming performs better than conventional farming with regard to soil organic matter. A major objec- tive of organic farming is to encourage a higher level of biological activity in the soil, in order to sustain its quality and thereby promote metabolic interactions between the soil and plants. Axelsen and Elmholt (1998) estimated that a transition to 100% organic farming in Denmark would increase microbial biomass by 77%, the population of springtails by 37%, and the density of earthworms by 154% as a - nificantly increase biological activity of the soil. Microbial biomass in soil was higher in organic farming systems receiving higher amounts of organic inputs (Gunapala and Scow 1998; Bossio and Scow 1998; Lundquist et al. 1999). In a long-term field trial in northwestern Switzerland, the effects of organic and conventional land use managements on earthworm populations and on soil erodibil- ity were investigated. The study result shows that earthworm biomass and density, as well as the population diversity, were significantly greater in the organic plots than in the conventional plots. Likewise, the aggregate stability of the organic plots, when determined by means of percolation, was significantly better. Therefore, erosion sus- ceptibility is greater on plots farmed conventionally (Siegrist et al. 1998). 8.2 Nutrient Management trace elements. Among them, nitrogen is of great importance in organic plant grow- be based mainly on a site-specific and market-oriented crop rotation including green manure planting and on an optimized manure handling and application system. 1999). Long term rotation trials on sandy loam confirm the outstanding importance of legu- minous fodder crops in terms of humus accumulation (26 t/ha after five courses of a 5-year crop rotation) and continuous yield security of succeeding crops. A biennial fodder, 320 kg bound in the roots, and 80 kg calculated as loss due to volatilization 1987 (1998) reported that if maize was inter cropped with either cowpea or jack bean in increased and grain yield of the maize was markedly improved too.
  • 21. 307 8.3 Role of Arbuscualr Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) Organic farming has developed from a wide number of disparate movements across the world into a more uniform group of farming systems, which operate broadly Movements (Stockdale et al. 2001). Though the exact production methods vary con- siderably, general principals include the exclusion of most synthetic biocides and fertilizers, the management of soils through addition of organic materials and use of 1998). The exclusion of soluble mineral fertilizers and the very limited use of biocides in organic agriculture mean that it is reliant largely on 2 fixation as 2 to crops, and for protection of crops from pests and disease. Indeed, it is one of the central paradigms of organic agriculture that an active soil microbial community is vital for functioning of the agro ecosystem (Lampkin 1990). ) are usually considered to play an important role and it is assumed that they can compensate for the reduced 2001). - to the functioning of organic agro ecosystems and in particular to crop performance Vestberg (1998 this does not always translate into higher yields even when phosphorus use effi- ciency is higher (Ryan et al. 1994; Galvez et al. 2001 organic systems may even be associated with reduced yield in some cases because 1996 to be no more effective, and in some cases less effective than rock phosphate at increasing crop growth on organically managed soils (Scullion et al. 1998). Dann et al. (1996 organically managed soil, crops responded positively to super phosphate fertilizer reached by Ryan and Ash (1999). organic systems is difficult because organic systems vary considerably in the detail of their management practices and the practices used prior to conversion. As a 1998; Daniell et al. 2001; Johnson et al. 1992; Johnson 1993). species tolerant of intensive farming practices. Building up species diversity will be
  • 22. 308 K.K. Behera et al. there are no available data to indicate the mechanisms involved in the re-colonization of agricultural land, the time required, or the most effective management options to accelerate the process. Some data have indicated that organic systems may fail to 1998). production are used frequently (Dekkers and Vander Werff 2001; Scullion et al. 1998). Excessive tillage to control weeds and frequent cultivation of non-mycorrhizal crops could also hamper development of a diverse AM community. Unfavorable soil moisture and temperature, and plant disease, can also suppress the AM associa- tion and consequently community development. Another reason for the failure of from adjacent natural and semi-natural habitats such as hedges, woodland and unmanaged grassland. The vectors of propagules may include animals, growing roots, agricultural machinery and soil eroded by wind and water (Ryan and Graham 2002; Warner et al. 1987). While root growth and movement by animals is likely to be slow and involve small numbers of propagules, tillage operations can move soil and propagules more than a meter in a single operation, depending on the machin- ery in question and the slope (Rew et al. 1996; Tsara et al. 2001; van Muysen and Govers 2002 2003). Single water erosion events can move soil several hundred meters while wind can disperse spores very large distances as can farm machinery. Evidence from re-colonization of abandoned agricultural land suggests 1987; Morschel et al. 2004 2002 2002). - cant heterogeneity including areas with potentially very low infectivity. This is likely to be especially true of large fields where distance from the source of propagules may be large, or in intensively managed landscapes, where semi-natural habitats may be in some organic systems is the suggestion that modern crop cultivars are not respon- 1996; Manske 1990; 1996; Aguilera-Gomez et al. 1998 - Stoppler et al. (1990 1993, 1996) suggesting that this is not the only factor. The apparent lack of benefit for the host crop may even be simply a result of the host crop receiving benefits other than those being measured. 9 Status of Organic Crop Production in Food Security Global food production increased by 70% from 1970 to 1995, largely due to the application of modern technologies in developing countries, where food production
