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Takahiro (2008) Lipolysis Induced By Various

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  • 1. 102 Nippon Shokuhin Kagaku Kogaku Kaishi Vol. //, No. -, +*, +*2 (,**2) 22 Q QQ Q Q QQQQQQQ Q Q Lipolysis Induced by Various Citrus Fruits Takahiro Tsujita and Takeshi Takaku Department of Bioscience, Integrated Center for Sciences, Ehime University, Shitsukawa, Toon, Ehime 13+ *,3/ Lipolysis induced by extracts of various citrus fruits (.1 cultivars) was investigated using rat fat cells. High lipolytic activity was observed in unripe fruits. Lipolytic activity was also detected in ripe fruits ; peel or segment wall extracts from ripe fruits induced lipolysis, whereas juice sac extract did not. The lipolytic activity of segment wall extract was about ,1 of that of peel extract. In peel fractions, the lipolytic activity of flavedo fraction was about --fold higher than that of albedo fraction. Using the Citrus genus classification of Tanaka, high lipolytic activities were observed in group V [Aurantium Tanaka ; including Natsumikan (Citrus natsudaidai Hayata) and Iyokan (Citrus iyo Hort. ex Tanaka)] and group VII [Acrumen Tanaka ; including Satsuma mandarin orange (Citrus unshiu Marc.) and Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco)], while group II [Limonellus Tanaka ; including Tahiti lime (Citrus latifolia Tanaka)], group III [Citrophorum Tanaka], including lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Tanaka)] and group IV [Cephalocitrus Tanaka ; including Buntan (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.)] tended to have low lipolytic activity. The concentration of synephrine in unripe fruit was proportional to lipolytic activity. These results suggest that the peel and segment walls of ripe fruit, which are generated in large quantities as a waste product from the citrus juicing process, may be useful as a functional food, especially as a fat reducing material. (Received Aug. -, ,**1 ; Accepted Jan. -, ,**2) Keywords : Citrus fruit, Lipolysis, Peel, Segment wall, Synephrine : Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q pamine Q Q Q QQ Q Q Q Q Q , - QQ Q Q Q QQ QQ Q QQQ QQ QQ Q QQQ QQ Q QQ Q Q Q Q Q QQ / Q Q QQQ Q QQQ Q Q -./ Q Q Q Q Q . / QQQ QQQQ Q Q Q + QQQ QQ Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q0 QQQQ Q Q Q Q QQ Q Q Q Q Q QQ Q Q Q QQ Q Q QQQ Q Q QQQ Q Citrus aurantium QQ 1 Q QQQ QQ Q Q Q QQ Q QQ Q QQ QQ Q Q Q Q QQQ Q synephrine octo- QQ Q QQ Q 13+ *,3/ QQQ QQQQQ Q QQ Q Q Corresponding author tsujita@m.ehime-u.ac.jp Q Q Q Q QQQ