  • 23. 309 in the coming three decades, as pointed out above, to meet human demand (Bruinsma 2003 2003; Eickhout et al. 2006). Two principal possibilities for achieving this increase have been identified: intensifying agricultural production on existing cropland or ploughing up natural land into cropland, i.e. clearing pastures and rangelands, cutting forests and woodland areas, etc. Some experts have a posi- tive view that food production can be greatly increased if high-yielding production is widely applied and the expansion of arable land in the world is expected to only slightly increase from 1,400 Mha in 2006 to 1,600 Mha in 2030 (Bruinsma 2003; 2007; Bouwman et al. 2005). In 2025, the world’s farmers will be expected to produce an average world cereal yield of about 4 metric tons per hectare if condi- tions are optimized. There are recent claims that sufficient food can be produced by organic agriculture, expressed in terms such as ‘organic agriculture can feed the world (Dyson 1999; Woodward 1995; Vasilikiotis 2000; Leu 2004; Tudge 2005; 2007). The following three arguments have been put forward: (i) Lower production of most crops can be compensated for by increased production of legumes, in particular of grain legumes, while a change to a diet based mainly on vegetables and legumes will provide enough food for all (Woodward 1995). (ii) Realities in developing countries must be taken into account: Increased food hungry people need low-cost and readily available technologies and practices to 2003). (iii) Organic agriculture can get the food to the people who need it and is therefore the quickest, most efficient, most cost-effective and fairest way to feed the world (Leu 2004). These arguments confuse the original scientific question with other realities interacting with food sufficiency, such as change in dietary composition, poverty, finance, markets, dis- stringent review and evaluation of the production potential of organic and conven- tional systems. A fundamental question is whether organic yields can be increased radically or whether more natural ecosystems have to be converted into cropland. The following four observations indicate that intensification rather than area expan- sion is necessary: (1) Agricultural land is steadily decreasing as it is being taken over for urban or industrial use (Blum et al. 2004), (2) global warming may reduce the potential for 2005), (3) significant areas of farmland may be used for fuel production, competing with food production 2005) and (4) cropland simply cannot be expanded, due to shortage of suitable land. On the other hand, current yield increases appear to be falling below the projected rate of increase in demand for cereals challenging scientists to do their 2002; Evans 1998). cornerstone of human welfare. Development of agricultural practices ensuring food sufficiency is a basic human requirement, a prerequisite for satisfactory social conditions and a necessity for civilizations to flourish. Lack of food, on the other hand, is a tragedy leading not only to suffering and loss of life but also to inhuman behavior, political instability and war (Borlaug 1970). In fact, eradication of famine and malnutrition has been identified as the most important task on Earth
  • 24. 310 K.K. Behera et al. 2005). Thus, when discussing different forms of crop production, it is of the utmost importance to examine without prejudice the forms of agriculture that can contribute to food sufficiency and security, at present and in the future. Separation of facts and wishful thinking is absolutely necessary and only an unbiased review of the scientific literature can provide objective answers to the questions put forward below. A strong belief and enthusiasm for certain solutions cannot be allowed to hamper the search for objectivity. The overall aim of this chapter was to examine a morally important aspect of organic agriculture. This was achieved by examining the following questions: - duction of organic production? 3. Is it possible to significantly increase organic yields in the future 10 Yield Attributes of Organic Farming A review by Badgley et al. (2007) points out that organic agriculture is misjudged concerning crop production and its potential to supply sufficient food. According to their review, only small yield reductions occur through organic agriculture in developed countries, but organic yields are higher than conventional yields in developing countries. This conclusion is supported by a large number of other papers, which may be taken as evidence of its scientific reliability. We re-examined the papers cited by Badgley et al. (2007) to determine whether their conclusions often lower scientific credibility, non-peer-reviewed conference papers, institu- tion reports and magazine articles were not considered. The reexamination of papers reporting high organic yields showed that the data were used in a biased reported higher crop output from organic production than from conventional over a whole rotation, but only for single years. Secondly, when yields were higher during a single year in organic production, this was coupled to one or both of the following conditions: (1) The amount of nutrients applied to the organic system through manure and compost was equal to or even higher than that applied to the conventional system through inorganic fertilizers, (2) non-food crops (legumes) Thirdly, on-farm data were compared with mean yield data within a region. Such comparisons have no validity, since the possible factors behind the differences are not given. In summary, the yield data reported were misinterpreted and any calculations based on these data are likely to be erroneous. The paper by Badgley et al. (2007)
  • 25. 311 2001). A closer inspection revealed that crop yields were based on surveys and there was no possibility to check crop performance variables and the science behind the data. In fact, only six papers for developing countries cited by Badgley et al. (2007) were derived from peer-reviewed journals. In four papers, rice yields in con- ventional systems were compared with so-called intensified rice production. rates, and is not an organic form of agriculture by European standards (Sheehy et al. 2004; Latif et al. 2005). Our conclusion is therefore that the argument that organic agriculture can produce similar or even higher yields than conventional does not hold given the boundary conditions outlined above. 11 Trends in Organic Crop Yields Yield trends over time were analyzed in four Swedish comparative studies to deter- mine the potential to increase production through organic and conventional man- agement. The underlying question is whether yields are following the same trends in organic agriculture as in conventional. In the study by Kirchmann et al. (2007), the initial 10-year period was characterized by a relatively constant yield differ- ence between the organic and conventional system. Thereafter, yields increased in both systems but the increase was larger in the conventional system than in the organic, despite higher additions of animal manure to the organic system. In two other studies without animal manure which used green manure for organic produc- tion and fertilizer for conventional, the relative yield differences between systems were much larger (Torstensson et al. 2006; Aronsson et al. 2007 yield increase was observed in the organic system over the 5–6-year experimental period, where as conventional yields increased in one experiment and remained constant in the other. In studies without animal manure, there is good reason to assume that organic yields barely increase over the longer term, as residual soil instance, in relatively fertile soils, a decade or more may be needed before residual soil nutrients are sufficiently exhausted for a yield reduction to become apparent (Denison et al. 2004). In another experiment run for 12 years at a fertile site, each crop in the rotation was grown every year and animal manure was applied in rela- tion to the level of nutrient removal by harvested crops (Ivarson and Gunnarsson 2001). Differences between organic and conventional yields were smaller at this yields would increase more or decrease less over time than conventional yields. Based on the four experiments presented above, we conclude that there is no evidence that yields increase more in organic agriculture than in conventional. increased yields than organic agriculture.
  • 26. 312 K.K. Behera et al. 12 Global Scale Food Production In summary, this review shows that the reduction in crop yields through large-scale conversion to organic agriculture would, on average, amount to 40%, with a range of variation of 25–50%. A 40% reduction in yield on a global scale is equivalent to the amount of crops required by 2.5 billion people. This estimate is in fact identical to that calculated by Smil (2001), who assessed the role of industrial nitrogen fixation for global food supply. Smil (2001, 2002 process for industrial fixation of atmospheric nitrogen provides the very means of survival for 40% of humanity and that only half of the current world population could be supported by pre-fertilizer farming, even with a mainly vegetarian diet. The similarity of these estimates confirms the strategic role of fertilizers as a keystone for the well-being and development of mankind. It is obvious that world- wide adoption of organic agriculture would lead to massive famine and human death. This is something that advocates of organic agriculture are silent about, perhaps because of the severe moral dilemma it poses. 13 Restoration of Biodiversity Organic agriculture relies largely on locally available resources and is dependent upon maintaining ecological balance, developing biological processes to their opti- mum and respecting natural evolution processes of plants, animals, and landscapes. Organic agriculture, which provides more habitats for various organisms, has a much higher biodiversity potential than conventional farming systems do (Redman 1992; Mander et al. 1999).Organic agriculture is also committed to conservation of biodiversity within the agricultural system, both from a philosophical perspective and from the practical viewpoint of maintaining productivity. Biological pest con- trol on organic farms, for example, relies on maintaining healthy populations of pest predators. By adopting a crop rotation system, in time (over several years rotations) or in space (through intercropping or by growing several different crops on a hold- ing at any onetime), the build up of harmful pests and disease can be reduced and biodiversity increased (Stolton et al. 2000; Zhu et al. 2000; Jackson 1997). In recent years, researches have been carried out on organic agriculture’s effects on biodiversity (Youngberg et al. 1984; Isart and Llerena 1996; Whalen et al. 1998; 1997, 1998 1999; Van Elsen 2000 2001). Many investigations show positive effects of organic farming on the diversity of arable field plants. In organically farmed fields, the density and species diversity of the and Danish locations, about five times as much weed biomass, 2.4–5.3 times greater weed density, significantly greater species diversity was found in the former 1990). These effects on the weed flora are primarily the result of the ban on herbicides in organic farming (Reddersen 1999).