  • 2. 23 QQ : Q Q QQQQQ 103 QQ QQ QQQQQ Q Q QQQQQ QQ - ml , v v Q Q Q QQ Q : Q + : + v v QQ Q +* QQ Q , *** g +* QQQ QQ QQ Q QQ Q + ml QQ Q + +* QQ QQ Q ,.., g QQ Q Q Q QQQQQQQQ QQQ Q Q ,.32 g QQ *..2 g QQQ Q QQQQ Q Q Q ,** ml QQ Q 00 g QQ QQ Q Q Q 2Q 2Q+ . Q QQ Q ,*** g +* Q QQ QQ Q QQQ Q Q QQ QQ QQ QQQ *./ ml *./ ml Q /Q QQ Q 2* Q QQ QQ Q *.+ w v Q Q *.*/ Q Q QQ Q Q w v - , oterto Qo.o Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q QQ Q .2* nm QQ QQQQQ Q Q Q Q QQ FFA Eq/g sample/h Q QQ QQ + g Q Q Q Q Q Q Citrus grandis + QQ QQ QQQ Q Eq Q (L.) Osbeck QQ QQ / Q Q Q Q QQ QQ Q Q Q QQ Q HPLC Q QQ Q Q Gulliver JASCO Co. Q Q +** Q QQ l + Q Q Q Q Q QQ QQ ,** -** g +, QQ QQ TSKgel ODS-2*TM +/* 0.* mm TOSOH Co. Q Q Q 1 Q QQ 1 Q QQ Q QQ Q *./ ml Q QQQQQ Q Q Q QQQ Q QQ Q Q Q ,2* nm Q Q Q Q Q QQQQQ Q Q QQQ QQ QQ QQQ Q Q QQQ QQ QQQ QQ 3.- Q Q +*.- Q Q QQ Q Q ,2* nm Q Q *., QQQ , Q QQ QQQQQ 3.- Q +*.- Q type Worthington Biochemical ,2* nm Q Q QQQQQ Corp. QQ Q Q QQ Q Q Q QQ Q QQQQQ QQQQ Chen QQ2 QQQ Q QQ Q Q QQQ QQ - Q QQQ QQ QQ ,** mg 0 ml Fig. + Q Citrus iyo Hort. ex Tanaka Q Q Q , QQ Q Q Q - ml Q Q Q QQQQ QQQQQ Q QQ QQ 0 ml Q Q , QQ Q Q Q Q Q Q Q QQ Q , *** g - Q Q Q QQQQ +* QQQ QQ Q Q Q Speed Vac SC Q Q Q Q QQ +**A, Savant Co. QQ QQQQ *.2 ml QQQ Q Q Q , QQ Q Q NaOH QQ *.*+ N Q Citrus hassaku Hort. ex Tanaka QQ Citrus natsu- Q pH 1 Q QQ daidai Hayata QQ Citrus tamurana Tanaka + ml Q Q ,*** g +* QQQ QQ Q Q Q ,./ - QQQQ Q QQQQQ Q Q QQQQ Q . Table + Q Q QQQQQ Q Q Q QQ Rodbell QQ 3 Q .1 QQ QQ Q Q Q Q QQQQ Q Q +** l QQQQ QQQQQ Q Q Q QQQ Q packed volume ,** l TES Q Q ,/ mM TES Q QQQQQ Q Q Q Q QQ N Q Q Q, Q Q Q Q Q QQ +-/ mM NaCl / mM KCl + mM MgCl, / mg QQ Q Q Q Q QQQ QQ Q Q Q Q /* l Q Q QQ QQ Q Q QQ Q Q -1 + QQQQ QQQQQ +* ++ Q Q QQ ,3.0 ..,/
  • 3. 104 // - ,**2 - 24 Fig. + E#ect of the extract from (A) Miyauchi-iyo and (B)Tosa-buntan on lipolysis in fat cells. The extracts were prepared form flavedo, albedo, segment wall and juice sac as describe in “Mathods”. The results are expressed as mean SE for four experiments. Table + Lipolitic activity of citrus fruit extracts Lipolysis Synephrine (FFA Eq/g sample /h (mg/g sample) Ripe Ripe Citrus fruit Unripe Unripe (peel) (segment wall) 4 Limonellus Tanaka Tahiti lime .* ,/ +0 +- 0, -2 *4** 4 Citrophorum Tanaka Limon .- ,/ +3 +- -0 -2 *4** 4 Cephalocitrus Tanaka Benimadoka .. ,. +/ +- +.1 00 *4** Banpeiyu .+ ,. * + +/2 -. *4** Tosa-Buntan( ,/* -/ /- +- +./* ,+* *4** Oroblanco -- ,* * / ,-/ .- *4** Kawachi-Bankan /. +2 +*1 +/ +.1 -0 *4** Grapefruit( -1 ,. +0 +- +0, /- Hassaku 0,/ / +0+ 0 +..