  • 27. 313 of earthworms and biomass; more individuals species of spiders; more non-pest species of butterflies were found on organic farms (Braae et al. 1988; Whalen et al. 1998 1997, 1998; Krebs et al. 1999 1999). Mander et al. (1999) showed that organic agriculture had a large positive impact on biological and landscape diversity. The diversity (population or species or individuals) of vascular plants, different invertebrate groups and birds was 0.5–20 times higher on 1999) captured significantly more butterflies and spiders, in terms of both individuals and species, from the organic than the conventional fields. It was also found that in contrast to the conventional management system, the populations of endangered species in organic fields were considerably higher (Albrecht and Mattheis 1998). Through crop rotations in organic farming encourages diversity at the landscape scale. Such retention of a diversity of habitats renders obvious benefits on local wildlife populations (Edwards 2001). On the other hand, sometimes conversion shows only small benefits to species diversity because of a long history of mechanical weeding and the use of herbicides before conversion (Albrecht and Mattheis 1998). Kleijn et al. (2001) found no positive effects on plant and bird species diversity infields where farmers were paid to delay mowing or grazing, and to reduce the amount of fertil- izer they used. The four most common wader species were observed even less fre- quently on those fields. By contrast, hoverflies and bees showed modest increases in species richness. Birds actually seemed to prefer intensively farmed fields possibly because reduction in fertilizer use led to smaller invertebrate populations and so less farming in smaller plots (providing more field margins) or farming based on the traditionally system (for example under sowing wheat with legumes) maintains con- ventional yields and low costs. The benefits for wildlife equal those provided by 1999 it can be argued that agriculture has, to a certain extent, responsibility for all species and communities which co-evolved with farming over 10,000 years irrespective their utility (Wood and Lenné 1999). 14 Linkage to Rural Economy More recently, researchers have focused their attention to evaluate the efficacy of organic farming in the rural economy and specifically, the potential for organic farming to contribute to rural development (Darnhofer 2005; Marsden et al. 2002; 2001). In this context it is frequently argued that organic farming can promote much employment in rural areas and thus contribute to rural development by reducing the wide gap between rich and poor (Morison et al. 2005; Smith and Marsden 2004; Midmore and Dirks 2003 1997). Despite these claims, it has been also argued that research on the wider “social impacts of organic farming is
  • 28. 314 K.K. Behera et al. very limited” (Morris et al. 2001). Significantly, Smith and Marsden (2004) have argued that considering organic farming as a panacea for the problems of “rural economic development has to be seriously qualified by examining particular types of overall supply chain dynamics which are operating in particular types of organic sectors indifferent local, regional and national settings”. In parallel with the growth of, and interest in, the organic sector, ‘local food’ has also taken on increased eco- nomic, environmental and symbolic importance. Much of this is concerned with reducing environmental costs, particularly food miles, but also a desire to increase local economic multipliers and contribute to the reconnection linkage of farmers 2006; Ilbery and Maye 2005 2005). It has also been suggested that patterns of increased local food purchases, rather than revealing a strong turn to quality and locally produced organic food, actually points to a politics of “defensive localism” (Winter 2003). Although organic produce is not necessarily ‘local’ (even locally supplied organic boxes may not contain exclusively locally produced food), and local produce does not equate with organic, there is never the less a perceived close alliance between local food and organic food move- through direct routes, such as local box schemes, rose by 53% between 2005 and 2006 (Soil Association 2007 sourcing with increased organic production would lead to considerable savings 2005). Where as the economic and social benefits of reducing negative externalities and increasing positive externalities have long been recognized, the renewed research focus on the ‘local economy’ and interactions, clusters and networks within it may point to a role for organic farming and local food in developing and sustaining local economies(Winter and Rushbrook 2003 and Renting (2000) have suggested that the operators of farm businesses have par- ticular advantages to bring to the process of rural development, while Renting et al. (2003a; b) have demonstrated aggregate benefits in terms of additional net value added stemming from a number of “short food supply chains” (including organics and direct sales) and Smithers et al. (2008) pointed to the benefits of retaining a greater proportion of farming and food expenditure within the local economy. Similarly, in discussing the multiple rationales associated with the promotion of locally sourced organically produced food. Seyfang (2006) argues that such food supply chains can, amongst other things, favour new socially embedded economies of place and make a significant contribution to rural development by giving farmers greater control of their market and retaining a greater proportion of food spend in the local economy. The assumed localized nature of organic food and associated 2008) have recently commented on the “supposedly localized nature of organic food” and called for more critical and reflexive accounts of what it is organic food networks can do for us. Against the background of claims concerning the rural development potential of farmers generally and organic farming in particular, Building on a meth- 1993 (2000) emphasized the socio-economic linkages associated with different types of farming and also evidence of social embedded ness of the principal farmer.
  • 29. 315 14.1 Rural Economies Versus Organic Farming range of ‘economies’ rather than discussing a discrete, unified and homogenous economy (Winter and Rushbrook 2003). These various economies may share similar characteristics but may also be quite different in terms of economic linkages with the wider economy and reliance on different sectors, for instance. The shift in rural policy towards more of a territorial focus and the growing policy emphasis on regional and local sustainable economic development is associated with the devel- 2007 2000) have consid- ered economic linkages between businesses and localities. Analysis of purchase and sales links provides a method of exploring the extent to which farms (or indeed, any business) of different types are connected to local economies. There are a number of ways of approaching the concept of economic connectivity. Earlier studies of economic linkages (focused on the proportions of sales and purchases by businesses 1994 1993) extended the approach to include the monetary values of sales and purchases. beyond the employment issues (Bateman et al. 1993). 15 Challenges of Sustainable Agriculture There are several challenges that must be overcome to achieve sustainable agricul- damaging activities, review the ways they go about development, and create ways to - ple, pesticide damage must be addressed by quickly teaching farmers how to prop- erly use the chemicals, by carrying out comprehensive registration and management, and by banning or regulating hazardous pesticides. To address the problem of unsuitable irrigation schemes, it is imperative that small-scale environmentally compatible projects be implemented in place of standardized large-scale projects other agro ecological technologies is also essential (Marsden et al. 2000 Burney 2002) friendly farming, and the reevaluation of public research agencies, which should take the lead in developing basic technologies because these are not considered 2003 2007). Second is enhanced monitoring of agribusiness, which is the primary entity behind the internationalization of agro-food issues, and international growth man- agement for agriculture- and food-related trade and investment of export-oriented agriculture, and the internationalization of trade and investment have expanded rap- idly, but the flip side is trans border environmental damage. As in the conventions
  • 30. 316 K.K. Behera et al. on prior informed consent and persistent organic pollutants and the resource management project for shrimp farming (Wood et al. 2006 2005). There is a growing necessity to create an Asian system—with the same level of regulatory measures as those in other parts of the world, that can formulate business codes of conduct and environmental conventions in order to internationally control the cha- otic development of agribusiness, and that can use capital investment returns to benefit local environmental conservation. An international framework like this and action based on it would make it possible to steer the growth of trade and investment in a sustainable direction. Asian governments must also reevaluate their agricultural policy in connection with food imports. Some countries have become dependent on imports for basic foods because of their policy emphasis on industrialization or production for export, but since the Asian economic crisis some Southeast Asian countries have a renewed awareness about the importance of food security. Under the WTO system, domestic policies cannot be adequately implemented due to limi- tations imposed from above on protecting domestic agriculture, but the sustainable development of agriculture and food production is indispensable to attain food 2005 2001). Third is bringing together the actors agro-food system, which is the cause of environmental damage and food uncer- tainty, requires that governments switch to eco-friendly policies that protect agricul- ture, receive the support of international agencies, and regulate and monitor agribusiness. But such policies will become reality only through collaboration as they raise questions and exercise their influence toward creating that policy. environmental science and traditional local knowledge while working toward eco- friendly farming and local resource management. It would be the first step toward achieving the development of sustainable agriculture in which both farmers and consumers take the initiative in cooperating globally and locally (Allan and Kovach 2000 2006; Lamine and Bellon 2009). 15.1 Advantages of Organic Farming 1. The economics of organic farming is characterized by increasing profits via reduced water use, nutrient-contamination by pesticides, reduced soil erosion and carbon emissions and increased biodiversity. 2. Organic farming produces the same crop variants as those produced via conven- tional farming methods, but incurs 50% lower expenditure on fertilizer and energy, and retains 40% more topsoil. 3. This type of farming effectively addresses soil management. Even damaged soil, subject to erosion and salinity, are able to feed on micro-nutrients via crop rota- tion, inter-cropping techniques and the extensive use of green manure.