* +1* ,4,2 Wasehassaku 213 +, ,-, +, +30* +0* ,4., Benihassaku 13. .0 +/, +. +.2* .* ,4*+ Ehimekashi No +* +* 00 ,/ -, +- /+3 +1* *402 4 Aurantium Tanaka Shinamanatsu 0/2 ,/ ,3* 1 ,--* +2* +4,, Amanatsu ..2 ,3 ,+2 +* +21* -3* +4,, Daidai 3+/ 0. -,/* +0* ,4.0 Morita nable orange +.0* / +33 +, +33* /1 ,421 Orange 30, 0 ,+. , Tarocco +*/* . ,/- +2 -10* ,+* -4*. Miyauchi-iyo( 3/2 , ,-* 2 ,3+* -+* -4*3 Haruka ,2. ,/ 0+ +, +*3* -2* *432 Hyuganatsu --2 +0 -* +. -+** +-* +4/* 4 Osmocitrus Tanaka Yuzu 01- +* +*/ 3 ++.* -3 +4+,
  • 4. 25 QQ Q : Q QQQ Q 105 Table + Continue Lipolysis Synephrine (FFA Eq/g sample /h (mg/g sample) Ripe Ripe Citrus fruit Unripe Unripe (peel) (segment wall) Acrumen Tanaka Q Sone wase unshiu QQQQ 2.0 , ,*. 0 --.* +0* /4/1 Nannkan No,* unshiu Q ,* Q 2,. +. ,,. +, -,+* +2 .4,* Ehime nakate unshiu QQQ 2+. +. ,-/ 0 -.0* 1, /4// Ootsu No. unshiu QQ . Q 130 /. ,/1 +3 -,/* ,3* 04,0 Tachibana +.-* -/ +33 . ,22* .1 04.* Ponkan +-0* +. -** 1 ,11* /** .43- Shikuwasha +-+* +* ,1-* .* 04,. Ehime No ,3 Q ,3 Q 3/2 +- ,./ -* -+1* +.* 04+1 Crossing Tangor QQQ Q Ariake 0.3 ,3 +1+ 0 ,+** +.* ,410 Harehime .30 /* ,+- 1 ,21* +** -4*/ Harumi +++* -1 -,- ,, -33* +.* 04.* Nishinoka QQQ 022 1- ,*/ 2 -/+* +2* -4.2 Amakusa QQ 312 // ,3/ +- -3-* ,3* 04-, Setoka +.** ,/ -*, . .,.* ,1* /400 Shiranuri QQ +,1* /+ +10 +. ,11* ,1 ,4+- Kiyomi QQ 1,/ 3/ ,3+ -- -/2* ,0* .42* Amaka +*,* -0 ,+* +* ,-/* +/* .4,- Ehime No -. Q -. Q +.,* +* ,/1 ,* .++* 1** /4** Crossing Mandarin QQQ Q Hayaka QQ +*.* // -+0 +1 -.0* ,+* /4.* Nanka QQ +*1* /* ,*+ 2 -,** ,** .43, Natsumi QQ +-** -* ,1/ ++ --3* ,** 04*/ Ehimekashi No +. Q Q +. Q +-0* -0 -*0 +. -/+* 0- 04-2 Ehimekashi No +0 Q Q +0 Q +-2* .* ,2- 3 -+/* 0- 04*3 Ehimekashi No ,2 Q Q ,2 Q +*/* +* ,3/ . ,30* -.* /4+- Ehime No -* Q -* Q +-2* 1- --+ ,0 -+0* +0* 04+2 Average SE QQQ QQQQ 2*, 02 +23 +/ ,.** +23 -4-0 *4-/ The lipolytic results are expressed as mean SE for four experiments. Synephrine results are s+ngle assay data. QQQ QQQQ QQQ QQ Q -./ QQ Q QQ Q QQ Q ,..0 QQQ QQQQ Q QQ QQ Q Shi Q 2 QQQ QQ QQQ QQ QQ Q Q QQ Q Q +, Q +* +/ Q QQQ Q Q Shi Q ./ QQ Q QQ Q QQQQ Q Q ,/ Q QQ QQQ Q Q Q Q1 Q Q QQQ QQ + QQ Q Q QQ Q Q Q ,./ -.2 Q Q * .1 mg g Q Q QQQ ,.,1 *../ mg +.*/ Q Q Table + QQQ g QQQ QQQQ Q QQ +.+* *.0/ mg g Q Q Q ,,**/ 2*, ,./ -,*.2 2*, -.2 QQ QQQQ , Q QQ Q Q Q FFA Eq/g sample/h, Q +-, +23 *.1 Q QQ Q QQQ -.3- *./* mg fruit Q +32 +23 +.*/ FFA Eq/g sample/h QQ QQ QQQQ QQ ..,0 *.00 mg fruit QQQ Q ,,+-, -,,.0 FFA Eq/g sample/h QQQQ Q Q Q Q QQQ QQQ Q QQ ,,.** FFA Eq/g Fig. , QQQ QQQ Q Q sample/h Q Q QQQ Q QQ QQ QQ +- Q QQQ