  • 31. 317 and soil enhancement with mulch, corn gluten meal, garlic and clove oil, table salt and borax not only get rid of weeds and insects, but also guarantee crop quality. 5. The use of green pesticides such as neem, compost tea and spinosad is environ- mentally friendly and non-toxic. These pesticides help in identifying and removing diseased and dying plants in time and subsequently, increasing crop defense systems. 15.2 Disadvantages of Organic Farming 1. In 1998, increased risk of E. coli infection via consumption of organic food Institute. - cluded that organic methods of farming result in small yields even in developing areas, compared to conventional farming techniques. organic farming practices are capable of catering to the demands of a very small consumer fraction, the expanding cropland is dramatically destroying world ecosystems. that organic farms producing potatoes, seed grass and sugar beet are barely able to produce half of the total output churned out from conventional farming practices. 5. Organic agriculture is hardly able to address or combat global climate change. Though regenerative organic farming practices are recognized as effective strate- 16 Conclusion This chapter has focused on agricultural sustainability, and its relationship to vari- ous alternative agricultural approaches. It has, quite deliberately, not offered any new definitions of sustainability or sustainable agriculture. Sustainable practices will vary both temporally and spatially and can only truly be identified in retrospect. It is not simply a question of tools and inputs, but the context in which they are used. definition allowed many of us to associate it with certain important characteristics of scale, locality, control, knowledge, nutrition, social justice, participation, grower/eater
  • 32. 318 K.K. Behera et al. relationships and the connections with schools and communities”. Duesing goes on characteristics seem threatened as the definition of organic farming and food is nar- rowed to a set of standards which deal with growing and processing methods. The exclusively organic standards become established in an increasing number of coun- tries, and these standards become more co-ordinate and integrated, the degree to which the organic producer and organic consumer may be geographically separated producers having the option of buying in mulch or organic fertilizers from distant sources. There may be doubts regarding the sustainability of the systems which have generated these purchased inputs. In addition, organic producers may be skep- tical of such developments because they farm in this way to escape from many aspects of the global trade in food stuffs, and aim to produce for local markets because of concern regarding the energy deficiency implications of such a trade in the concept of the natural naturalness to characterize organic agriculture and or sometimes argue that such use lacks any rational of scientific basis and only refers to sentiment. The organic agriculture movement had its roots in a philosophy of life and not in the agricultural science (Kirchmann, 1994). A common belief within the organic movement is that natural products are good, whereas man-made chemicals are bad or at least not as good as natural ones. This idea may also be used to explain why organic farming avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides etc. In any case, one fundamental reason for increasing interests in organic agriculture is due to the requirements and attention of health, environmental protection, and food safety. This paper shows that organic agriculture has obvious environmental benefits. The basic standards of organic farming provide suitable tools to minimize environmen- within organic farms in relation to their efforts and their nutrient efficiency. organic farming is suited to improve soil fertility and nutrient management mark- edly on the farm level. With reference to biodiversity, organic agriculture is commit- ted to conservation of biodiversity within agricultural systems. Research projects have accumulated evidence that organic systems are beneficial to biodiversity. In relation to product quality, there is no sufficient evidence for a system-related effect function of farm management, showing a high variability in both organic and con- ventional production. Organic farming emphasizes integrated strategies, rather than individual control methods, both in crop protection and animal husbandry. Biological native predators and parasites should only be used if this causes no threat to the native fauna. The use of microbial control agents is also possible, but is not favoured by the major regulations and standards. In the authors’ personal view, the use of microbial control agents can be preferable to the use of plant or mineral derived
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