  • 5. 106 QQQQ QQQQQ Q // Q Q - Q ,**2 Q - Q 26 Fig. , E#ect of the extract from (A) peel, (B) segment wall and (C) unripe fruit of various citrus fruits on lipolysis in fat cells. The classification of Citrus genus was followed by Tanaka. The results are expressed as mean SE. Values not sharing a letter are significantly di#erent, P *.*/. Q Q Q QQQQQQ QQ Q QQ QQ Q QQ Q QQQ Q QQ Q Fig. , QQ Q Limonellus Tanaka Q Citrus latifolia Tanaka QQ Q Citrophorum Tanaka Q Citrus limon (L.) Burm. QQQQQQ Q QQ Q Cephalocitrus Tanaka QQQQQQ Q QQ Q Inter- media Q Q Aureocarpa Q QQ QQ QQ Q Table + Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck Q QQ Q Aurantium Tanaka Citrus unshiu Marc. Citrus reticulata Blanco Q QQ Q Acrumen Tanaka Q QQ QQQQ Q QQQ Q Q QQQQQQ Q QQ Q QQQ QQ QQQ QQ Fig. - Synephrine contents of unripe fruit of various Citrus unshiu Marc. Citrus sinensis (L.) citrus fruits. The results are expressed as mean SE. Values not sharing a letter are signifi- Osbeck Kiyomi Citrus unshiu Marc. Citrus cantly di#erent, P *.*/. sinensis (L.) Osbeck Nakano ponkan Citrus reticulate Blanco Q QQ Inamura unshiu Citrus unshiu Marc. Nakano No- ponkan Citrus reticulata Blanco Q Q Q QQ Q Fig. . QQQ Q QQQ Q Q Q QQQQQQQQ QQ Q QQQQQQ Q Q QQ QQ QQ QQQQQQ Q QQ Q QQQ Q QQQQQQ Q Q Q Q Q Fig. - QQQ QQQ Q Q QQ Q QQ Q QQ Q QQ QQQQQQ Q Q QQ QQQ QQQQQ Q QQ
  • 6. 27 QQ : Q Q QQ QQ 107 Q Q QQ Q QQQ Q Q Q QQQ Q Q Q Q QQQ Q Q Q Q Q QQ Q Q Q QQ QQ QQ Q Q Q Q Q Q QQ QQ Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q -* Q Q Q Q- Q Q Q Q Q Q QQ Q Q Q Q Q Q QQ QQ Q Q Q QQQ Q Q Q QQ Q Q Q Q Fig. . E#ect of synephrine concentration on lipolysis in fat cells. The lipolysis of unripe fruit extract Q Q Q QQ QQ was replotted against synephrine concentration Q Q Q QQ from unripe fruit extract. QQ Q Q Q Q Q Q QQ Q Q QQQQ Q QQ Q Q QQ QQ Q QQQ Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q QQQ QQ Q Q Q Q Q Q QQQ Q QQ QQ Q QQQ Q Q QQQ Q Q Q QQ Q Q Q Q QQ Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q QQ QQ QQQ Q Q QQ Q QQQ Q QQ QQ Q QQ Q 1 QQ Q QQQQ Q Q Q Q Q Q Q QQ Q QQ Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q QQQQ Q Q Q Q Q QQ Q Q Q Q +** g .0 kcal Q QQ Q Q + Q Q Q Q Q Q Q , Q QQQ QQQ QQQ QQQ Q QQ Q Q Q Q Q pp+, +3 ,**+ Q Q QQQQ , Moro, C.O. and Basile, G., Obesity and medicinal plants. Q Q Q Q Q Q Fitoteropia., 1+, S1- S2, (,***). - Pellati, F., Benvenuti, S., Mlegari, M. and Firenzouoli, F., Q Q Q QQ QQ Determination of adrenergic agonists from extracts and QQ Q QQQQQ herbal products of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara by LC. QQ QQQQ QQQ J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal., ,3, +++- +++3 (,**,). . Fugh-Berman, A. and Myers, A., Citrus aurantium, an Q QQ Q Q ingredient of dietary supplement marketed for weight Q Q Q Q Q Q Q loss : Current status of clinical and basic research. Exp. QQ Q Q +. +/ Q Q Biol. Med., ,,3, 032 1*. (,**.). / Bent, S., Padula, A. and Neuhaus, J., Safety and e$cacy QQ Q QQ Q Q QQ of Citrus Aurantium for weight loss. Am. J. Cardiol., 3., Q Q Q +0 Q +-/3 +-0+ (,**.). QQ QQ Q QQ QQ 0 Calapai, G., Firenzuoli, F., Saitta, A., Squadrito, F., Arlotta, M.R., Costantino, G. and Inferrera, G., Antiobesity and Q QQ QQ Q Q cardiovascular toxic e#ects of Citrus aurantium extracts +1 +2 Q Q Q Q Q in the rat : a preliminary report. Fitoterapia., 1*, /20 /3, Q Q Q Q Q (+333).
  • 7. 108 Q // - ,**2 - 28 1 Tsujita, T. and Takaku, T., Lipolysis induced by seg- +- Q Q Q ment wall extract from Satsuma mandarin orange (Citrus Q Q Q Q pp13 ++- +333 unshiu Mark.). J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol., in press. +. Shen, H., He, L., Price, R.L. and Fermandez. M.L., Dietary 2 Chen, R.F., Removal of fatty acid from serum albumin soluble fiber lowers plasma LDL, cholesterol concentra- by charcoal treatment. J. Biol. Chem., ,.,, +1- +2+ (+301). tions by altering lipoprotein metabolism in female 3 Rodbell, M., Metabolism of isolated fat cells. J. Biol. guinea pigs. J. Nutr., +,2, +.-. +..+ (+332). Chem., ,-3, -1/ -2* (+30.). +/ Brown, L., Rosner, B., Willett, W.W. and Sacks, F.M., +* Tsujita, T. and Okuda, H., Carboxylesterases in rat and Cholesterol-lowering e#ects of dietary fiber : a meta- human sera and their relationship to serum aryl ac- analysis. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 03, -* ., (+333). ylamidases and cholinesterases. Eur. J. Biochem., +--, +0 Tsujita, T., Sumiyoshi, M., Han, L-K., Fujiwara, T., ,+/ ,,* (+32-). Tsujita, J. and Okuda. H., Inhibition of lipase activities ++ Tsujita, T., Basal lipolysis in epididymal fat cells from by citrus pectin. J.Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol., .3, -.* -./ (,**-). streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitami- +1 Q nol., /,, .1 /- (,**0). Q +, Shi, H., Gotou, Y., Shindo, K., Ogawa, K., Shida, Y., Q ++ ,*0 ,*2 ,**/ Sashida, Y., Shimomura, H., Araki, C. and Yoshida T., +2 Q Q Shinephrine Contents and their seasonal variation in Q Q +*3 + +* ,**0 peels of ctrus plants. Shouyakugaku Zasshi, .0, +/* +// Q +3 2 - Q ,* + - Q (+33,).

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